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with the first number of 1918.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS NUMBER.
AA. ..... American Anthropologist, New Series.
. British Association for the Advancement of Science,
Reports. BBAE .... Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology. CI ...... Publications of the Carnegie Institution. CNAE ....Contributions to North American Ethnology. CU ..... Columbia University Contributions to Anthropology. FM .....Field Museum of Natural History, Anthropological
Series. GSCan ....Geological Survey of Canada, Anthropological Series. Hiawatha . . .H. R. Schoolcraft, The Myth of Hiawatha. JAFL .... Journal of American Folk-Lore. JAI ..... Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great
Britain and Ireland. JE ......Publications of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition. MAFLS. ...Memoirs of the American Folk-Lore Society. PaAM ... Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of
Natural History. PAES... Publications of the American Ethnological Society. Petitot ....E. Petitot, Traditions du Canada nord-ouest. Rand. ....S. T. Rand, Legends of the Micmac. RBAE ....Report ol
. Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Russell . . . . Frank Russell, Explorations in the Far North (Uni
versity of Iowa, 1898). Sagen ....Franz Boas, Indianische Sagen von der Nord-Paci
fischen Küste Amerikas. TCI ..... Transactions of the Canadian Institute. UCal . .... University of California Publications in American
Archaeology and Ethnology. UPenn . . . . University of Pennsylvania, The University Museum
Anthropological Publications. VAEU ... Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthro
pologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte. VKAWA . . . Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van
Wetenschappen te Amsterdam.
kā. Young bamboo-sprouts (nó lău) are interdicted to the family Làu. The bird me and the fish me (nôk me, pa me) form the taboo of the family Mè. The members of the family Tòng must avoid eating the turtle dove (nôk său-tong), and must not wear on their caps a copper point (tong). The family Ma is not allowed to feed on the flesh of the horse (tô ma). The use of a fan (vi) is forbidden in the family Vi when rice is served during meals. While the linguistic relation of these interdictions is easily grasped, it is not apparent, however, or obscured in the following cases. The family Lèo is not allowed to eat the blackbird nôk iêng and the water-fowl nôk hăk. The family Lüong abstains from fungi growing on the trunk of a branchless tree. Or the family Kwàng does not partake of the flesh of cat, tiger, and panther. If one of these families eats any things tabooed, even unknowingly, he will lose his teeth. There is no expiatory ceremony known, and no rite is practised to raise the taboo.
In regard to the family Kwàng, to which his informant belonged, Maspero gives more particulars. This family owes its superior rank to the concept that its ancestor was the first to emanate from the primeval gourd which produced mankind; immediately after him appeared the ancestor of the Lüong. The Kwàng belong to the family of the tiger, which they name by a term of respect, “grandfather" (pu). The degree of relationship is not ascertained: they do not descend from a tiger, nor are the tigers descendants of a transformed ancestor of their own; but it is certain that there is some sort of affinity. For this reason cat and tiger flesh are prohibited; the cat represents a highly prized dish of the Black Tai. The members of the family are immune from attacks of the tiger, and are not allowed to attack him or to take part in a tiger-hunt. Solely as an act of self-defence may they kill him. When they note a dead tiger on their road, or when the villagers carrying a slain tiger pass their habitation, they must without delay perform a minor 'ceremony. Taking a small piece of white cloth and throwing it over the corpse, they signify by this act that they have entered into mourning in his honor, and that the term of mourning is over. The prayer said on this occasion is of great interest, for it reveals the inner relations of the family to the tiger and the latter's influence on their welfare and that of their progeny. It runs as follows:
“The grandfather is dead, leaving his children and grandchildren behind. The children and grandchildren ought to wear mourning in conformity with the rites, but the children and grandchildren were not able to go into mourning; the children and grandchildren terminate their mourning for the grandfather. There you are! [The piece of white cloth is then thrown over the tiger's corpse.) Protect your children, protect your grandchildren!
let them in their them!
Those of you who survive, make them grow, let them prosper! In their work let them succeed, in their affairs let them do well! In their journeyings may they be without accident, wherever they may be, bless them! May they never see what is wrong, and never know bad omens! Let your chil. dren and grandchildren live long, ten thousand years, a hundred thousand harvests, eternally!”.
On the other hand, the affiliation with the tiger also has its drawbacks. It causes the spirits to detest the members of this family. They have to keep aloof from sacred places. The field where the district festival (lông tông) is held to commemorate the commencement of agricultural pursuits, and the spot consecrated to the spirit of the district (Fi müòng), are interdicted to them at all times. During the festivals they take part in the offerings; but they are not permitted to enter, and may attend only outside. At their village ceremonies they have to keep behind the other families, and the functions of master of ceremony occupied by the old men are closed to them. Finally the priest of the district, whose office is hereditary in the Lüòng family for all the Black-Tai regions, must not marry a woman of the Kwang family; even his brothers fall within this rule. However, the affinity with the tiger is not transmitted by the mother, but solely by the father. Whether similar beliefs and ceremonies with reference to the taboos prevail among the other families, says Maspero, is not known to him; in the case of the family Vi it appears to him difficult to admit that the fan might play there the same rôle as the Kwang assign to the tiger. He thinks that among all peoples of southern China and northern Indo-China the tiger, from a religious viewpoint, is an animal so different from others, that it would be unwise to conclude the existence of similar rites in other families. This caution is praiseworthy, as is also the author's reserve in drawing any conclusions from his notes. He even avoids the terms “totem” and “totemism" and any theoretical discussion. His data, needless to add, are of intense interest to anthropology, and, if occasion offers, should by all means be completed. A complete list of all these Black-Tai families should be drawn up, and their ancestral traditions should be placed on record. Meanwhile it may be useful to render accessible the available data on real or apparent totemic phenomena within the IndoChinese group.
Aside from the Black Tai, actual observations of totemic phenomena, as far as the Indo-Chinese are concerned, were only made among the Lolo, first by A. Henry. According to this author, “Lolo surnames 2 always signify the name of a tree or animal, or both tree and animal;
* Journal Anthropological Institute, 33 (1903) : 105.
: It is not correct to speak of Lolo surnames. The Lolo, like the Tibetans, did not have family names before contact with Chinese. The Sinicized Lolo adopted Chinese surnames.