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SPIRIT OF THE
his life-time, which is, indeed, tae prac
tice of even the poorest Chinese. All Public Journals.
contrive to spare a sufficient sum to se
cure a reputable shelter for their lifeless FUNERAL CEREMONIES OF THE
bodies. In the room were several pedes
tals, all covered with white, and upon TURKS AND CHINESE.
them incense and lights were kept burn. It has been my fortune to witness the ing. The coffin was placed against the funeral ceremonies of two of the most wall, and just above it, a scroll was fastsingular people on the earth-two na ened to the white hangings, upon which tions the most dissimilar to ourselves were emblazoned the name and degree of kingdoms, either of which, in point of the deceased. The whole appearance was munners, customs, and religion, may be extremely striking, and affected me very considered our Antipodes—I mean the powerfully. Chinese and Turks. The burials of these After I had been at Canton about a two nations not only differ widely from month, the funeral took place. It is the our own, but in many respects from each custom of the Chinese to keep dead other, and both have many curious pecu- bodies above ground for a very long liarities highly descriptive of the manners time; the rich people delay the funeral and customs of the people to whom they even for a year or longer, and are thereby refer.
esteemed to afford proof of their respect During a residence at Canton, I was and reverence for the deceased. My witness to many funerals ; but my atten friend was kept nearly two months. tion was more particularly drawn to one, Upon the day fixed for the funeral, a that of an excellent and upright man of great number of relatives and acquaintconsiderable wealth and importance, with ances of the deceased assembled at his rewhom I had many dealings. He had sidence, and were all marshalled in prodied before my third arrival at Canton, cession as at our English burials. A but it is the custom to delay the funeral number of hired musicians, performing for a long time, and his body was still slow and melancholy tunes upon a vaunburied. I understood there had been riety of instruments, preceded the corpse, a sort of lying in state, something simi as did also some persons bearing painted iar, I presume, to what is still practised scrolls and silken banners, on which were in Scotland, where the corpse is dressed inscriptions indicative of the rank and out in white, and the female friends of character of the deceased. Incense bearers the deceased are admitted to view it. I followed these, and then, under a white have been informed, that it is the Chinese canopy, the coffin covered with a white custom, upon such occasions, to prostrat pall was borne by men. Upon each side themselves before the corpse, which is of it were persons employed in burning placed in the coffin, surrounded with pieces of paper and pasteboard with inflowers and perfumes, but I was never scriptions upon them ; some circular, and present at any such ceremony. The fore some cut into curious fantastic figures, all man, or chief servant of my deceased which, it is believed, are wafted upwards friend, informed me, upon my arrival, with the soul, and accompany it in its that I might be admitted to view the next state of existence either as coin, coffin, which was closed, but still unin. bread, or whatever else the inscription terred, and as I was desirous of doing so, denotes. After the corpse, came the rehe appointed to meet me at a certain latives of the deceased, all in white hour, and we proceeded to the house of clothes, soiled, dirty, and unornamented, the deceased. The room into which I and therefore descriptive of excessive was introduced, was one of considerable grief. Some of them howled and ex. dimensions, entirely hung round with claimed most vehemently, and every one white, which is the Chinese colour for had a friend on each side to assist him mourning. In the centre of the apart on, and also a servant, bearing over him ment was a kind of long table, covered a huge umbrella with a deep white fringe, with white, upon which was placed the which nearly screened the mourner from coffin, also covered with a kind of pall, the public gaze. Some women also fol. all white. My companion, after pros- lowed as mourners, borne in small coaches trating himself upon the floor, approach. similar to our sedans, and they were very ed the coffin, and withdrew the pall from loud in the expression of their lamentaa part of it, in order that I might observe tions. After them came a crowd of its neatness and workmanship, and the friends, all walking slowly, and thus the paintings and gilding with which it was procession closed. covered. He informed me, that his late The burying-places of the Chinese are master had caused it to be made during erected in the shape of grottes, without
their towns. They are divided into a va Grayle, the holy Grayle, is held to be the riety of sınall cells, in each of which a very dish out of which our Saviour ate coffin is laid, and, as soon as the cells are upon the occasion of his partaking the all filled, the sepulchre is closed. last passover with his disciples. No religious service takes place the
This holy vessel was originally supposcoffin is placed in its receptacle with greated to have been in the possession of solemnity, and then the procession re Joseph, of Arimathea, the reputed
founder of Glastonbury, who brought it Funerals in Turkey, which I have ob. to England. It was kept at Glastonbury served at Smyrna, are extremely different. for many years, but at last was somehow Instead of delay, as with the Chinese, the or other lost from thence, and it then be. corpse is hurried to the grave within a came the great object of search amongst few hours after dissolution. Instead of knights errant, and is mentioned in the slow step of grief, they go forward many of the old romances. hastily, and if the bearers of the body After being missed for several centire, no good Mussulman will refuse to turies, it was said to be discovered at Ge. give assistance in a work so holy. There noa, about the year 1100; or, at any exists a traditional declaration of Maho event, a dish was produced there as the met, that whoever bears a dead body Saint Grayle, or as it was then termed, forty paces towards the grave, will there
66 il sacro cattino.” Of course it was by expiate a great sin, and this opportu.
considered an invaluable relic, and was nity of easy absolution is by some anxi. an object of great reverence and veneraously looked out for. The male relations tion, more especially as some spots were follow, but there is no weeping-no grief pointed out in it, which were said to be
-nature is so far subdued amongst them stains produced by drops of blood of our that not a tear is shed. Alms and prayers Saviour's, which were caught in it by are the modes in which a Mahometan Joseph of Arimathea, whilst Jesus Christ displays grief—to repine for the dead, is was upon the cross. It is of an hexa. considered impious, for the same reason
gonal form, and made of a coarse green as they inter so speedily, namely, that if glass. The legend which was told of it the deceased was a good Mussulman he is at Genoa was, that it was taken at the entitled to happiness, which ought not to capture of Cæsarea, in the holy wars, and be grieved at, nor ought he, by any de was presented to the Genoese by Bald. lay of interment, to be prevented at once win, king of Jerusalem; an account attaining the full enjoyment of it; if, on
which certainly does not harmonize well the contrary, he was not a good Mussul. with our pretended title to it through Joman, he does not deserve to be grieved seph of Arimathea. for, and ought at once to be sent from
It remained at Genoa until the year the world.
1806, when Bonaparte, in his rage to The body is, in the first instance, car transport every thing curious or celebrat. ried to a mosque, where religious service ed in art to Paris, carried off the Saint is performed, and from thence to the Grayle, and it was deposited in the Cagrave, over which a prayer is delivered binet of Antiquities, in the Imperial Liby a priest.
brary. We understand it still rernains The planting of cyprus trees round there ; whether it has ever been claimed the grave is practised, because it is ima. by the Genoese or not, we have not been gined that the state of the dead is denot able to ascertain.-Ibid. ed by the growth and condition of these trees. They are placed in two lines, one
A LANDSCAPE, on each side the grave_if only those on On to the mountain ! let us from its vergo the right hand prosper, it denotes happi View nature stretching forth the varied scene, Dess, if only those on the left, misery. If The rivers and the streamlets glide between, all of them succeed, it betokens that the Now lost in windings, then again emerge, deceased was at once admitted to all the And dazzle with their brightness": now invade bliss of the houris ; if all fail, he is tor
The forest's gloom, and cooling in the shade, mented by black angels, until, at some
Dash out refreshened. Then survey the heath, future time, he shall be released from
In savage grandeur spread itself beneath;
And mark the wild-flower rear its humble head, trment at the intercession of the pro
And bloom contented on the spot we tread phet.---National Magazine.
Nature! 'tis here, I do adore thee! here, oh
Where foot of man profane has seldom trod.
Here let my incense rise! bere let my spirit GRAAL, or Grayle, is an old word for a dish or large plate, and the one which is
And bow before thy shrine, and wonder and distinguished as the Saint Graal, or adore.
1. Wear and sluice to them.
a. Yare River, leading to Norwich.
k. Lothing Lake. b. Waveney ditto, to Beccles and Bungay, i. Cut to join Waveney and Yare. c. Bure ditto.
k. Canal to join Waveney, Yare, and Bure. d. Yarmouth. e. Flood-gates.
m. Breydon Lake. f. Cut and ebb-gate.
n. Wear and sluice to it. g. Lowestoft.
OBSERVATIONS. It is lamentable to hear that the pro- is within the tideway of Yarmouth Har. ject entitled Norwich A Port, is again bour, so may its commissioners, unless brought into Parliament, because the prohibited by a special enactment, have commissioners of Yarmouth Harbour a right to levy their port-dues on the have declined to co-operate with the trade of Norwich A Port. counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. On the There can be stated of Lowestoft Har. other hand it may be well to hesitate bour, if made, that it will require two prior to the conversion of Norwich into a piers of an equal length, and not one port, meaning of Lowestoft into a sea- long south pier only; for this harbour port, and of the rivers Waveney, Yare, will possess a lowland in lieu of a headand Bure into a channel for ships, in land, or, in other words, a foreland of addition to one for wherries. The great shingle, and therefore one which is movMr. Telford says, in his Report, that able. The cliffs at Lowestoft, receding 6 to this scheme there is no physical ob- from the sea, have an inland position. stacle;" yet as Lowestoft Harbour will Mr. Baylis writes in the body of a lethave less high water than low water, so ter, that he will contract to do the work must the former be incapable of scouring at Mr. Cubit's estimate ; but, in a postthe latter. Besides the above principle script to the same letter, Mr. Baylis retreats of water acting on itself alone, but members that he has not included not upon water and shingle; which, be charge for steam dredge-machines ; acing about three times heavier than water, cordingly Mr. Cubit and his " whipper multiplies the resistance.
in” disagree, however cordial they have It may be retorted that Yarmouth wished to appear. Nor does the one, any Harbour has also less high water than more than the other, put lock-gates at low water; yet there rests to be explain. each termination of the cut designed beed that it is washed by three rivers, tween the rivers Yare and Waveney ; for whereas the port of Lowestoft will not this reason their old channels must either possess a single river. As to lake Loth- choke, if shallower than the new channel
, ing, its level will cease to be raised or it will do so if shallower than them. nigher than that of the sea at high water; A cut from Rotterdam to Helvoetsluys for the lake will become replenished from was contemplated on the preceding false the sea instead of being refilled by the principle, which Mr. Baylis may not Waveney, which now flows into the lake's know ; yet he cannot but be aware that Moreover, as the communi. the Gloucester and Berkeley ship-canal
, cation between the haven intended at executed by himself, has lock-gates at Lowestoft and the Waveney, embracing both ends, which haste or carelessness has that between this river and lake Lothing, led him to overlook. The great Van
cul de sac.
Westerdyck mentions, that " if you di.
THE PALACE OF ST. CLOUD. vide the waters,
or rather to say misdivide them, “ you lose the stream.” THE palace of St. Cloud is an agreeable,
Now, however, to convert Yarmouth and, according to the favourite English into a good port, another mouth should phrase, a comfortable habitation, splenbe added to the present one, that its bar didly, but not too richly furnished. The inay become removed. Thus, first, let salle-a-manger particularly attracted my the piers be of a sufficient length to coun. notice, being the first good specimen I teract the along-shore motion of the shin. had seen of a French dining room. It gle; then next put at midway between is a room large enough for about forty the entrance and the town, two pair of persons to dine in it conveniently. A gates to be self-acting at flood-tide, but round table of mahogany, or coloured not at ebb-tide, when ships must lock like mahogany, one fauteuil, and half a through them that the back water shall dozen chairs, seemingly not belonging to not issue ; and lastly make, along with a this room, but brought from another, gate to be self-acting at ebb-tide, because standing round the table on a mat which assisted by the rivers, a cut for them went underneath it; a chandelier, or landward from the pierheads, yet which lustre, hanging over the tables ;—such, exit may be regarded as unnavigable with a few articles for the use of the at: owing to the bar that will soon form at tendants, was the furniture of the room. its outside.
Instead of a sideboard, a painted shelf As to a ship-channel, let the three ri. went round the room at about four feet vers be formed into a canal, having a
from the floor. On one of the panes of wear and sluice at its lower end for their the window, a thermometer, with the regulation during floods by sea and land; scale marked on glass, was fixed on the whilst the Breydon Lake, whose upper outside ; thus the temperature of the end could occasionally be scoured by the outer air might be known without openrivers, and whose area is 1,218 acres, ing the casement. would be an ample space for the tide, An English family of moderate fortune and might bound its flow and ebb. lives very much in the dining-room ; a
French family would as soon think of The Selector,
sitting in the kitchen as in the salle.à. manger at any other than eating hours.
The English think it marvellous that a LITERARY NOTICES OF French lady should receive visits in her VEW WORKS.
bed-room ; but to this bed-room is an. nexed a cabinet, which conceals all ob
jects that ought to be put out of sight; Our poetical friends will doubtless be the bed is either hidden by the drapery, pleased to learn that a most delightful or covered by a handsome counterpane, performance entitled Evenings in Greece, with a traversin or bolster at each end, the poetry by Thomas Moore, and the which, as it is placed lengthways against music by Bishop, has been ushered into the wall, the two ends resembling each the literary world during the past week. other in the woodwork also, gives it dur. We shall take an early opportunity of ing the day-time, the appearance of a making our readers fully acquainted with
couch. the beauties of this charming volume, The park of St. Cloud is not a park in the and we now give an extract, regretting English sense of the word ; it is a pretty that our limits compel us to be brief.
pleasure-ground, with great variety of THE TWO FOUNTAINS.
surface. If king George III. had been I saw, from yonder silent cave,
as much accustomed to the continental Two fountaius running side by side, notion of a park as the king his grand. The one was mem'ry's limpid wave, father probably was, he would not have The other, cold oblivion's tide.
expressed so much surprise, when, on "Oh Love,” said I, in thoughtless dream, his visit to Magdalen College, Oxford,
As o'er my lips the Lethe pass'd,
he was asked if he would be pleased to Be all my pains forgot at last:»
see the park. " Park ! what, have you
got a park ?”—“ We call it a park, sir, But who could bear that gloomy blank,
because there are deer in it.”-“ Deer!
please your majesty.”_“Well, well, I And said, “Oh, Love! whate'er my lot,
must go and see a park of nine acres ; Still let this soul to thee be true
let us go and see a park of nine acrrs." Rather than have one bliss forgot,
From the elevated ground of the park Be all my pains remember'd tool" of St. Cloud, where the lantern reacs its
head, Paris is seen over an extent of Hat neous opinions on domestic economy may and marshy ground, over which the Seine be accounted for. I left England while winds with as many evolutions and cur. paper currency was still in force, and be. vatures as a serpent. The fable of the fore prices were lowered as since they have sun and the wind contending which of beel ; my estimate must be corrected acthem could first induce a traveller to quit cordingly. his cloak, might be paralleled by one in. The result of between three and four vented on the sinuosity of rivers in plain years' experience is, that about one-sixth countries. Let nature oppose rocks and is saved by living, not in Paris, but in a mountains, the river holds on its way by provincial town in France, or that a frank torrent and by cataract; arrived at a level will go as far as a shilling. Set against country, it seems to amuse itself by de. this saving the expenses of the journey, lay. If it were told at an English gam. and the saving will not be great to those ing club, that the mountain and the plain who do not retrench in their mode of life, had engaged in a contest, which of them but live in France in the same style as at should most effectually divert the course home. The exchange on bills drawn on of a river from its direct line to the ocean, England may be favourable ; but some the odds would, most likely, be in favour little money sticks in every hand through of the mountain. But the result is other. which money passes, which balances this wise. Four Years in France. advantage.
House-rent is higher in France than in
England ; fuel much dearer ; some maDOMESTIC ECONOMY IN
nufactured articles, as woollen-cloth for FRANCE.
coats, and linen or cotton for shirts, are I WILL endeavour to enable any one to equally dear; colonial produce, as sugar judge how far it may be worth his while to and coffee, is of a variable price, but not come to reside in France from motives of much cheaper ; tea is cheaper, as the economy. With his motives for being eco Americans supply it, or England with a nomical I have nothing to do; any one may remission of the duty. But there are no be economical at home who pleases; assessed taxes, no poor-rates ; provisions but it does not please some people to be I found to be cheaper by about one-third economical at home; others wish to have than I had left them in England ; and more for the same money. The French my younger children, instead of small are sometimes puzzled to make out why beer, with half a glass of wine each after the English come abroad ; perhaps the dinner, low drank wine, with discretion English are sometimes equally puzzled indeed, but at discretion. The more nuthemselves ; but with reference to eco merous my family, the greater was the nomy, sometimes the English seem to advantage to me of this diminution of the them to be travelling for the sake of daily expense of food. spending money; sometimes to be stay Yet I calculate that at the end of fortying in France for the purpose of saving two months, including what the journey it. The riches as well as the high prices to Avignon cost me, and the difference of England are exaggerated ; the latter to between the price at which my furniture a degree that would make the riches to be was bought and that at which it was sold, merely nominal. Then the difference I had spent, within one-twentieth, as between French and English prices is sup- much as it would have cost me to live in posed to be so great, that the saving, by my county town in England with the living in France, must be enormous. same establishment and in the same manMany English have, at first, no clearer The smaller the income annually notions than the French on these subjects. expended, the greater in proportion will
The price of almost every article, the be the saving, because it is chiefly on the produce of agricultural or manufacturing necessary articles of living that expense industry, has been increased one-third, is spared ; but a man of large, or even some say two-fifths, in France since thé of moderate fortune, will hardly think it beginning of the revolution ; the taxes worth his while to dwell many years in a have
been trebled. We know that, within foreign country merely for the sake of the last thirty years, prices and taxes saving five pounds in a hundred. The have been augmented in England at about less the distance to which he travels and the same rates; so that, on both sides of the longer his stay, the more he becomes the water, the proportion has been pre- acquainted with the mode of dealing and served. But the English knew very little learns what are just prices, the greater of France during the war ; whereas the proportionably will be the savings of the French knew England by their emigrants, econoniizing resident. A saving of five who reported truly the high prices then per cent. is at least not a loss. Wise men prevalent: thus some unsettled or erro should not entertain extravagant expecta