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has given rise to its appellation of a "city in an orchard." The shape or plan is irregular, approaching that of a cornucopia or bent cone, and has not unaptly been compared to the figure of a shoulder of venison. It is 29 miles from Thetford, and 109 from London.

Besides the cathedral it contains 36 churches, and several chapel or meeting houses of various denominations. It has five bridges; one of iron, and the other four of stone. It also contains 41 parishes, 8016 houses, 36,854 inhabitants; namely, 15,792 males, and 21,040 females, of whom 12,267 were returned as being employed in trade, manufactures, and handicraft businesses, and 408 in agriculture. The city was surrounded with strong walls (in which are a number of towers and eleven gates) except to the east where the river, having washed the north part of the city, winding under four bridges, defends it with steep banks and its deep bed. The walls are now dilapidated, and the gates have been taken down.

The first mention of Norwich in history is in the Saxon Chronicle in 1004, when Sweyn, king of Denmark, destroyed it. That it was a place of note in the early time of the Saxons, Mr. Bloomfield, in his Historical Essay on the History of Norfolk, has eunmerated various coins, with the name of this city inscribed on them: one of Athelstan, one of Edred, with this inscription :

"EADRED REX HANNI MO NORTHWIC."

And another of Ethelred the Second, in whose miserable reign, Sweyn, the Danish monarch, inflicted such dire vengeance on this devoted city. It regained its eminence, however, soon after; for, in Edward the Confessor's time, a very short period subsequent, it had "1320 burgesses, and paid 20 pound to the King, and ten pound to the Earl, also 20 shillings, and four prebendaries, and six sextaries

of honey, and a bear, and six dogs to bait him."
The castle, which was destroyed by Sweyn, was re-
built by Canute. At the Conquest, William ap-
pointed Ralph de Waller, earl of Norfolk, and gave
him the castle for his residence. The Earl rebel-
ling against the Conqueror, the King marched to
besiege him in his castle, which he precipitately
abandoned, and left the Countess, his wife, to de-
fend the fortress; the garrison, after an obstinate
resistance, were compelled by famine to capitulate.
Norwich was so much impaired by this siege that
there were scarcely 560 burghers left in it.
It gra-
dually assumed its ancient importance; and Bishop
Herbert, in the reign of William Rufus, translated
the episcopal see from Thetford to Norwich, and
built a beautiful cathedral, of which he laid the first
stone, with this inscription:

"Dominus Herbertus posuit primum lapidem,
In nomine Patris Filii et spiritus sancti. Amen."

After this we are informed, by William of Malmesbury, that Norwich became a town famous for merchandise, and the number of its inhabitants. The cathedral being much damaged by fire in 1171, it was repaired in 1180, by the Bishop of Oxford. In the reign of King Stephen, says Camden, Norwich was new built, was a populous town, and became a corporation. Stephen gave it to his son William as an appendage, but Henry the Second wrested it from him. The castle was repaired by Hugh Bigod, earl of Norfolk. During the reign of Edward the First the city was walled round by the citizens, who had presented a petition to Parliament to have liberty to do it. The citizens also obtained leave of Henry the Fourth to choose annually a mayor instead of their ancient bailiffs. This charter was granted in. 1403, and another was obtained in 1406, specifying the mode of electing the mayor, sheriffs, &c.

In 1348 near 58,000 persons were carried off by

the

the plague; and in 1505 the city was almost consumed by fire. When the proud tyrant of Spain, the bigoted Philip the Second, instructed the execrable Duke of Alva to massacre the simple, pious, and industrious inhabitants of the Netherlands, a great number of Flemings emigrated to England, and established themselves at Norwich, where they introduced the ingenious and lucrative manufacture of striped and flowered damasks, camblets and dreggets, black and white crapes, &c. In 1574 the Dumber of these persecuted foreigners had increased to 3,925. When the rumour was spread of the fitting out of the mighty Arinada of Spain, Norwich mustered 2,120 able men, 400 of whom were armed for the national defence. Queen Elizabeth honoured the city with her presence for several days in 1578, and was entertained with pageants, processions, and the greatest effusions of loyalty combined with that hospitality for which this county is so honourably distinguished.

In 1583 the inhabitants of this city, by the aid of an engine, conveyed water through pipes to the highest parts of it. During the civil wars between King Charles and the Parliament, Norwich sided with the latter. Norwich was early represented in Parliament. It sent members in the 25th of Edward the First. The city at present sends two members, chosen by the freeholders. Norwich is governed by a mayor, recorder, steward, two sheriffs, 24 aldermen, 60 common council, with a town-clerk, sword-bearer, and other inferior officers. The mayor is chosen on May-day by the freemen. The sheriffs are also chosen annually; one by the freemen, and the other by the aldermen; and the freemen of the several wards chuse their own aldermen. The mayor is a justice of peace during his mayoralty, as also the recorder and steward within the city and liberties, and after his mayoralty he is a justice for life. Norwich sends two mem

D 3

bers

bers to Parliament, and gives title of Earl to the Duke of Gordon. This city is entirely free and independent in its representation, and is only influenced in the election of its members by integrity, virtue, and eminent abilities. The right of election is in the freeholders, and such freemen only of the said city as are entered in the books, and do not receive alms and charity. The number of voters is about 3,000, and the returning officers are the sheriffs. There are eight wardens of the weavers chosen annually, and sworn to take care that there are no frauds committed in spinning, weaving, or dying the stuffs. The trade and manufactures of this city are very considerable. At Yarmouth they export large quantities of their manufactures, most of which are sent to London, and import a great quantity of wine, coal, fish, oil, &c. Great quantities of worsted stuffs, baizes, serges, shalloons, crapes, camblets, and druggets, are made here, besides shawls, and many other curious articles; from the sale of which upwards of 200,000!. it is said, is annually received by the city. The continental war has, however, been a considerable drawback on the trade of this opulent place.

Till within a few years the population of Norwich had been increasing. From the year 1693. in which the first accurate enumeration was taken, to 1752, the number of inhabitants bad increased 7,288, which is rather more than 123 annually; but since 1786 there has been a decrease of 3,197.

The inhabitants of this city are generally so employed in their manufactures within doors that the city has the appearance of being deserted, except on Sundays and holydays, when the streets swarm with people.

The castle of Norwich is of great antiquity; and Mr. Gough, in his additions to Camden, views it as much more ancient than the Noman Conquest, or perhaps the city itself. The present ditch, by the

round

round form, largeness, and depth thereof, appears to be the work either of the Danes or Normans. Mr. Wilkins supposes it to be of Danish workmanship, while Mr. Bloomfield is of opinion that the present structure was erected by Roger Bigod, in the time of King William Rufus, and that it occupies the site of a brick building raised by Canute. The workmen, in sinking a well within the walls of the castle a few years since, when they came to the level of the ground, without the ditches, found a beaten and regular footpath, used before the hill was thrown up. In 1325 the sessions were appointed to be held at the castle, and in 1399 it was inade the public gaol for the county.

The principal entrance to the castle was by Bar, now Bere Street. through Golden Lane, by the Barbican Gate, which was flanked by two towers, and connected with the external vallum by a wall. The walls (says Grose) were commonly flanked with towers, and had an embattled parapet crenulated or garreted: for the mounting of it there were flights of steps at convenient distances, and the parapet often had the merlons pierced with long chinks, ending in round holes, called ocilets. The walls of the castle have long been destroyed: the outer and the inner valla levelled, and the fossa filled up for building, and other purposes.

Over each foss were two bridges, one of which only remain. The arch of this bridge is much admired for its size and structure. At the inner extremity of the bridge are the foundations of two circular towers of 14 feet in diameter, one of which was appropriated for condemned criminals until 1793, when the new buildings were erected. This bridge is nearly 150 feet in extent, and rises from the inner to the upper ballium 16 feet. It has been much altered at different times, and is at present faced with square flint. Near the south-west angle of the inner ballium is the square keep-tower, the anti

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