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after being recognized by the United States, concluded a treaty which was very satisfactory and which was proclaimed February 26, 1904. The purchase from the French Canal Company was soon consummated, and on May 4, 1904, the United States took possession of the site and property. The occasion was a momentous

The men who had accomplished so much in clearing the way for the building of the canal looked forward with confidence to its speedy and successful construction. There were many others who looked with fear and trepidation upon the undertaking. There was a general feeling that after almost four centuries of reports, investigations, surveys and failures, it was time for the dirt to fly immediately. Fortunately those placed in charge of the work were trained in the scientific planning of large undertakings, and while certain excavation work was done to appease the popular demand, and also to secure experimental data for excavating and planning, the great problems of the moment were recognized as three in number: first, to decide on the type, form and exact location of the canal; second, to outline the method of attack and to purchase and assemble the vast amount of equipment and material; third, to perfect an organization of the administrative and working forces.

[graphic]

Fig. 4. — Culebra Cut, Empire, looking north from suspension bridge. The two shovels in the center are standing on

the bottom of the canal. January 6, 1913.

THE PANAMA CANAL

PART II

THE ROUTE THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

BY

REUBEN E. BAKENHUS, S. B.

CIVIL ENGINEER U. S. NAVY

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