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snake on their temples for purposes of worship, and the records of population they styled "dragon-doors” (lung hu). The remains of the Tan are still to be found in the floating river-population of Canton.
The Western K'iang (Si K'iang) were a large group of nomadic tribes, the present province of Kan-su forming the centre of their habitat, who must be regarded as the forefathers of the Tibetans. A brief notice on their social organization is preserved in the Han Annals.:
“There was no fixed distinction of families and clans: the designations of tribes were derived from the personal name of the father or from the family name of the mother. After the twelfth generation, marriages were permitted in the same clan. On the father's death, the son married his step-mother. When an elder brother died, a new marriage was arranged for his widow; so that there were no widows in their country. Their tribal divisions were numerous, but they did not have any institution like princes and officials. They did not take regard of elders, but it was the strongest man who was elected chief by the tribes. When he weakened, he was, relegated to the common people; and then they vied with one another in a contest of strength to find out who was the bravest.”
A division of the K'iang bore the name Wu-yi Yüan-kien. The designation Wu-yi (*Mu-yit) is explained by a gloss to mean “slaves," as they were held in serfdom by the Duke Li of Ts'in in the fifth century B.C. Subsequently they were split into several tribes, each with a special appellation. One of these was called the “Yak (li-niu) Tribe;" these were the K'iang of Yüe-si. The K'iang of Kuang-han styled themselves “White-Horse (pai ma) Tribe;" those of Wu-tu had the name “Wolf (ts'an lang) Tribe." 5 The annalist then continues, —
"Jen and his younger brother Wu alone remained in Huang-chung (in the present prefecture of Si-ning in Kan-su), and took many wives. Jen had nine sons, who formed nine tribes. Wu had seventeen sons, who formed seventeen tribes. The rising power of the K'iang began from this time."
Yü Huan, in his "Wei lio," written in the third century A.D., enumerates the following three clans of the K'iang, — the Ts'ung-ts'e 6
1 The Chinese count the number of families by doors.
• The same custom is related by the Chinese in regard to the ancient Hiung-nu (Huns) and T'u-küe (Turks). It means, of course, that it was bound up by the law of inheritance of these peoples, and that the son fell heir to his father's entire property, inclusive of his women, slaves, etc. See also G. Soulié (Bull. de l'Ecole française, 8 (1908): 362, note 2).
6 Hou Han shu, Ch. 117, p. 3. The term is'an seems to refer to a particular species of wolf, but its meaning is not explained. This account relates to the fourth century B.C.
6 The compound consists of two plant-names, — is'ung referring to garlic (see T'oung Pao, 17 (1916): 96), and ts'e, to a plant yielding a red dye (Lithospermum officinale). It is
(Garlic) K'iang, the Pai-ma (White Horse) Kiang, and the Huang-niu (Yellow Ox) K'iang, — adding that each of these tribes has its chiefs, and that among the last-named the women give birth to a child after six months. The same author speaks of another group of tribes, called “Ti,” the descendants of the Si Jung, and related to the K'iang in language and customs. Some divisions of this people were termed by the Chinese “Green and White Ti,” from the color of their costume; but another clan styled itself "Ti Jan," the latter word designating a reptile under which it was classed.2
From a passage in the Annals of the Sui Dynasty, we note that a clan of the K'iang, scattered in the country Fu (2000 li northwest of Se-ch'uan), was named “Pai Kou" (White Dog).
In the age of the Sui dynasty (A.D. 590-617) a tribal group of the K'iang became known to the Chinese under the name "Tang-hiang," the element Tang appearing as Tangud or Tangut (-ud being a Mongol termination of the plural), the Turkish and Mongol designation of the Tibetans. To the Tang-hiang belonged the Tang-ch'ang and Pai-lang (White Wolves), who conferred on themselves the name “Monkey Tribe" (Mi-hou Chung). In fact, the monkey belonged to the sacred animals of the ancient Tibetans, and was sacrificed with sheep and dogs once a year, when the officers assembled for the ceremony of the minor oath of fealty. In their own traditions the Tibetans have preserved at great length the story of how they descended from the alliance of a monkey with a female giant (Rākshasi).6 But there is no evidence that the monkey ever was the totem of a Tibetan clan, or that a Tibetan clan named itself for the monkey; the latter, however, as shown by the Chinese account of the Tang-hiang, may have been the case in ancient times.
In regard to the Chinese, the existence of totemism is denied by some authors, while others are inclined to uphold it.? Neither the one nor the other can be asserted in our present state of knowledge. We must not forget, of course, that Confucius, who made the Chinese what a more probable, however, that is'ung-ts'e relates solely to a single species, presumably to a wild Allium.
1 Chavannes, T'oung Pao, 6 (1905) : 528.
. See, for instance, Rockhill, Land of the Lamas, pp. 355-361. For a complete bibliography of the subject, see Laufer (T'oung Pao, 2 (1901) : 27-28).
? A. Conrady, "China" (in Plugk-Harttung's Weltgeschichte, p. 491). The evidence merely rests on the interpretation of names. Conrady's popular history of China is modelled on Lamprechtian ideas of evolution, which are interpreted, and partially in a very forced way, into the given material. This method is not to be taken seriously; the critical anthropologist will understand without comment.
French writer aptly styled affreusement bourgeois, has spoiled China completely for the ethnologist. Certainly the Chinese never were those angels of virtue that we are prone to make them out in reading the tenets of their moral creed. Morals look well on paper always and everywhere. There was a prehistoric age when also the Chinese, like their congeners the T'ai, Miao, and Tibetans, did not pose as the champions of morality, but behaved like real and natural men. This has been very clearly shown in a most interesting study by M. Granet. While no positive data are as yet available, from which conclusions as to a former totemic organization could be drawn, there are some indications which may be suggestive. Unfortunately the development of social organization in China has never been investigated by modern scientific methods.
The number of family names derived from words designating plants and animals is comparatively large. Following is an alphabetical list of the more common ones:
FAMILY NAMES BASED ON PLANTS. Ch'i, white jasmine (Jasminum sam- Liao, Polygonum. bac).
Liu, willow (Salix babylonica). Chu, bamboo.
Lu, a reed (Phragmites). CH'U, hay, straw.
Ma, hemp. HING, apricot.
Mai, wheat. Hu, gourd, calabash.
MANG, a grass (Erianthus ja ponHua, flower.
icus). Hual, Sophora japonica.
Mao, reeds, rush. Huan, Sapindus mukorossi.
Mei, plum (Prunus mume). JANG, stalk of grain.
Mi, hulled rice.
Ngal, Artemisia vulgaris.
Po, arbor-vitæ (Thuja orientalis). Ken, root.
Sang, mulberry-tree. Ku, cereals.
Sing, a marshy plant.
T'Ao, rice. KÜ, chrysanthemum.
Tı, Prunus ja ponica.
Tsao, jujube (Zizyphus vulgaris). Li, lichee (Nephelium litchi).
Tse, Cudrania triloba. Li, chestnut (Castanea vulgaris). Tsi, panicled millet.
I "Coutumes matrimoniales de la Chine antique" (Toung Pao, 13 (1912) : 517-558).
Ts'ung, a conifer.
FAMILY NAMES BASED ON ANIMALS. CHI, leech.
Ngo, moth. CHI, ringed pheasant.
NIU, ox. CH'l, worm.
PAI-MA, white horse. CHUI, piebald horse.
Pao, dried fish. CH'UNG, general term for reptiles Pao, panther. and insects.
PAO-P'l, panther's skin. FANG, bream.
PEI, cowrie-shell. Fu, wild duck.
PIAO, tiger-cat; stripes of a tiger. FUNG, male phenix.
Pie, fresh-water turtle (Trionyx HIAO, owl.
sinensis). HIUNG, bear.
SE, team of four horses. Ho, crane.
SHE, serpent. Hu, fox.
Sia, chrysalis of a mantis. Hu, tiger.
Tiao, sable. Hui, venomous snake.
Ts'ING-NIU, dark ox. JAN, boa.
Ts'ING-WU, dark raven. Kı, fowl, chicken.
Tsou, small fishes, minnows. K'i, piebald horse.
Tsou, a fabulous beast. K'in, birds in general.
Tsü, fish-hawk, osprey. Kou, dog.
Ts'ui, bird-down. Ku, heron.
Ts'ui, kingfisher. Kü, colt of a horse.
T'un, sucking-pig. LANG, wolf.
Yes, wild goose. MA, horse.
Yu, polecat. MONG, tree-frog.
It should be understood, of course, that it is by no means implied that the foregoing names had a totemic origin. This remains to be investigated by tracing in detail the history of these families bearing such names. In some cases it is certain that such names are not connected with a totem, but have a quite different origin. For instance, a man in the sixth century B.C. bore the family name Chuan, a word designating a large fish found in the Tung-t'ing lake. He killed Wang Liao, prince of Wu, with a poisoned dagger which was concealed in the belly of this fish served to him at dinner. This story plainly accounts for the origin of the family name. The list of these plant and animal family names, however, is interesting in itself, and, it is hoped, may prove a stimulus to serious investigation. FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY,
the Tung-t'ing la
licealed in the bellubce, of Wu, with a
BY JAMES A. TEIT.
PAGE Preface .......... 427 | 13. The Sisters who married 1. Story of Beaver ..... 429 I Stars ........ 457 2. Origin of the Earth ... 441 | 14. The Man who cohabited 3. The Great Flood .... 442
with his Sister .... 459 4. Origin of Fire, and Origin 15. Story of the Water-Man . 460
of Death ....... 443 16. The Deceitful Wife i. . 461 5. Raven, or Big-Crow ... 444 17. The Owl-Woman .... 462 6. Big-Man (Déne Tco') . .. 444 18. The Dog-Man and Dog7. The Brothers, Big-Man, and
Children ....... 463 the Giants ....... 445 19. Story of Lynx-Man ... 464 8. The Giants and the Boys · 448 20. The Fog-Man ...... 465 9. Bladder-Head Boy; or, The 21. Rabbit-Man (Ga.'tcoeze') . 467
Monster that ate People. 450 22. Wolverene ....... 469 10. The Kaska Man who made 23. Wolverene and his Wives. 470
Whales ....... 451 24. Wolverene and Wolf ... 471 11. War with the Swan People . 453 25. Story of the Baby stolen 12. The Deserted Woman .. 455' by Wolverene . .... 471
PREFACE. THE following collection of tales or traditions is from the Kaska of the northern interior of British Columbia. The Kaska and Tahltan are closely related tribes of the Nahani division of the Athapascan stock, and occupy territories adjacent to each other. The Tahltan inhabit the whole region of the upper Stikine River, and extend easterly to Dease Lake and River, where they meet the Kaska, who claim the country from there down to the Liard. The Tahltan are thus chiefly on the Pacific drainage slope, and the Kaska altogether on the Arctic slope. Owing to their location, the Tahltan have an abundance of salmon in their country, while the Kaska have none. Both tribes live
1 The present collection of Kaska tales, together with another one of Tahltan tales, was collected by Mr. J. A. Teit in the seasons of 1912 and 1915 in the region of Stikine River, British Columbia. These two seasons of field-work were devoted to a general ethnological investigation of the Tahltan and Kaska Indians, under the auspices of the Geological Survey of Canada. The present publication embraces the mythological results of the trips. Other aspects of the ethnology collected by Mr. Teit will be published by the Geological Survey from time to time in the form of special monographs. To facilitate the appearance of Mr. Teit's Tahltan and Kaska tales, the Geological Survey of Canada has authorized its Division of Anthropology to intrust their publication to the American Folk-Lore Society. — E. SAPIR, Head of Division of Anthropology, Geological Survey of Canada.