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defense than so many dummies.' There is not a sufficient amount of infantry for the field armies deemed necessary for national defense. There is not enough small-arms ammunition on hand to meet the requirements of our Field Service Regulations for an army of 150,000 infantry. There is not enough field-artillery or field-artillery ammunition to go into a campaign. We have no reserve for the Regular Army such as almost every European nation posesses. The existing laws are inadequate to deal with the situation at the outbreak of war without additional legislation. The history of our past wars has demonstrated that such hasty measures cannot be expected to provide for the necessities which only time and thorough preparation could properly and economically meet. Our present condition is one of unreadiness for war with any first-class power,* and to-day there is abundant reason for apprehension concerning our military forces.

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Annual report of the Chief of Coast Artillery, U. S. Army, 1910, pp. 5 to 15, and, especially, page 17.

2 Annual report of the Chief of Staff, U. S. Army (General Leonard Wood) dated October 1, 1910, pp. 8 and 10.

3According to the Field Service Regulations, Unites States Army, for 1910, Article VII, paragraph 225, pp. 144-145, mobile forces should be supplied with 330 rounds per rifle; 330 rounds should be kept at or near the advance supply depot; and 660 rounds “should be available at the base of operations or other depots”-a total of 1,320 rounds per rifle. An army of 150,000 infantry would therefore need 198,000,000 rounds, but General William Crozier, Chief of Ordnance, testified before the Military Affairs Committee of the House of Representatives, on December 13, 1910, that “We expect to have on hand on June 30 next, 152,000,000 rounds.” (Vide Hearing on Army Appropriation Bill for Fiscal Year 1911-12, p. 313.)

4Testimony of Major General Leonard Wood before the Committee on Military Affairs of the House of Representatives, on December 14, 1910. Vide Hearing on the Army Appropriation Bill, p. 335.

5For the European armies which have reserves, vide Statesman's Year Book for 1910 and Hazell's Annual for 1911.

The last law relating to the increase of the Regular Army to a maximum of 100,000 men was the Act of February 2, 1901 (vide U. S. Statutes at Large, vol. 31, pp. 748–758); last law relating to the Volunteers in operation at the present time, is the Act of April 22, 1898; the last law relating to the Militia is the Act of January 21, 1903, known as “the Dick bill.” The defects of these last two laws are set forth by General Wood in his report as Chief of Staff, pp. 7, 9, 10, and 14 to 24.

7 Vide General Emory Upton's “The Military Policy of the United States”a masterpiece of its kind; Mr. Huidekoper's article “Is the United States prepared for War?"; and President Taft's introduction to Mr. Huidekoper's reprint.

8General Wood's report as Chief of Staff, p. II.

SMALL-ARMS.

In one respect Congress has been decidedly generous to the Army. When the small-arms for which appropriations have already been made are manufactured, the United States will have on hand 675,000 Springfield rifles of the latest model." The Ordnance Department would like, however, to have a reserve of 1,000,000 rifles, which would be abundant for the present.?

SMALL-ARMS AMMUNITION.

The present sources of supply for small-arms ammunition are the Frankford Arsenal and certain private manufacturers. The Frankford Arsenal produced 80,000,000 rounds last year, and 8,000,000 rounds were obtained from individual makers; but from this amount must be deducted the 40,000,000 rounds consumed each year in target practice by the Regular Army and Organized Militia, and in the supplies furnished to the Navy and Marine Corps. In other words, the present actual increase in the reserve each year is limited to about 48,000,000 rounds. If the expectations of General Crozier, the very able Chief of Ordnance, are realized, we shall have on hand, on June 30, 1911, a reserve of 152,000,000 rounds. According to General Kuropatkin's own account of the Russo-Japanese War, the average expenditure of small-arms ammunition in a one day's battle was fully 300 rounds per man engaged. At that rate an army of

*General Crozier's testimony before the Committee on Military Affairs of the House of Representatives (Hearing on Army Appropriation bill, p. 324).

2General Crozier's testimony, pp. 324 and 325; General Wood's testimony, p. 353.

3General Crozier's testimony, pp. 320 and 313. 4General Crozier's testimony, pp. 313.

5 The Russian Army and the Japanese War, by General Kuropatkin; translated by Captain A. B. Lindsay. Edited by Major E. D. Swinton, D. S. O., Royal Engineers. 2 vols. E. P. Dutton & Co., 1909.

"General Kuropatkin states (vol. II, pp. 149–150) that "the average expenditure of rifle ammunition worked out as follows: For a whole day battle for one battalion, 21,000 rounds, with a maximum of 400,000 rounds; an hour's fighting for one battalion 1,700, with a maximum of 67,000. The total reserve taken with a four-battalion infantry regiment was 800,000.” In volume II, p. 229, General Kuropatkin says that “the average strength of our companies was only 140 to 150 rifles and those companies that lost most heavily in the previous fights could muster less than 100.” According to General Kuropatkin's own statement, the Russian infantry regiments consisted of four battalions of four companies each; but he remarks (vol. II, p. 229), “With 200

600,000 infantry would use, in one single day's fight, no less than 180,000,000 rounds, which is 28,000,000 rounds more than the United States will have on hand on June 30, 1911." Yet Mr. Hull of Iowa, in a speech made in the House of Representatives on January 17, stated that "with 150,000,000 rounds in reserve we are in no danger of running short in one battle with 40,000 men, or a great many battles with 600,000 men;"2 and Mr. Hull has been the Chairman of the Committee on Military Affairs for nearly fourteen years.3

FIELD ARTILLERY.

The field artillery is totally inadequate for war. Almost every large army has four guns to each 1,000 rifles, while France has nearly five and Germany six guns per thousand. The available infantry of the Regular Army and Organized Militia in the United States recruited up to its full war strength would number approxi

rifles on the roll of a company we were never able to put even 200 men in action;" and, as quoted above, 150 rifles was the maximum in the big battles like Mukden and Liao-yang. Four companies of 150 rifles each would make the battalions number 600 infantrymen. 600 men using 21,000 rounds gives a minimum per man of 35 rounds; 600 men using 400,000 rounds gives a maximum of 666 rounds per man. The average would therefore be 350 rounds per man for one day's fight. In one hour's fighting, 600 men using 1,700 rounds gives a minimum per man of 28} rounds; 600 men using 67,000 rounds gives a maximum of 11š rounds per man per hour. The average is consequently 70 rounds per man per hour A day's battle can scarcely be expected to last less than five hours. Five times seventy gives 350 rounds per man for a one day battle, which corroborates exactly the result obtained in the preceding paragraph. The reserve is however not included. As Mr. Huidekoper has given only 300 rounds per man engaged, he has therefore understated the case in question.

1600,000 infantry using 300 rounds per man would require no less than 180,000,000 rounds, which is 28,000,000 more than the 152,000,000 which, according to General Crozier, we shall have on hand on June 30, 1911.

2 Congressional Record for January 17, 1911, p. 1047.

3Since the beginning of the Fifty-fifth Congress which, according to the Congressional Directory for January, 1910, p. 168, convened for its first session on March 15, 1897.

4General Wood's report as Chief of Staff, pp. 6 and 10, and his testimony before the Military Affairs Committee of the House of Representatives (Hearing on the Army Appropriation bill, pp. 334 to 336).

5Statesman's Year Book for 1910, and Hazell's Annual for 1911.

General Wood in his testimony gives the minimum number considered necessary for 1,000 rifles as from 4 to 44 guns, the Germans as having 7 and the French 6 guns per 1,000 rifles or sabres (p. 334).

mately 212,520 rifles. According to our Field Service Regulations, this force would need at least 850 guns,” but General Leonard Wood, the Chief of Staff, testified before the Committee on Military Affairs of the House of Representatives on December 14, 1910, that we have only 432 3-inch field pieces. We are therefore 418 guns short of what is necessary in war. The German army has 2,800 rounds per gun,“ while our Field Service Regulations require only 1,856 rounds for the 3-inch gun. According to General Wood's testimony, we have less than one-third the amount prescribed, and, moreover, that is all we have General Wood, in his report as Chief of Staff, laid special emphasis on the fact that, at the present rate of appropriation, it will be more than fifty years before an adequate reserve supply of field-artillery ammunition is accumulated." "The existing want of field-artillery guns, carriages, and ammunition,” he declared, "constitutes a grave menace to the public safety in case of war. He pointed out that “once a state of war exists with a first-class power there will be no opportunity to buy this material abroad or time to manufacture it at home, even if all available plants were running at the maximum capacity, without such delay as would be fatal to our hopes of success. This shortage of field-artillery material is the most serious feature of the present military situation, and one which should be immediately corrected."

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SEACOAST FORTIFICATIONS.

Our seacoast defenses are fortunately in a better condition and, so far as concerns the installation of armament, are well advanced

At the present time there are 21 regiments of regular infantry and 140 regiments of militia infantry in the United States (vide Army List and Directory, January 20, 1911; Report of the Chief of Staff, p. 8; and Report of the Secretary of War for 1910, p. 46). According to the Field Service Regulations (Article I, section 24) and the printed list issued by the Army War College, the number of rifles for each infantry regiment is 1,320. 161 regiments at 1,320 rifles each amounts to 212,520.

2 Article I requires slightly over 4 guns per 1,000 rifles. Four guns per thousand men gives 850 guns.

3Hearing on the Army Appropriation bill for 1911-1912, p. 335.
4General Wood's testimony, p. 335.
5 Article VII, sections 223 and 225.
Hearing on the Army Appropriation bill, p. 335.
7Report of Chief of Staff, 1910, pp. 6 and 10.
8Ibid. p. 6.

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toward completion." The armament of a few posts is insufficient, and two more ports should be fortified.3 There is, however, a marked deficiency in the requisite supply of ammunition, searchlights, and apparatus for fire-control.4 For 1911 the appropriation for reserve ammunition for the ports within the United States was only $140,000, and for the preceding four years only $325,000 per annum.“ Even if the appropriations are continued at the rate of $325,000, it will be no less than thirteen years before the full supply of reserve ammunition for our home ports is accumulated, and twenty-one years before this supply will be completed for the present batteries and for those to be constructed for the ports within this country."

The searchlight installation for the fortifications in the United States is slightly more than half finished;but nearly ten years will be needed to complete it, judging by the average rate of appropriations for the past five years. The apparatus for fire control is also about half completed."O Much needs therefore to be done in this respect; but if Congressional appropriations in the future do not average more than those during the last five years, this work will not be finished for eight years to come."

General Murray's report, p. 6.
2 General Murray's report, p. 20.

3Estimates of Appropriations for 1912, Document 1039, p. 303; Report of National Coast Defense Board for 1906, p. 29; General Murray's report, pp. 17, 19, and 20.

4General Murray's report, pp. 16 to 27; General Wood's report pp. 10-11. 5 Estimates of Appropriations; General Murray's report, p. 27.

6 Appropriations for the Coast Artillery for 1907 to 1910, both inclusive, as passed and approved.

7General Murray's report, p. 27.

8It was about half finished, according to General Murray's report which was dated September 1, 1910.

9According to General Murray's report “$1,465,000 is the estimate for completing the searchlight equipment of existing defenses in home ports” (p. 24). The appropriations for 1907 were $125,000; for 1908, $210,00; for 1909, $210,000; for 1910, $210,000; and for 1911,$50,000—a total of $805,000. One fifth of $805,000 is $161,000, the average appropriation for the past five years. Dividing this amount into $1,465,000 gives a quotient of more than nine.

1° On September 1, 1910, General Murray reported (p. 25) that “the firecontrol equipment for the existing defenses of home ports is not quite half completed." The appropriation for the apparatus for New London has been received since this report.

II The appropriations in 1907 were $700,000; in 1908, $900,000; in 1909, $270,256; in 1910, $247,055; and for 1911, $200,000—a total of $2,317,311. General Murray estimates (p. 25) that $3,908,466 are required to complete

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