« PředchozíPokračovat »
death that do not belong here, as the Hupa story of the child of the culturehero that was taken out of its grave by its father, but ran back ten times. For this reason people remain dead (Goddard, UCal I :224).
Franz Boas. Columbia University, New York.
Ojibwa Tales. — The following tales were collected from Ojibwa Indians in western Ontario. Since they were written down from dictation of interpreters given in broken English, only brief abstracts are given here.
Nenabosho, — i. While Nenabosho was setting hooks for fish, he saw his cousin the Wolf, and his nephews the young Wolves. They invited Nenabosho to go along with them. At night, when they camped, Nenabosho declared that the place was too cold. They went on to another place, which was still colder. The Wolves turned around three times, and lay down without blankets. Nenabosho did the same, but nearly froze. The young Wolves covered him with their tails, and he became so warm that he ordered them to take off the dog-tails.
2. They had nothing to eat, and the old Wolf said that he had some dry meat at the place where they were going. The Wolf brought back some willow-sticks and cedar-bark, and told Nenabosho that he would not be allowed to eat of them until the next day. The willow and bark were given to Nenabosho as his pillow. During the night he felt that they were getting soft. He bit out a piece and found that it was meat. Then Nenabosho and the Wolves separated; and Nenabosho travelled on, accompanied by one of the young Wolves.
3. The young Wolf told Nenabosho that he made fire by rubbing the back of his neck, and by jumping to and fro over a pile of wood. He instructed him not to try until he had reached the place where Wolf had left his pack. Nenabosho tried to make fire this way, and, when he succeeded, threw away his own fire-drill. The next time he tried, he was unsuccessful, and had to look for his fire-drill.
4. Nenabosho dreamed that his nephew was going to be drowned. He told him always, before crossing a hollow in the ground, to throw a stick into it. While hunting a caribou, the Wolf forgot about these instructions and was drowned.
5. Nenabosho cried on account of the death of his nephew. He saw a Kingfisher looking into the water. The Kingfisher told him that a white water-lion had captured the young Wolf. Nenabosho was instructed to go up the river to a sandbar near the end of the world, where the water-lions used to bask in the sun. Kingfisher also instructed him to build a raft on a high peak, and to put one pair of every kind of animal on the raft. He told him to make two arrows with iron points, and to hide in a hollow stump on the sandbar. Nenabosho obeyed. He went into the stump, and saw snakes and lions coming out of the water. When they were asleep, he shot the white lion with his two arrows. Water came out, and Nenabosho took to his raft. He attached a bark line to Beaver and let him dive. After a while he pulled up the Beaver, who was drowned. Next he sent Otter, and finally Muskrat, who brought up some mud. Nenabosho blew on it until it became very large. Then he sent Fox to run around the world to see if it was large enough. Fox did not come back, and Nenabosho let all the animals go.
Nenabo*ho went on, and met the great Frog, who was going to core the white Lion. The Frog told him what he was going to do. Nenabosho killed him and put on his skin. He went to the sick Lion, sent all the people out of the lodge, shoved his arrows in, and thus killed him. Then he ran away with his nephew.
While going away, he met the Lion's widow, who was picking willows to make a line, intending to make a table (?) for the dead Lion. He killed the woman, put on her clothes, and went back in her shape. He sent out the people, cut up the Lion, and threw the pieces away.
6. Nenabosho set trout-hooks, and first caught small trout, which he threw away, because he wanted to catch Ogima, chief of the Trouts- In the spring he went fishing in his canoe. He called his nephew Weasel, hid him under his coat, and went fishing. He called out, " Swallow my bait!" and Ogima caught and swallowed Nenabosho and his canoe. Weasel bit the heart of Ogima, who was thus killed. Ogima was buried by the Trouts in the middle of the lake; but Nenabosho raised a gale, which made the body of Ogima drift ashore. Then he cut his way out. He went to his grandmother's lodge, and on his way found many dead birds. The birds had teased the old woman, imitating Nenabosho's voice. He drained a pond and boiled the trout in it. He drained another pond, and put the fat into it. Then he went up a mountain and called all the animals. Rabbit came first and jumped into the fat. The last to come was Moose, who pulled Rabbit out of the fat, cleaned him, and threw him aside. Moose told Rabbit that he was too small to join in the feast. They quarrelled, and Rabbit said that in future it would be difficult for man to hunt moose, but that man would succeed in killing him, anyway. After everybody had gone, Rabbit dipped up fat with a forked stick, rubbed it on his neck and under his fore and hind legs, saying that that would be all the fat he was going to have.
The Fisher. — The Fisher people lived on one side of a lodge; the chief lived in the centre; on the other side lived the Turtles. The Turtles did not tend the fire; and when the Turtles sat near it, they hid under logs, putting out only their heads. Since the fire struck the chin and throat of the Turtles, these were scorched.
The people would go out hunting, and bring in beaver-meat. The Turtles were given only a small piece of the beaver-shoulder.
In spring there was very little food left in the village. A boy went squirrelhunting. He saw a squirrel which was nibbling at a piece of a pine-cone. When about to shoot the squirrel, the latter instructed the boy to break his bow and arrows, to cry until nearly dead, and then to tell the people that he wanted them to get the summer. The boy obeyed. The people first thought that he cried for his broken bow and arrows. They made new ones for him; but finally, when the boy nearly died, he said, "If the chief brings the summer, I shall recover." The chief ordered the small Turtle, the big Turtle, Otter, Crow, and Beaver to accompany him. They went to the place where lived the Eagle who owned the summer. On their way they met Caribou, Moose, Muskrat, Owl, and Hawk, who accompanied them. The chief ordered Moose, Caribou, Red Deer, and Bear to swim across a channel, on the other side of which the village of Eagle was situated; and he told Beaver, Muskrat, and Mouse to gnaw through Eagle's canoes and paddles. Then he sent Crow to fly to Eagle's lodge. Crow was unable to do so. He told Owl, who was also unable. Finally Hawk went. He peeped into the lodge through a hole, was discovered by the people, and his face was scorched. The next morning Moose, Caribou, Bear, and Red Deer were sent to swim in the water. The Fisher told the Eagle to give chase. When the hunters went out, their canoes were found to be leaking, and they were drowned. Meanwhile Chief Fisher went into the lodge, where he saw something shining tied around a pole. He cut it open with his knife, and the summer came out. Eagle returned to the lodge; and when he found the summer gone, he flew away pursued by Crow.1 Crow alighted on a rock far out at sea. The Eagle rushed down, struck the Turtle which lay in wait. The Turtle caught him and drowned him. Then Crow and Turtle went home, singing,—
When Fisher, Moose, Caribou, Red Deer, Link (a fish), and Frog came back, the chief asked how many months the year was to have. Moose said, "As many months as there are hairs on my body;" Link said, "As many as the eggs that I hatch." The same fish said, "As many months as I have intestines." The chief did not accept these. Then the Frog said, holding up his hands, "As many as I have fingers." Thereupon the Moose hit the Frog with a stick. The chief accepted the number of months suggested by the Frog.2
The Eagle's people tried to kill Chief Fisher, who climbed a tree. The Eagle tribe hit the middle of his tail, and broke it. Then the Fisher went up into the sky, and became a constellation.
St. Louis, Mo.
Notes On Peoria Folk-lore And Mythology.' — Peoria folk-lore and mythology are comparatively well preserved; but it should be added that many European (French) elements have been incorporated, and yet apparently the Peoria Indians are unaware of their foreign origin; and, what is more, these European elements in some cases have been attached to native cycles. Tales that are patently European in origin are those of the hat that produces soldiers, wolf fishing through ice with his tail, the smokehouse, the adventure of wolf with the supposed dead horse, the one-eyed man who shot his wife's colt, the man and his wife who played stallion and mare. In the cases of one or two tales it is doubtful whether they are native or European. The difficulty is that there is one cycle of how fox
1 See BBAE 59 : 301 (Assiniboin, Chippewayan, Crow, Grew Ventre, Ojibwa, Sboshoni, Shuswap, Thompson, Yana; also Chilcotin).
1 See RBAE 31 : 728 (Assiniboin, Fox, Haida, Hare, Ojibwa [Jones, PAES 3 : 485 Sboshoni, Shuowap, Tlingit, Tsimshian).
'Summary of part of an address before the Anthropological Society of Washington, and one before the American Anthropological Association. The information is based upon three weeks' field-work among the Peorias in August and September, 1916, under the joint auspices of the Bureau of American Ethnology and Illinois Centennial Commission. Printed by permission of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.
dupe* wolf which is European, and another which is demoostrabiy native: and, owing to the psychological similarity of the two series, it is L^prssible to determine whether the tale is native or European without access to large European collections. A European tale attached to a native cycle is "Seven-Heads," which is associated with the cycle of the culture-hero: so is the story of how the raccoon tied bells on the wolf. The native story then proceeds nearly as in Jones's "Fox Texts" up to the point where the wolf bumps into the trees.
Lest it be thought that European elements completely dominate Peoria folk-lore and mythology, I hasten to say that the native dements are far more numerous. In a comparative study of aboriginal Peoria folk-tales and mythology, we are very much handicapped by the fact that, though there is abundant published and unpublished Ojibwa material, we have almost no Ottawa, Algohkin, and Potawatomi collections at hand to know whether the Ojibwa material is characteristic for the group. It will be recalled that Peoria linguistically belongs with this group of Central Algonquian languages (see the 28th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology). In short, our problem is whether the members of the Ojibwa linguistic group also have a mythology and folk-lore more closely resembling each other than those of other linguistic groups. Professor Dixon, in his comparative study of Central and Eastern Algonquian folk-tales and mythology, published some years ago in this Journal (22 : 1-9), came to the conclusion that Fox and Potawatomi folk-lore and mythology formed a group as opposed to Ojibwa. In short, the distribution of the tales and myths did not coincide with the linguistic units. (At the time, the linguistic classification of Algonquian tribes was not known, though it was generally conceded that Ojibwa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi were extremely close linguistically.) However, the actual Potawatomi material was, and still is (see addition at the end), entirely too inadequate to safely generalize from. The Peoria tales and myths collected by myself, though supplemented in one or two cases by those gathered by the late Dr. Gatschet, are sufficiently numerous to partly answer the question. First of "all, it is evident that we have plains and plateau elements which are not Central Algonquian at all. Such are the tales of Wamba qui penem longam habuit et feminam trans flumen stupravit;1 the adventureof the culture-hero and the supposed dead woman; the story of how the culture-hero fell in love with his daughter and married her, and his subsequent detection. From a study of other native Peoria folk-tales and myths we get the impression that we have two periods to deal with, — an old one of associations with the Ojibwa group, and a recent one of relations with the Sauk, Fox, and Kickapoo group. This corresponds to the linguistic facts (see the "Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences," 7 : 231). The tale of the bungling host's adventure with the squirrel, and his failure to get meat from his wife's back, belong to the older set; that of the bungling host's adventure with the beaver, with the more recent one; and the mistaking the pubic hairs of the culture-hero for bear-hair also belongs to the latter set (formerly thought to be Kickapoo only1)- The flight of the culture-hero with the geese probably also belongs to the former set. Naturally a good many tales of the culture-hero are found in both groups. One informant substituted the wolf for the culturehero in many of these. Among the Peoria tales that have not thus far
1 Potawatomi also, Michelson, information, 1917.
been recorded elsewhere, are those of how the culture-hero failed to get spotted clothing like a fawn's hide, and how he failed to get long hair like a woman's; the man who was such a poor hunter that he couldn't even catch a raccoon (extremely obscene); how opossum mistook his fur for drizzling rain, his ears for the sky, his testicles for papaws; the girl who turned into a soft-shelled turtle to marry the painted turtle; the contest between the rabbit and bear (opossum in one version) as to whether there should be daylight or darkness. On the whole, the number of tales that have not thus far been recorded elsewhere is greater than one would expect; however, it may be that collections from the Potawatomi and Ottawa would reduce the number. Some of the episodes that occur elsewhere are arranged in a quite novel grouping. For instance, the tale of SnappingTurtle on the warpath ends with his escape in the water; the second part (his revenge when they attempt to catch him in the water) is attached to the wolf cycle after the wolf has entered the water.
Addition, December, 1917. — Two weeks' field-work with the Potawatomi last fall have made it clear that Professor Dixon's contention that Potawatomi and Fox form a separate group among Central Algonquians as regards folk-lore and mythology is a mistaken one. We must rather assume an early association with Ojibwa, and a later one with Fox. Plains and plateau elements also occur. European elements are quite numerous. In the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2 : 298, I have shown that the Peoria system of consanguinity has patently been affected by that of the Sauk, Fox, and Kickapoo. The data obtained in actual field-work confirm this in every way.
Truman Michelson. Bureau Of American Ethnology, Washington, D.C.
All-souls Day At Zuni, Acoma, And Lacuna. — Towards the end of October1 the Zuni celebrate ahoppa awan tetva ("the dead their day"). It is announced four days in advance from the house-top by sanlu weachona'we, the saint's crier.1 He also calls out that it is time to bring in wood. A portion of whatever is cooked on ahoppa awan tewa is thrown on the house-fire* by the women, or carried by the men to the "wide ditch" on the river-side, where possessions of the dead are habitually buried.4
At nightfall boys go about town in groups, calling out, "Tsale'mo, tsale'mo!" ' and paying domiciliary visits. At the threshold they make
1 In 1915 ahoppa awan tewa was on Oct. 30; in 1916. on Oct. 17. How the day is reckoned I do not know. It is said vaguely that the day falls some time after the kohaiito; i.e.. the beginning of the count of forty-nine days to the advent of shalako. According to one informant, the date falls five days after the new moon after the full moon of the kohaiito.
1 The Catholic Church has been disestablished in Zufii for a century; but an image of the saint has been preserved, and her cult in part kept up.
1 To remember the dead, it is a daily practice, both at Zufli and at Laguna, to drop a bit of food on the fire or crumble it on the floor.
* One informant stated that at supper every member of the household put a piece of meat or bread on the fire.
1 A "Mexican" word, but the meaning is unknown. One informant thought it meant "Give me to eat." See B. Freire-Marreco, "New-Mexican Spanish Folk-Lore" (JAFL 29 : 538-539>
VOL. JOUC. NO. 117.—33.