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CHAP. United States two naval stations and the government LXXX.

of the Isle of Pines. The question of control of this island, which lies off the southwestern coast of Cuba, had been in abeyance since the Spanish war.

A treaty had been negotiated between the United States and Denmark for the cession of the small islands in the West Indies that belong to the latter country; but the time for its ratification expired July 24, 1903,

and so the treaty failed. 1903. The laying of an American cable across the Pacific July 4. Ocean was completed on July 4, 1903. The route of

this cable is from San Francisco to Honolulu, thence to Midway Island, which is northwest by west from the Hawaiian Islands, thence to Guam, and thence to the Philippines. The first message was sent by President Roosevelt to Governor Taft in the Philippines. Then the President sent another message to be carried around the world by cable. This occupied twelve minutes—about two thousand miles a minute.

The troublesome Mormon question, which has compelled the attention of the Government at frequent intervals for more than half a century, came up again in Congress in December, 1904. Reed Smoot had been elected United States Senator from Utah in 1903 and admitted. The question of unseating him was raised on the charge that the Mormon Church had interfered in the elections, holding its authority over its members, in civil as well as ecclesiastical matters, to be superior to that of the National Government and laws. Men high in office in the Mormon Church were called as witnesses, and testified before the Committee on Privileges and Elections. Most of them took a defiant tone and boldly admitted that they were living in polygamous relations with plural wives and intended to continue so. Mrs. Annie Elliot, who was formerly a member of the Mormon Church, but left it in 1897, testified

ROOSEVELT'S ADMINISTRATION.

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before the Committee. She told how she had taken CHAP

LXXX, what are called the “endowments,” which include obedience to the priesthood, sacrifice to the church, and oaths of vengeance. By the latter she was to "pray without ceasing that God would avenge the blood of the prophets upon this nation.” She said she was told that her throat would be cut if she ever revealed any of the secrets. She also testified that every Mormon in good standing wore as an undershirt “the mystic garment,” which bore symbols of body destruction as a penalty for violating the oaths; that this garment was put on in the temple and was never to be taken off. Charles H. Jackson, chairman of the State Democratic Committee of Idaho, testified that the great question in that State was the growing power of the Mormon Church and its interference in State affairs. Apostles of the Church, he said, living in Utah went into Idaho and instructed their people to vote a certain way, saying it was the revelation that they should vote so and so, and that it was the desire of the Church. Gov. Morrison, a Republican, he declared, was defeated by the Mormon Church for renomination, according to the belief in Idaho. Of the twenty-one counties, six are controlled by the Mormons. The Mormon counties voted entirely for Mr. Gooding, Gov. Morrison's opponent. Both are Gentiles. He also testified that the Mormon Church secures the enactment of laws financially beneficial to its leaders, and even endeavors to amend the State Constitution so as to permit the practice of polygamy. The overshadowing danger of church interference in politics had contributed to bring the Democratic and Republican parties together in making church interference the paramount issue to be fought out by all non-Mormons, regardless of party lines.

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George Washington. .Va., 1732, Mt. Vernon, Va., 1799, 67 John Adams. .... Mass., 1735, Quincy, Mass., July 4, 1826, 91 Thomas Jefferson. ... Va., 1743, Monticello, Va., July 4, 1826, 83 James Madison..

Va.,

1751, Montpelier, Vt., 1836, 85 James Monroe.......

Va.,

1759, New York, July 4, 1831, 73 John Quincy Adams . Mass., 1767, Washington, D. C., 1848, 81 Andrew Jackson. ....N.C., 1767, Hermitage, Tenn., 1845, 78 Martin Van Buren... N. Y., 1782, Kinderhook, N. Y., 1862, 80 Wm. Henry Harrison Va., 1773, Washington, D. C., 1841, 68 John Tyler... Va., 1790, Richmond, Va., 1862, 72 James K. Polk. .....N.C., 1795, Nashville, Tenn., 1849, 54 Zachary Taylor Va., 1784, Washington, D. C., 1850, 66 Millard Fillmore. ....N. Y., 1800, Buffalo, N. Y., 1873, 73 Franklin Pierce. . . . . N. H., 1804, Concord, N. H., 1869, 65 James Buchanan. ... Penn., 1791, Wheatland, Penn., 1868, 77 Abraham Lincoln. ... Ky., 1809, Washington, D. C., 1865, 56 Andrew Johnson ....N.C., 1808, Greenville, Tenn., 1875, 67 Ulysses S. Grant Ohio, 1822, Mt. McGregor, N. Y., 1885, 63 Rutherford B. Hayes 1822, Fremont, O., Jan. 17, 1893, 70 James A. Garfield. ... 1831, Elberon, N. J., Sept. 19, 1881, 50 Chester A. Arthur. .. Vt., 1830, New York City, Nov. 18, '86, 56 Grover Cleveland. ...N. J., 1837, Benjamin Harrison. . Ohio, 1833, Indianapolis, March 13, 1901, 68 Grover Cleveland....N. J., 1837, William McKinley... Ohio, 1843, Buffalo, Sept. 14, 1901, 58 Theodore Roosevelt. . N. Y., 1858,

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14 DAY USE RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED

LOAN DEPT.

This book is due on the last date stamped below, or

on the date to which renewed. Renewed books are subject to immediate recall.

1 Mar'57W.

REC'D LD

LIAY 31 1957

LD 21-100m-6,'56 (B9311510)476

General Library University of California

Berkeley

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