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principles in the acuteness and gravity of sound, but from the relative position of the notes in the graphic scale. This is obvious from the fact that the degrees of the scale may be exemplified in a horizontal line, by varying the forms of the graphic notes, as was done by the Greeks.

An exact division of pitch, as demonstrated by the diatonic scale, is into tones and semitones.*

The word tone, as here employed, signifies a certain degree of difference in pitch between two notes, as that between the first and second note of the scale. But in some cases we use the word tone, as synonymous with note; for instance, in some persons the tones of the voice are more musical than in others - that is, the notes of the voice.

The diatonic scale consists of seven sounds, moving discretely from grave to acute, or from acute to grave, by different degrees of pitch, of which the semitone may be the common measure, or divisor, without a fraction. The scale, however, is not complete without the octave, which is a repetition of the first note in the eighth degree.

The notes do not ascend by equal degrees of pitch, but by tones and semitones; the semitones occurring between the third and fourth, and seventh and eighth. The order of the scale, therefore, is as follows: two tones and a semitone, three tones and a semitone. And should it be desirable to extend the series of sounds, the eighth note of the first octave will become the first note of the second octave; the eighth note of the second oetave, the first note of the third, and so on.

In teaching the pupil to “raise and fall the eight notes," as it is called, the monosyllables, Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Si,t may be employed.

Diag. 4 is a graphic representation of the scale. The heavy, horizontal, parallel lines, represent the notes; and the spaces between them, the consecutive intervals of the scale.

* DIATONIC [Greek, diavy by or through, and tovos, sound). Ascending or descending by sounds whose proximate intervals are not more than a tone, nor less than a semitone.

† Pronounced Dö, Ra, Me, Få, sol, Lâ, Se.








An interval is a difference in pitch. Intervals arr either discrete, or concrete. A discreto interval is the difference in pitch between any two notes which vary from each other in acuteness and gravity. A concrete interval is that portion of the scale through which the voice slides on a concrete of speech.

The difference in pitch between the first and second note of the scale, is called the interval of a tone, or second; between the second and third, a tone; between the third and fourth, a semitone; between the fourth and fifth, a tone; between the fifth and sixth, a tone; between the sixth and seventh, a tone; between the seventh and eighth, a semitone.

The difference in pitch between the first and third note of the scale, is called the interval of a third ; between the first and fourth, the interval of a fourth; between the first and fifth, the interval of a fifth ; between the first and sixth, the interval of a sixth; between the first and seventh, the interval of a seventh ; between the first and eighth, the interval of an octave.

The intervals between the first and third, fourth and sixth, and fifth and sevenih, are called major thirds ; because they contain two tones, or four semitones; but as the intervals between the second and fourth, third


and fifth, and sixth and eighth, con- Diag. 5. tain but three semitones, they are de

8-Donominated minor thirds.

7 --SiIn the expression of our thoughts

6 -Laby oral language, we employ three sorts of voice the natural voice,

5 -Solthe falsetto voice, and the whispering voice, which I shall now attempt to


3 -Midescribe. The medium compass of the voice,

2 -Rein those whose voices have been


1-Doperly cultivated, is three octaves.

7 --SiThere is, however, a point of pitch at which the voice, in ascending

6 -Lathe scale, is said to break. This

5 -Solpoint, in a majority of persons, is about two octaves above the lowest

4 -Fa

3 -Minote of the voice. The natural voice embraces all the notes below this

2 -Repoint; the falsetto, all the notes above

-Doit. (See Diag. 5.)

7- Si The Italians call the natural voice voce di petto, and the falsetto voice voce di testa ; †

6 -Labecause they suppose the former to come from the chest, and the latter from the head.

5 -SolThis error has arisen from a want of anatomical and physiological knowledge of the

4 -Fa

3-Mivocal organs. Voice is never formed in the chest, or in the head; it is always formed in

2-Rethe upper part of the larynx, at the aperture of the glottis. It is, however, formed higher,

il-Door lower in the throat, according to its degree of acuteness, or gravity. At the cornmand of the will, the larynx may be elevated, or depressed, and the aperture of the glottis enlarged, or diminished. The larynx is the most depressed, and the aperture of the glottis the most dilated, when the gravest sound is formed; and the larynx is the most elevated, and the aperture

Falsetto Voice.
Medium Compass of the Human Voice.
Natural Voice.



* It is said that the ear is capable of perceiving nine octaves.

Voce di petto (Ital.), voice from the breast. Voce di testa, voice from the head.


of the glottis the most contracted, when the acutest sound is formed. Hence grave sounds appear to come from the chest, and acute ones from the head, or roof of the mouth. From this circumstance, no doubt, has arisen the error of calling the natural voice voce di petto, and the falsetto voice voce di testa.

The whispering voice does not, like the natural voice, and the falsetto, owe its peculiarity to pitch, but to the absence of what is generally understood by the term vocality. The compass of the whispering voice is about an octave. My own extends through ten degrees of the scale.*

The natural pitch of the female voice is an octave above that of the male voice. The pitch of the female voice corresponds to that of the violin; the pitch of the male voice, to that of the violoncello. The voices of boys are of the same pitch as the female voice octave above a man's voice. When boys are about the age of fourteen, their voices undergo a change of pitch.

The notes of the falsetto voice are called treble; the upper notes of the natural voice, tenor; and the lower notes of the natural voice, bass. (See Diag. 5.)

The divisions of the voice, as given by Italian authors, and adopted by many musicians of other countries, are as follows:

“There are three departments in the human voice, viz., the high, the middle, and the low. These departments are in the female, as well as in the male voice. Soprano, mezzo soprano, and contralto, are female voices. Tenore, baritono, and basso, are male voices."

The reader will observe that the falsetto voice is not included in the above division.

To a bass, a baritone, and a contralto voice, natu

* Notes analogous to those of the whispering voice may be made on the German flute, and some other wind instruments, through the compass of an octave.

† When I speak of the voice, I speak of the adult male voice, unless otherwise stated.

| Introduction to the Art and Science of Music, by Phil. Trajetta.

rally good, or made so by cultivation, Dr. Rush applies the term orotund.

The notes of music are named after the first seven letters of the alphabet, and are represented by graphic notes, which are written on five horizontal, parallel lines, and in the intermediate spaces. These lines and spaces are called the staff. (See Diag. 6.), The lines and spaces of the staff are counted upward, that is, the lowest

(Diag. 6.)




line of the staff is called the first line, the one above it the second line, and so on; the lowest space is called the first space, the next the second space, and so on. (See Diag. 6.) Each line, and each space, is called a degree. Hence, as there are five lines, and four spaces, the staff includes nine degrees. (See Diag. 6.)

When it is desirable to extend the notes above or below the staff, short lines, called ledger lines, are employed. (See Diag.7.)


(Diag. 7.)

As the great scale of sounds, which includes all the notes that can be made by instrumental means, is very extensive, it has been found convenient to divide it into two parts, and allot a staff to each part. The notes in the upper division of the great scale are written on what is called the treble staff; those in the lower division, upon what is denominated the bass staff.

To distinguish between the two staffs, * and to determine the names of the graphic notes, and the sounds which they represent, characters called cleffs are placed at the beginning of each staff.

The treble cleff is called 'G, because a particular TREBLE CLEFF. G note is written upon that line of the staff on which the main part of this character is placed. This note, called the G cleff note, occupies that point of pitch GO at which the falsetto voice

generally commences. The bass-cleff is called F, because a particular F note is written

* In pluralizing staff, s is preferable to ves. (See Brown's Enge lish Syntax.)

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