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King Henry the Eighth, who granted various privileges to this town, and changed the name of it from Lynn Episcopi, or "Bishop's Lynn," to Lynn Regis, or "King's Lynn.'

This borough was always attached to the Walpole family. When Sir Robert Walpole, who was representative for Lynn, was expelled the house of Commons, through the powerful influence of the Tory faction in 1711, the electors of Lynn again chose him as their representative; this town is governed by a mayor, recorder, twelve aldermen, eighteen common council-men, a town clerk, chamberlain, &c. The mayor is chosen annually August 29, and sworn in on New Michaelmas-day.

Every first Monday in the month, the mayor, aldermen, clergy, &c. meet to hear and determine all controversies, amicably for preventing law-suits. This admirable institution, so honourable to this venerable and royal borough, was first adopted 1588, and is called, the Feast of Reconciliation.

In 1643, the Parliament force besieged the town; the siege commeuced August 28, and continued until September 16, when it surrendered; and to preserve the town from plunder, the corporation was obliged to pay to every foot soldier of the besieging army under the command of the Earl of Manchester, ten shillings, and to every foot-officer under the rank of captain, a fortnight's pay, amounting in all to the sum of three thousand two hundred pounds; after which it was made a garrison town for the Par liament. Preparatory to the Restoration, it was again fortified by Sir Horatio Townsend, ancestor to the present Marquis of Townsend,

Lynn is in length from the south gate to the Blockhouse, at Fisher's Gate, one mile and a quarter, and its breadth half a mile. Four small rivers, called Fleets, over which there are 11 bridges, divide it into several parts. The whole is encompassed on the land side by a deep ditch, and an ancient

wall,

wall, which was formerly defended by nine bastions, and it might now be made a place of considerable strength. At the north end of the town is a platform of 12 cannon, 18 pounders, called St. Anne's Fort. Lynn is 42 miles from Norwich, and 106 from London. By the population survey in the year 1801, the number of houses is 2,300, which were occupied by 10,095 inhabitants.

The harbour of Lynn is about the breadth of the Thames above bridge, and is capable of containing three hundred sail of ships, The spring tides flow nearly 18 feet perpendicular, and if at those times there happens to be a strong northerly wind, they come in with such rapidity as to force the ships in the harbour from their moorings, though they lie ten miles distant from the sea. There are no fresh-water springs in this town, but the inhabitants are plentifully supplied with that necessary article, from the Gaywood river, by the water works uear the East Gate, called Kettle Mill. The situa tion of this town, near the fall of the Ouse into the sea, gives it an opportunity of extending its trade into eight different counties, so that it supplies many considerable cities and towns with goods, not only of our own produce, but such as are imported from abroad. Its trade in wine, coals, and corn is very large, and in iron, deals, timber, and other kinds of merchandize, is very considerable. Its foreign trade is equally so, particularly to Holland, Norway, the Baltic, Spain, and Portugal.

St. Margaret the Virgin, being the titulary saint and patroness of this town, in honour of her its arms are three dragon's heads, each wounded with a cross, and its public and common seal is the effigies of St. Margaret, standing in a triumphant manner, wounding the dragon with a cross, and treading him under foot, with this inscription round it :

"Stat Margareta draco fugit in Cruce lacta."

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The principal church in this town is dedicated to St. Margaret; it was built by Herbert de Losinga, bishop of Norwich, about the year 1100, and then had a lofty lanthorn in the middle of the cross aisle, and at the west end two towers, in one of which are eight bells; on the other there was a very elegant spire, which from the foundation was 258 feet, and equal to the length of the church and chancel; but this being blown down in 1741, and greatly damaging the body of the church, the ruins were entirely taken down, when it was rebuilt with three large aisles, and is now one of the largest parochial churches in England; the breadth of it to the outside of the foundation of the walls, being one hundred and thirty feet.

The chapel of St. Nicholas, supposed to have been built in the reign of King Edward the Third, is two hundred feet long, and seventy-eight broad; it is reckoned one of the best and largest of the kind in England, and has a bell-tower of free-stone, and an eight-square spire over it, both which together are one hundred and seventy feet from the ground. There is a library in it, which was erected by subscription, to which Sir Robert Walpole, Earl of Orford, was a great benefactor. There is also another library at St. Margaret's.

The chapel of St. James since the dissolution of the priories being in part demolished, and the rest became ruinous, was rebuilt 1682, by the liberal benefactions of the mayor, burgesses, and principal inhabitants, and converted into a workhouse, for fifty decayed old men, women, and poor children; where good endowment and provision is made for their work, instruction and maintenance, and for putting the children out to trade. Great additions have been made to this place, and it is now the general workhouse for the whole town. There was a church called St. Edmund's, in North Lynn, which was long ago entirely swallowed up by the sea, There

There are a Roman Catholic chapel, a Presbyterian and Quaker's meeting-house in the town.

In 1653, Sir John Turner, knt. thrice mayor of this town, and many years one of its representatives in parliament, erected at his own expence a handsome building of free stone, with two orders of columns, intending it for an exchange for merchants; upon the second floor, in a niche in the front, is a statue of King Charles the Second, and within is the custom-house, fitted up with several commodious apartments for business. On the platform above is raised an open turret upon pillars, of the Corinthian order, with an exchange bell therein, finished with an obelisk and ball, whereon stands Fame instead of a weathercock. The whole is ninety feet high.

The Tuesday market-place is a spacious square area of three acres, having on an ascent of four steps, a very handsome market-cross, of free-stone, of modern architecture, built in 1710, and adorned with statues and other embellishments. On each side stands, in a semi-circular form, the butcher's shambles in two divisions, the frontispieces being supported with Doric columns, and the pediments enriched with a decoration of paintings, analogous to the subject; behind is another building, erected and fitted for a fish-market, with some handsome houses enclosing all backward. The Saturday market is kept in a convenient area, lately opened near St. Margaret's church yard, capacious shambles having been erected.

There is a small hospital in All Saints parish, where four poor men live rent free, and another called St. Mary Magdalen's, which was a priory, founded in the reign of King Stephen, but rebuilt 1649, and is now under the care of two of the senior aldermen, chosen for that purpose by the other governors. In 1682 an old ruinous building, which was once a chapel, was converted to a school-house, where poor children are taught both to read, and to spin, wool;

wool; and, by act of parliament, it is settled in the guardians of the poor.

The streets of Lynn are narrow but well paved, the new walk, or mall, from the Bars by the Workhouse to Ganrock-gates, is about 340 yards long, and eleven yards wide; between the quick hedges, at convenient distances, on each side of the walk, a recess is left in the hedge in a semicircular form, where benches are fixed, on which twenty people may sit together; upon a gentle ascent on the right is a plantation and a shrubbery.

The Theatre was a hall belonging to St. George's Guild, and for some years used as the court-house, for holding the quarter sessions of the peace for the county of Norfolk. Near St. Mary's Church, is the Guild Hall, an ancient building of stone and flint; it contains a large hall, assembly.room, and courts for the administration of justice. In this building are portraits of Sir Robert Walpole, Sir Thomas White, and Sir Benjamin Keene.

About half way between the south and east gates stands the remains of an ancient oratory, a singular kind of building with several vaults, and cavities under ground, over which are some dark cells, where the priests were used to take confessions in ; and above them is a small chapel, in the figure of a cross, arched above and enriched with carvings; it was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, and commonly called the Lady's or Red Mount, whither the Romish penitents, in their pilgrimage through this town to the holy-wells, and the monastery of our Lady at Walsingham, used to resort, and perform their devotions. This place is now inclosed with a bastion.

Here was also a cell of a prior and three Bene dietine monks, belonging to the cathedral monastery of Norwich, founded by Bishop Herbert about 1100, and dedicated to St. Margaret. On the causeway leading to Gaywood an hospital was founded by

Peter

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