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Edward Alleyn's Company of actors. He acted in Ben Jonson's Epicoene." Clark believes that Hugh Atwell either wrote or acted in the jig; but Hugh cannot have written it. Mr. Attowel was, instead, George Atwell, who " received payment on behalf of the combined Strange's and Admiral's men for performances at court" on Dec. 27, 1590, and Feb. 16, 1591 (Henslowe's Diary, ed. Greg, 2:240). He is mentioned in "Henslowe's Diary" again on June I, 1595, at which time he was probably a member of the Queen's Company {Ibid., i : 6; Murray's English Dramatic Companies, i : 15). Hugh Atwell, on the other hand, is first heard of in 1609-10 (Henslowe's Diary, 2 : 240). There is another copy of this jig in the Pepysian Collection (see Hazlitt's Hand-book, 1867, p. 17; and his Collections and Notes, second series, p. 20). The great importance of this piece has been realized neither by Clark nor by his readers.1 A jig may be defined as a miniature farce written in ballad measure, and, at the end of a play, sung and danced on the stage to a ballad or dance tune.

62. "The poore people's complaynt: Bewayling the death of their famous benefactor, the worthy Earle of Bedford. To the tune of Light a love." This was registered by Yarrath James on Aug. i, 1586 (Arber, 2 : 450), as "The poore peoples complaint vpon therle of Bedfordes death." The tune is named after a ballad by Leonard Gibson (Lilly's Collection of 79 Ballads, p. 113).

63. "The pittifull lamentation of a damned soule" was registered by A. Lacy, in 1565-66 (Arber, i': 297), as "a ballet intituled ye lamentation of a Dampned soule &c," and by Edward White, on Aug. I, 1586 (Arber, 2:451), as "The Damned soules complaint." Compare the ballad of "The Damned Soule in Hell" which Collier printed, from his MS. "of the time of James I," in his "Extracts" (i : 117).

64. "The torment of a Jealious minde, expressed by the Tragicall and true historye of one commonlye called ' the Jealous man of Marget' in Kent." A reading of the piece will show that it was the ballad of "A medicin for Jealous men with ye trial of a wife" which John Danter registered on July 25, 1592 (Arber, 2 : 617).

65. "A pleasant new Ballad, shewing how Loue doth bereaue a man of health, witt, and memorye." Possibly this was "a ballett of Love" registered by John Sampson in 1560-61, or the ballad "loue" registered by Thomas Colwell in 1562-63 (Arber, i : 154, 210); but the identification cannot be proved. ,

66. "The complaint of a widdow against an old man," beginning "Shall I wed an aged man, /that groaneth of the Gout," was registered by William Pickering on Sept. 4, 1564 (Arber, i: 263), as "shall I Wed an Aged man/ with a complaynte of a Wedowe agaynste an olde man."

67. "A true discou[r]se of the winning of the towne of Berke by Grave Maurice, who besieged the same on the 12 day of June 1601, and continued assaulting and skirmidging there vntill the last day of July, at which time the towne was yeelded," was evidently (as Clark hints) summarized from "A true report of all the procedinges of Grave Morris before the towne of Berk in June and July 1601," a pamphlet registered by William Jones on<Aug. 3, 1601 (Arber, 3: 189).

1 But see an announcement of a proposed paper on "Extant Elizabethan Jigs" (which came to my attention after these notes were made), by Professor C. R. Baslcervill, in the Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, 29 : xxvii.

75. "A new ballad of the Parrator and the'Divell" wasregisteredT(as Ebsworth, "Roxburghe Ballads,"8 [pt. i] : xxxvii, notes) on Dec. 14, 1624, and June i, 1629 (Arber, 4 : 131, 213). Perhaps it is the ballad of "The Devil" which the fiddler in Fletcher's "Monsieur Thomas" (3: iii) says he can sing. It is quoted in Middleton's" Family of Love" (4: iv, H2ciseq.):

Lipsalve. . . . We have, my noble paritor, instant employment for thee; a grey groat is to be purchased without sneaking, my little sumner: where's thy quorum nomina, my honest Placket? Gerardine. Sir, according to the old ballad, My quorum nomina ready have 7, With my pen and inkhorn hanging by.

77. "An excellent new ballad, shewing the petigree of our royal King lames, the first of that name in England. To the tune of Gallants all come mourne with mee." The ballad of "ye kinges pettygree" was registered by William White on June II, 1603; five days later he registered "another Ballet Called Gallantes all Come Mourne with me," which, however, must have been a re-issue, as this ballad furnished the tune to No. 77 (see Arber, 3 :237, 238).

Page 334-1 A ballad beginning "Prepare with speed" was registered under that title on Aug. 15, 1586 (Arber, 2: 454).

Page 335. "A sounge of the guise of London," with occasionally the refrain "Will you buy any Broome, Mistris?" was registered by Wolf on May 16, 1599, as "The Crye of London, together with the song;" perhaps it was William Griffith's ballad of "buy Bromes buye," 1563-64 (Arber, 1:238; 3: 145).

Page 337. "A sounge in praise of the single life. To the tune of The goste's hearse alias The voice of the earth." This "dreary piece," as Clark calls it, is the work of Thomas Deloney; it is printed in his "Garland of Good Will" (Works, ed. Mann, pp. 328 el seq.), and presumably appeared before March 5, 1593, the date on which the "Garland" seems to have been registered (Arber, 2 :627). Thomas Nashe evidently had this ballad in mind when, in his "Have With You to Saffron-Walden," 1596 (Works, ed. McKerrow, 3 :88), he remarked of Harvey, "I deeme that from the harsh grating in his eares & continuall crashing of sextens spades against dead mens bones (more dismall musique to him than the Voyce or Ghosts Hearse) he came so to be incenst & to inueigh against the dead."

Page 351. "A pretie new ballad, intituled willie and peggie. To the tune of tarlton's carroll," signed "Finis: qd Richard Tarlton," was registered by John Wolf on Sept. 26, 1588, twenty or more days after Tarlton's death, as "a newe ballad intytuled Peggies Complaint for the Death of her Willye" (Arber, 2 : 501). This ballad, the existence of which seems generally to have been overlooked, is of much importance. In Spenser's "Teares of the Muses" (1591) occurs a passage lamenting that he the man, whom Nature selfe had made

To mock her selfe. and Truth to imitate.

With kindly counter vnder Mimick shade,

Our pleasant Willy, ah is dead of late:

With whom all ioy and iolly meriment

Is also deaded, and in dolour drent.

i From this point the ballads are taken from MS. Rawlinson poet. 185, and are not numbered.

Dryden suggested that Spenser was referring to Shakespeare, and this was also the opinion of Simpson (School of Shakspere, 2 : 390), because "Shakspeare was dead to the London stage, that is, in 1589 and 1590, while the Martinist controversy filled the theatres with theological scurrility." Dr. Furnivall, in a note to Simpson's explanation, said, "The general opinion of the best critics now is, that these words do not refer to Shakspere, but probably to Lilly" (who actually died in 1606). Others have suggested Sir Philip Sidney (died 1586). Halliwell-Phillipps owned a copy of the 1611 edition of Spenser's "Works," in which a manuscript note, written about 1628, identified Willy with Richard Tarlton (see his "Calendar of Shakespearean Rarities," 1887, pp. 17-18); he accepted this identification, and astutely guessed that the ballad registered by Wolf in September, 1588, dealt with Tarlton and hence proved that Tarlton was known by his friends as "Willy" (see his "Outlines of the Life of Shakespeare," 1887, 2 : 394-395). Unquestionably the ballad of "Willie and Peggie" (which had not before been connected with Wolf's entry) retells the main facts of Tarlton's life, though without mentioning his name; but the signature puzzles Clark. He thinks it probable, however, "that we should set aside 'quod Richard Tarlton,' and take the verses as a lament, by an unknown pen, over the famous jester. ... In that case, strong support is given to the suggestion that by pleasant Willy Spenser meant Tarlton." The entry of the ballad at Stationers' Hall less than a month after Tarlton's death makes his identification with Willy almost conclusive; moreover, signing a ballad with the name of the person about whom it was written was the regular habit of ballad-mongers. Spenser's own lines are obviously more appropriate when applied to Tarlton than to any of his rival claimants.

The ballad is quoted by Cocledemoy in Marston's "Dutch Courtezan" (2: i, 183-184) and by Simplicity in "The Three Lords and Three Ladies of London" (Dodsley-Ha'zlitt's Old Plays, 6: 393). From Simplicity's remark, "This is Tarlton's picture," and Wealth's rejoinder that there is no "fineness in the picture," it is clear that a wood-cut of Tarlton ornamented the ballad. No commentator on the play has understood these remarks, which instead are everywhere explained as "alluding to some wood engraving of Tarlton, which Simplicity had in his basket" (Ibid., 396-398).

Page 354. "A proper new ballett, intituled Rowland's god-sonne. To the tune of Loth to departe." This is a jig (cf. No. 61, above) in four acts, or scenes. It was evidently very popular on the stage, for John Wolf registered "a ballad . . . Intituled The firste parte of Rowlandes godson moralized" on April 18, 1592, and "a ballad entytuled the Second parte of Rowlandes god sonne moralised. &c" on April 29 (Arber, 2 : 609, 610). The speaker of the prologue to Nashe's "Summer's Last Will and Testament," 1592 (Works, ed. McKerrow, 3: 235), remarks: "Why, he [Nashe] hath made a Prologue longer then his Play: nay, 'tis no Play neyther, but a shewe. He be sworne, the ligge of Rowlands God-sonne is a Gyant in comparison of it." The music of "Loath to depart" is preserved among John Dowland's collections in the library of the University of Cambridge (Halliwell-Phillipps, MS. Rarities of Cambridge, p. 8).

New York University.



In the "Disciplina Clericalis," Petrus Alphonsi.a Spanish Jew who was baptized in 1106, relates the following story: —

Two burghers and a simple peasant, on their way to Mecca, found themselves with no food except enough flour to make a single small loaf of bread. The two burghers took counsel together how they might cheat their companion of his share, and proposed that whichever of the three should have the most wonderful dream while the bread was baking should have the loaf all to himself. Thinking thus to deceive the peasant, they placed the dough in the ashes and lay down to sleep. But the peasant saw through their trick, arose and ate the loaf when it was half baked, and lay down again. Then one of the burghers, as though frightened by his dream, awoke and called the other. "What's the matter?" — "I've had a wonderful dream. Two angels opened the gates of heaven and brought me before the Lord." — "That is a splendid dream," replied the other; "but I dreamed that two angels came, clove the earth asunder, and took me into hell." The peasant heard all this, but nevertheless pretended to be asleep. The burghers, however, who were taken in by their own trick (decepti et decipere volentes), called him to wake up. "Who is calling me?" he cried in great terror. "Have you come back?" — "Where should we come back from?" — "Why, I just had a dream in which I saw two angels take one of you and open the gates of heaven and lead him before the Lord; then two angels took the other of you, opened the earth, and led him into hell. And when I saw this, I realized that neither of you would return, so I got up and ate the bread." *

This story of the biter bit is, like so many stories, as old as the hills, and yet current still, in one form or another, on both sides of the Atlantic. Since its appearance among the animal tales of the East, it has been through many vicissitudes and has served many purposes; but the nature of mankind does not change greatly with the centuries, and this little anecdote seems to have retained a certain interest and value, both for its clever illustration of the turning worm and for its moral application. Petrus himself, though a poor Latinist, was a man of considerable understanding. "Fragilem etiam hominis esse consideravi complexionem," says he in the prologue of his work, "quae ne taedium incurrat, quasi provehendo paucis et paucis instruenda est; divitiae quoque eius recordatus, ut facilius retineat, quodammodo necessario mollienda et dulcificanda est; quia et obliviosa est, multis indiget quae oblitorum faciant recordari. Propterea ergo libellum compegi, partim ex proverbiis philosophorum et suis castigationibus, partim ex proverbiis et castigationibus Arabicis et fabulis et versibus, partim ex animalium et volucrum similitudinibus." And this libellus with its thirty-odd tales is one of the main inlets of Arabic — and therefore Indian and Persian — stories into the West. The simplest and perhaps the earliest form of the "dream-bread" story contains neither dream nor loaf. We begin — like the musing organist, doubtfully and far away — with the very ancient fable of the oldest animal, and bespeak the reader's suspension of disbelief until we can resolve the dissonance. The original "form of this fable is probably found in the 'Culla Vagga' portion of the Vinayapitaka, one of the oldest parts of the Buddhist books, which Professor Cowell thinks can hardly be later than the third century B.C." l

1 Petri Alfonsi Disciplina Clericalis (ed. A. Hillca and W. Soderhjelm. Helsingfors. 1911 [Acta Soc. Scient. Fennicae, 38 : No. 4]), p. 27 (XIX. "Exemplum de duobus burgensibus et rustico"). The same text, without apparatus, in Carl Winter's Sammlung mittellateinischer Texte. I regret that the volume which is to contain the notes to Hilka and SOderhjelm's edition has not appeared. For a full bibliography of Petrus and the various editions of the Disciplina cf. Victor Chauvin, Bibliographic des Ouvrages Arabes (Lie'ge, 1905), 9: i et seq. The earliest edition was by Labouderie, for the Societe des Bibliophiles (Paris. 1824), and contained, besides the Latin text, the twelfthcentury prose and the thirteenth-century verse translations into French mentioned on p. 384 below. The edition of F. W. V. Schmidt (Berlin, 1827) has valuable notes. On Petrus see also Menendez y Pelayo, Origines de la Novela (Madrid, 1905), I : xxxvii et seq.

Long ago a partridge, a monkey, and an elephant lived inharmoniously together in a great banyan-tree. It occurred to them that if they knew which of them was the eldest they could honor and obey him. So they asked one another what were the oldest things they could remember. The elephant recalled walking over the banyan-tree when it was so small it did not reach his belly. The monkey said when he was young he used to sit on the ground and eat the topmost shoots of the tree. "In yonder place," said the partridge, "was a great banyan whose fruit I once ate and voided it, and from the seed sprang this tree." The others then agreed the partridge was the eldest. They obeyed and honored him, and he admonished them in the five moral duties.1

1 W. A. Clouston, Popular Tales and Fictions (Edinburgh and London), 2 : 91. The same material is found also in Clouston's The Book of Sindibad (Appendix : 217 et seq.). I am indebted to Clouston for much of my Oriental matter.

1 Compare Upham, Sacred and Historical Books of Ceylon, 3 : 292, for the same fable (Gdttinger Gelehrter Anzeiger, 1857, p. 1772). The following (from GOttinger Gelehrter Anzeiger, /. c.\ Memoires sur les contrees occidentales, traduits du Sanscrit en Chinois, en 1'an 648, par Hiouen-Thsang, et du Chinols en Francais par M. Stanislas Julien) is a simpler and perhaps still older version: In the time when the Tathagata lived the life of a Bodbisatva, when he saw the people of his generation did not observe the traditions, he took the form of a bird, and, approaching a monkey and a white elephant, asked them, "Which of you saw this holy fig-tree first?" The two began to debate, and finally adjusted themselves to their rank according to their relative ages. The effect of this spread, until all men, both lay and clergy, followed their example. — For another variant, adding a hare to the other three, cf. Clouston, Popular Tales, 2 :92 (note 2). Clouston gives other Sanscrit variants, and also quotes from Cowell, "The Legend of the VOL. XXX.—NO. 117.—25

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