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'crying, and saying that his wife had died. The woman's mother hid her. Wolverene smelled her, and sniffed, saying, "Ah! What do I smell? It smells like an old cache." Then he thought his wife might have escaped somehow, and went back to see if she was still in the hole or cache. He was wont to leave his victims in the hole for a time after they were dead. His brothers-in-law followed close behind him. When he went into the hole to see if his wife was there, they hid close to the edge. When he stuck his head up to come out, they hit him and killed him.
24. WOLVERENE AND WOLF.
Wolverene and Wolf were brothers-in-law and lived together. Wolf had no wife, while Wolverene had a large family. They hunted in company, Wolf traversing the high mountains, and Wolverene following the timber-line below him. Game was very scarce. By and by the deep snow prohibited their hunting on the high grounds, and they had to hunt lower down in the woods, where game was still less abundant. One day they came on a cache of dried meat made by some people (Indians) in a bad precipitous place near a waterfall, and beyond their reach. Wolverene was very anxious to get at the cache, and thought by jumping against it he might knock it down. Wolf would not attempt it, and declared that if Wolverene jumped, he would not reach the cache, and would simply fall down on the steep, smooth ice below, and perhaps kill himself. Wolf declared he was going home, and, just as he was leaving, Wolverene made the jump. He fell short of the cache, landed on the steep ice, and was precipitated to the bottom, breaking his arms and legs. Wolf lifted him up; but he could not get him out of there, nor set his broken limbs. Soon afterwards some people came along to get meat from the cache, and found Wolverene lying there with his arms and legs broken. They knew he had been trying to steal, so they clubbed and killed him. As he was dying, he said to the people, "No matter if you kill me, I shall steal from your caches just the same. There are many of us." This is -why the wolverene is now such a thief, and breaks into people's caches and steals their meat. Wolf returned to camp, and reared Wolverene's family.
25. STORY OF THE BABY STOLEN BY WOLVERENE.
A man and his wife were travelling towards where the people lived. The woman was taken in travail, and, as was the custom of the people, she had to go in retirement during and for some time after her confinement. When they camped for the night, the husband made a camp for himself, and another for his wife some distance away.
One night a giant came to the woman's camp, threw a noose around her neck as she was sitting at the fire, choked her, and dragged her body away in the snow. The baby, which remained alone, began to cry. The husband called out to his wife, "Why does the baby cry so much?" Receiving no response, he went over to see. When he arrived, the baby was quiet, and he found Marten suckling the baby with his tongue. He asked him what he was doing; and he said, "I am suckling the baby with my tongue, for his mother is dead." The husband took his bow and arrows and followed the giant's track in the dark, and after a time came to where the giant had lighted a big fire and was about to eat. He saw him sucking the milk out of the woman's breasts, and then he put them on sticks before the fire to cook. The man crawled up close to the giant, and fired an arrow into his body. The giant immediately put his hand up to the place, and said, "My! Aspark has burned me!" He said to the fire, "Why did you do that?" Again the man shot him, and he did the same. Then he said, "It is strange, I feel sleepy." He lay down, saying, "I will sleep a little while before eating the breasts." He was dying, and did not know it.
When the man returned, he found Marten caring for the baby, and suckling him, as before. The man gave his breasts to the baby, and milk came. After that, in the day-time Marten suckled the baby with his tongue, and at night the father gave him his breasts. At last they reached the people, and the man gave his baby to the women to rear. He hunted, and every five days returned to see his baby, and was glad to see that he was doing well.
One day, when he was away hunting, Wolverene came to the camp and told the people the father had sent him to get the baby and take it to him. The people thought this strange, but gave him the baby. After five days the father came back, and asked to see the baby. The people said, "Why, don't you know, Wolverene came here some days ago, saying that you had sent him for the baby, and we gave it to him." The man stated that he had not sent Wolverene, and at once started in pursuit of him. At Wolverene's first camp he found baby-moss, his son being still a baby; at the second camp, small snowshoes, showing that the baby was now a boy and walking; at the third camp he found larger snowshoes, and saw that the boy had been using small arrows; at the fourth camp the snowshoes and arrows were larger; and at the fifth camp the tracks showed that the boy was now a man. Next day he found where the boy and Wolverene had separated, and he followed the tracks of the former.
The Wolverene always counted the lad's arrows when he returned home at night. When the man came to his son, the latter thought him very strange, for he did not remember having seen people. His father told him, "You are my son." He showed him his breasts, saying, "I suckled you. Wolverene stole you, and I have followed you a long way." The lad at last believed him. His father said, "Tell Wolverene, when you see him to-night, to follow the sun on the morrow, and camp where the sun goes down, and there you will join him tomorrow night. Also tell him that you shot an arrow up in a tree, and you are going back after it."
That night Wolverene counted the birds the lad had shot, and his arrows, and found one of the latter missing. Wolverene agreed to the boy's proposal. In the morning he travelled towards the setting son, while the lad returned. That night the lad did not come to camp, and next morning Wolverene started to look for him. He came to the lad up in the top of a tree, pretending to look for his arrow, and his father standing at the bottom. Wolverene asked the latter who he was, and what he was doing there; but when the man answered and talked with him, Wolverene told him to shut up or he would kill him. The father had already arranged with his son how they would act. Wolverene told the boy to come down out of the tree; but he answered, "Father, I can't descend, my moccasins are frozen to the tree." Wolverene said, "Very well, don't try to come down, you may fall. I will climb up and carry you down." When Wolverene got beside him, he turned around to get in position to carry him down, and the lad struck him on the head, knocking him off the tree. His father at the bottom of the tree then killed Wolverene, who was already stunned by the fall.
Spences Bridge, B.C.
SOME CHITIMACHA MYTHS AND BELIEFS.1
BY JOHN R. SWANTON.
When* Louisiana was settled by the French, the Chitimacha Indians were found living between the Mississippi River and Bayou Teche. There were several bands occupying different parts of this area, but the last to maintain a separate existence was that in the Indian Bend of Bayou Teche, where is now the village of Charenton. About a dozen families of mixed-bloods are still to be found there. One industry, the making of cane baskets, is kept up; and for this the tribe is justly famous, their work being vastly superior to that of any other Southern Indians. Unfortunately but four individuals have a speaking knowledge of the old tongue; and, still more unfortunately, only a very few texts may be obtained from these, the greater part of the features of the language being accessible only by a painful system of cross-questioning, which must be in large measure blind. During a recent visit to these Indians, and while securing additional linguistic information in this way, I obtained fragments of a few myths. These are of interest, owing to the very paucity of Chitimacha material, and also because most of them are different from the stories I have obtained from other Southern tribes. The European connection of some, if not all, of them, is apparent; but I shall not attempt any classification. The only other Chitimacha myths with which I am acquainted are those recorded by me and printed in Bulletin 43 of the publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology, and some fragments secured through Martin Duralde and published in the same place. My new fragments are as follows: —
BUZZARD AND WOLF.
Buzzard once went to Wolf and persuaded him to kill a cow, so that both could have something to eat. Wolf did so, and he drank the animal's blood on the spot; but he does not like raw meat, so he left his share to soften. While he was gone, however, Buzzard, who eats flesh in any condition, devoured not only his own portion, but Wolf's as well; and when Wolf came back, there was nothing left.
MAN, BEAR, AND TIGER-CAT.*
An old Indian used to spend all of his time hunting, and there was a Bear that also spent all of his time rambling about in the woods. One time the Indian shot a Tiger-Cat. Then the Tiger-Cat went to the Bear, and said, "You do not know how an Indian can knock you over." — "I should like to see the creature that can knock me over," said Bear. "He can do it, all right," said Tiger-Cat. Then Bear said he would like very much to meet this being, and TigerCat agreed to guide him to the Indian. They travelled on, and by and by came to where a child was playing. Bear wanted to run upon it; but Tiger-Cat laughed at him, and said, "Do you think that is a man? We have not found a man yet." So they went on, and presently they came to a youth bringing in fire-wood. Bear wanted to run upon him also; but Tiger-Cat said, "That is not a man, either." At last, however, they came in sight of the old Indian. Then TigerCat said, "While you run in upon him, I will hide here; and if you run away, don't pass near me." Bear assured him he would not, and then he rushed at the Indian. The Indian was too quick for him, however, and shot him; whereupon he turned about, and ran off as fast as he could go, in his haste passing right by the place where Tiger-Cat was concealed. Then the Indian caught sight of TigerCat, and shot him too, so that both of the animals rushed off through the woods with the utmost speed. Said Tiger-Cat, "Didn't I tell you not to run near my hiding-place?"
1 Published by permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
1 It is claimed that the tiger-cat is bigger than the panther. See Bolte und Polfvka, Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- und Hausmarchen der Brllder Grimm, a : 96.
THE LABORS OF RABBIT.
One time Rabbit went to God and asked him for more power; but God said, "You have power enough already," and to prove it he set Rabbit various tasks. One of these was to bring him the canine teeth of Alligator. So Rabbit hunted about until he found Alligator. Alligator was awake, however, and told Rabbit that he would devour him. Rabbit said that he could not do it, and they disputed for some time. By and by, however, Rabbit went away; and when he came upon Alligator next time, Alligator was fast asleep. Then Rabbit took a cord and tied Alligator's great canine teeth firmly to a tree. That done, he set the grass on fire all about. Alligator began to feel the heat, woke up suddenly, and gave such a jerk that he pulled his teeth out, which Rabbit took back to God.1
For a second task God sent Rabbit to bring one-of the tusks of Elephant. So Rabbit went to a place near Elephant's home and began cutting hay. Elephant came along, and asked what he was doing; and Rabbit said, "I am cutting hay, and, if you will take it home, I will go shares with you." Elephant thought this was a good bargain, so he agreed and let Rabbit pile the hay upon his back. Then Rabbit tied a rope to one of Elephant's tusks, in order, as he said, to lead him, and they started along. Presently a rain came up; and Rabbit said, "Let us go in under that live-oak tree yonder, so 1 Compare Harris, Nights with Uncle Remus, No. XXVI.