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(1) A vertical bar, employed to divide each paragraph into sections of a convenient length for concert reading. [See the PREFACE.]

() A separation mark. It signifies that the words between which it is placed, should not coalesce.

(1) A rest. Where this character is employed there should be a slight suspension of the voice.

(-) A hold. The vowels over which this character is placed, should have an unusual prolongation.

() A pause, called also a suspending pause. When placed over a rest, it signifies that this rest should have two or three times its usual length. It is called a suspending pause, because it keeps the mind of the hearer in suspense. [See an example on page 221, seventh line from the bottom.]

(、、、) Acute and grave accents. They are employed to represent the rising and falling inflections, and also the emphasis melodies. [See page 48 and 54.]

() Acuto-grave accent, or acuto-grave circumflex. (~) Gravo-acute accent, or gravo-acute circumflex.

(ir) Irony. The passage to which these letters are prefixed, is ironical.

[See p. 48.] [See p. 48.]

(rp) Reproach. When these letters are prefixed to a passage, it contains the language of reproach.

(wh) Whisper. The passage to which these letters are prefixed, should be whispered.

(1, 2, 3, 4) These numbers represent the degrees of modulation. [See p. 57.]

The italic letters represent sounds which are liable to be omitted, or imperfectly articulated. When all the letters in a word are italic, the word is emphatic. The emphatic words, however, are seldom, in this work, marked by italic letters.

In designating the pronunciation of words, in the foot-notes, I have used the letters which, on page 19, and 20, represent the elements of the English language. No superfluous letters are employed, as is done by lexicographers. The pronunciation of each word is determined by the letters which represent the sounds of which it is composed, and by the situation of the accent.


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