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tions, and prudent men should know what women in

my country : as for Europe, I they are about to undertake. Those who believe, they entertained very vague noare neither wise nor prudent had better tions of it, and when I told them that stay at home; I do not write for such, our husbands had but one wife and no but to give to family men such advice as slaves, they looked at one another, undeI found no one capable of giving me; but termined whether to applaud or laugh at which, through much toil and cost and this custom. peril, I had obtained the faculty of offer- The eldest daughter of the Aga was a ing to others.--Ibid.

young person of the most beautiful and

pleasing countenance. She did not enjoy VISIT TO THE HAREM OF THE dered her really interesting in my eyes

good health ; her extreme paleness renAGA, AT DAMIETTA.

she resembled a lily languishing, and THE harem of the Aga was situated withered by the burning wind of the de. nearly opposite to the residence of Mr. sert. She appeared to cherish life from Faker, on the other bank of the Nile, in the idea that I, perhaps, possessed the a garden, in the Turkish style, that is to skill to cure her, and earnestly entreated say, a piece of ground without trees. I me to prescribe some remedy. was accompanied by the lady of the Por- There is something singular in the tuguese physician, who understood a little conviction generally entertained by the Italian and Arabic, and who was to act Orientals, that all Europeans without as my interpreter. When we arrived at distinction, have a knowledge of medithe entrance of the building, we were re- cine and necromancy, arts commonly ceived by a black eunuch, richly dressed, confounded with one another. It several who invited us to go into a very cool times happened to us in Upper Egypt, to apartment, with latticed windows, and no be called to the assistance of persons acfurniture except a very broad and low tually dying, or in so desperate a state divan. He left us to announce us to his that nothing less than a conjuror would mistress ; we soon after saw the two have been required to preserve their lives. wives of the Aga, accompanied by two of Without being a distinguished disciple his daughters, ore of whom was yet a of Hippocrates, it is easy to acquire the child, and the other married to one of the reputation of an able physician ; and the superior officers in the army, and about really skilful medical man who accomtwenty young slaves. The two ladies, panied us during our tour in Upper as well as the daughters of the Aga, seat- Egypt, was accustomed, on such occaed themselves next to me, while the sions, that is, when the case was not deslaves ranged themselves in a half circle sperate, in imitation of the celebrated before us, with their arms crossed on the Sangrado, of happy memory, to adminbreast, and preserving a respectful silence. ister only the most simple remedies, As all these women spoke only Turkish, which never failed to produce a prompt we needed a second interpreter, who, in and marvellous effect. So much influ. her turn, understood only Turkish and ence has the imagination of these children Arabic, so that what I said in Italian of nature on their cure. But to return had to be translated into Arabic, and the to my fair odalisques. Arabic into Turkish ; thus, to under- They were nearly all natives of Syria, stand each other, we had need of three Circassia, and Georgia, and I had thus languages, and two interpreters.

leisure to survey these beauties who en. It may readily be supposed that the joy so much celebrity. They undoubt. conversation could not go on fluently, as edly merit their reputation; I can, howwe depended on the good will and talents ever, tell my fair countrywomen, to of our interpreters : in fact, the qui pro comfort them, and to do justice to truth, quo resulting from the bad translations of that Europe certainly can boast of beauour questions and answers were truly ties equal to those of the East. Those comic

, and excited so much gaiety that whom I had now the pleasure of seeing, loud and repeated bursts of laughter soon had the most agreeable countenances, and established a good understanding between delicate and regular features ; but what us. The oldest of the consorts of the most attracted niy admiration was their Aga, however, maintained a dignified hair, which fell in waving and natural gravity, while the other, who was much curls down to their waist. They had younger, and of an animated and inter each preserved their national costume, esting countenance, repeated, with ex- which agreeably varied this pretty partreme volubility, the most insignificant questions, and did not fail to examine the * To work a miracle, it is often quite suffi. whole arrangement of my toilette. They cient

to write some words on a piece of paper, asked me many questions respecting the low, or place as a talisman on the part affected.

*

down;

terre ; nor had they adopted the tresses INGENIOUS REMARK. of the Egyptian women, which rather A GENTLEMAN at the table of the great disfigure than improve the figure. They Condé, having related several wonderful had exquisitely beautiful teeth, but the

stories of a king of Persia, his highness clearness and bloom of youth were banish requested him to continue the recital of ed from their complexion ; they all had the life of so great a man ; but the gen. a languid air, and I did not find among tleman perceiving the servants had began them that embonpoint which I had ex.

to clear the table during his narrative, pected to meet. Perhaps their sedentary in order to regain his lost time, replied, mode of life, and the destructive climate

“ This prince died suddenly." of Egypt, have contributed to tarnish the lustre of their charms. The climate of Egypt, otherwise so salubrious, exercises

THE PRE-EMINENCE OF ALE. a malignant influence upon female beauty; The tollowing quaint verses descriptive and on the children of European parents of the antiquity of ale, are taken from Refreshments were brought in on a

The Philosopher's Banquet :small table of cedar, very low, and orna- Ale for antiquity may plead and stand mented with a pretty Mosaic of ivory and Before the conquest, conquering in this mother-of-pearl ; the collation consisted

land; of confectionary, cakes made of honey Beere, that is younger brother of her age, and fruits, and sherbet. Meantime, some Was not then borne, nor ripe to bee her slaves burnt incense in silver censers, and page; frequently sprinkled us with rose water; In every pedling village, borough, town, two others placed themselves at my side; Ale plaid at foot-ball, and tript all lads and every time that I either ate or drank any thing, were ready to hold under my And tho' shee's rivali'd now by beere, lips a napkin of a coarse quality, yet em.

her mate, broidered with gold. Others, provided Most doctors wait on her—this shewes with fans, drove away the swarms of in.

her state. sects which the pastry and fruit had at. tracted around us. In short, each seemed to have a particular function to perform.

A SINGULAR MONASTERY. When the repast was ended, they wished At the distance of forty versts from Du. me to pass the night with them and to

bossaru, ascending the Dniester, there is take the bath, but having already ac

a monastery situated on almost inacceso quainted myself with this kind of amuse

sible rocks. Formerly, the inhabitants ment at Cairo, I declined their polite of the environs sought an asylum from invitation. After going over the house, the incursions of the Tartars in the midst which did not contain any thing remark- of similar fastnesses. Part of the buildable, I took my leave ; and on departing ing still standing, serves as a retreat for distributed among the slaves some small the wild pigeons in stormy weather. The gold coins, to which they attach a great church and cells, hewn in the massive value.—Recollections of Egypt.

rock, have no need of covering or repair: the cells are cold and unwholesome, so

that the monks, twelve in number, sleep The Gatherer.

with their clothes on. Among the trees I am but a Gatherer and disposer of other

which grow in this solitary place, there men's stuff."- Wotton

is one which merits particular attention ; the Moldavians call it kung. Its roots

penetrate into the hardest stone; its fruit SINGULAR INTERMARRIAGE. resembles a cherry, in taste and form,

and its kernel has a spirituous ard agree A MR. HARDWOOD had two daughters able flavour; this tree, too, like the by his first wife, the eldest of whom was

citron, bears flowers and fruits at the married to John Coshick ; this Coshick

same time, and continues bearing till the had a daughter by his first wife, whom end of autumn. old Hardwood married, and by her he had a son ; therefore, John Coshick's

TO CORRESPONDENTS. second wife could say as follows:

Jacobus in our next. My father is my son, and I'm my mo. ther's mother ;

Printed and published by J. LIMBIRD, My sister is my daughter, and I'm grand. 143, Strand, (near Somersel House,) and sold mother to my brother.

by all Newsmen and Bookseller

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The various ecclesiastical foundations (but this order never existed in England, with which this country abounded dur. St. Augustine, St. Benet, and St. Fran. ing the pafal domination, are in every cis. The order of St. Augustine (of respect so intimately connected with its which was Tavistock, Saxon Ætefingstoke, history, arts, and literature, that it is Abbey *) was next in point of antiquity trusted a concentrated account of the to that of St. Basil. St. Augustine, principal of them may not prove un- styled by Weever, “ the doctor of all acceptable or uninteresting to the readers doctors, was born at Carthage, A. D. of the MIRROR.

358; having been converted to Chris. That these institutions were, in many tianity by the sermons of St. Ambrose, respects, ensinently useful cannot be de. then bishop of Milan ; he repaired thither nied ; either if considered as the refuge of where he was farther confirmed in his the poor and needy, or as the only recep- faith, by the excellent conversations and tacles of learning during the military examples of that pious man. From barbarism of our ancestry. Of the erro- Milan he returned to his own country, neous system of religious seclusion it is and obtained of the bishop of Hippo not necessary, and would be wholly (over which see he himself afterwards foreign to our subject, to treat ; suffice it exercised episcopal dominion) a garden in to say, that while within cheir own pre- the suburbs of the city, where he erectea cincts, the inhabitants of the monasteries a monastery, “ in which,” says Weever, encouraged the various branches of lite- 6 he lived of the labour of his hands in rature and science, they carefully with- all integretie, according to the institution held from the laity any knowledge which of the primitive church.” He died of a might tend to diminish that superior fever at Hippo, in the seventy-sixth year power which the church ever possessed of his age, and the fourteenth of his over them.

* Some authors affirin that it was not till the There were four rules, or religious time of the Conqueror that any other order was orders, under which all others were com

introduced into England beside the Benedictine:

but Speed describes Tavistock Abbey as Augus prehended and governed, viz. of St. Basil, tine, as do most other writers. VOL. 1x N

243

bishopric. The Augustine order mul. many books were issued, and amongst the tiplied greatly throughout the Christian rest a Saxon grammar. Richard Barham, world, and branched into others, differ- the thirty-fifth abbot, obtained from ing in some respects in the rules and ha- Henry Vill., in 1513, the privilege of bits of life. This slight notice of St. sitting in the house of peers ; or, in other Augustine as the founder of the order of words, became a mitred abbot. This he Tavistock Abbey, will not, it is hoped, probably gained by purchase, in order to be deeined out of place. We shall now be revenged on Hugh Oldham, bishop of proceed to the notice of the bey. Exeter, with whom he had great disputes,

Orgarius, duke of Devonshire, whose and finally caused to be excommunicated. daughter, Elfrida, is so well known to In 1539, John Peryn, the thirty-sixth the readers of English history, may be and last abbot, surrendered his monastery considered as the original founder, though on being allowed the sum of £100. per some ascribe it wholly to his son, Or- annum for life. The lands were granted dulph. Orgarius, the tradition goes, by Henry VIII. to John Russel, duke of being admonished in a dream, began at Bedford, and have since continued in the Tavistock, A. D. 961, a splendid abbey, possession of his heirs. The revenues of which he dedicated to St. Mary, but did the abbey were valued at the suppression not live to complete it. It was, however, at the yearly rent of £902. 5s. 7d. but it finished in 981 by Ordulph, his son, and must be observed, that the abbots and endowed by him and his lady with many priors foreseeing the impending storm, manors, that of Tavistock included. Or

set the yearly rents very low, and the dulph was nephew to king Etheldred, fines very high, that they might have and is said to have been of such gigantic a sufficient support if expelled their stature and herculean strength, that he houses. could break the bars of gates, and stride The following, extracted from Risden, across a river of ten feet wide. Some relates a circumstance whereby a consider. huge bones, said to be those of Ordulph, able addition was made to the possessions are still preserved in Tavistock church.

of the abbey.

" It is lefte us by tradiAmongst other benefactors, king Ethel- tion,” says he, “ that one Childe, of dred was a considerable one to his ne- Plimstoke, a man of faire possessions, phew's establishment, and the institution havinge noe issue, ordained, that where became very wealthy and flourishing. ever he shoulde happen to be buried, to When the Danes, in the year 997, sailing that churche his lands should belong. It round the Land's-End, entered the mouth so fortuned that he, ridinge to hunt in tl.e of the Tamar, and proceeding a consi, forest of Dartmoor, casually lost his com. derable distance up that river, marched panye, and his waye; likewise the season to Tavistock ; where, after having spoiled beinge so colde and he so benumbed there. the monastery they burnt it to the ground, withe, that he was enforced to kill his and carried off the plunder to their horse, and havinge so killed him, to creepe ships.

into his bellye to gett hcat ; which not It was shortly after this devastation beinge able to preserve him, de was there rebuilt, and ere long, became more flou- frozen to deathe; and so fo'nde, was carrishing than ever, additional grants and ried by Tavystokemen to be buried in the immunities having been given by various chuiche of the abbye; which was not so persons. Leving, or Living, bishop of secretlye done, but the inhabitants got Worcester, is mentioned by Speed as “ a knowledge thereof; which to prevent, they speciall benefactor.” A charter of Ed- resorted to hinder the carryinge of the ward III. conferred by a charter of Henry corpse on the bridge, where they con1. bestows the jurisdiction and whole hun- cluded necessitye compelled them to passe. dred of Tavistock on the abbey, together But they were deceived by a guile. For with the privilege of a weekly market, the Tavystokemen forthwith builded a and a fair once a year for three days. Soon slyghte bridge, and passed on at another after its re-establishment a school for Saxon place without resistance, buried the bodye, literature, which had grown greatly into and enjoyed the lands.

In memorye disuse, was founded ; “ and," says Cam. whereof, the bridge beareth the name of den, “ continued down to the last age lest Gylebridge to this daye.” Neither this (that which hath almost now happened) bridge nor the abbey church are now in the knowledge of it should be quite lost." existence, although there are still some The succession of the abbots it would be remains of the institution ; among these both useless and uninteresting to mention. are part of the walls, the refectory, the Several of them were learned men, and still-house, Ordulph's tomb, and a small soon after the introduction of the art of gateway, of which our engraving preprinting into England, there was estab- sents a view. Not far from Tavistock is lished in the abbey,

press, from which

the abbots' hunting seat, which from its capaciousness and other visible marks of seen with part of its head above the surits former grandeur, displays the sump- face of the water, and is extremely active tuous manner in which these dignitaries and strong. During this last change, the lived.

T. E. K. tail partly sloughs off, and is partly ab

sorbed ; and the process being now com

pleted, the animal is a perfect frog, and The Months. leaves the water never to return.

66 It is a curious circumstance, that, THE NATURALIST'S DIARY

till now, no naturalist at Surinam has FOR MARCH.

ever described these changes from his own

observations; it may be added, that none At this season of the year, it is remarked of the natives seem to be acquainted with in Time's Telescope, that “ The wheat, the transformation, and those who saw ear, or English ortolan, (Sylvia ænanthe,) them in their different stages of actual again pays its annual visit, leaving Eng- change could never afterwards be perland in September. Those_birds which suaded to eat them. have passed the winter in England now “ Of all our summer visitants, observes take their departure for more northerly re- Mr. Jenyns, in his Ornithology of Camgions, as the fieldfare, the red-wing, and bridgeshire, the lesser pettychaps is unthe woodcock.

doubtedly the earliest, ofien arriving by 6 In March, trouts begin to rise, and the middle, or latest by the end of March. blood-worms appear in the water. The Although diffused in tolerable plenty over clay hair-worm is found at the bottom of most other parts of the country, yet in the drains and ditches, and the water-flea neighbourhood of Bottisham it is of very may be seen gliding about upon the sur. uncertain appearance, as in some instances face of sheltered pools. Towards the end not a single individual is seen there, whilst of the month, frogs spawn. Of the Sun in others they are abundant. It is a restrinam frog, and the remarkable changes less and an active bird, and is much at. it undergoes, a good account is given by tached to spruce firs and other tall trees, Mr. Ireland, in a communication to the from the tops of which it issues its incesJournal of Science and the Arts. Lin. sant but monotonous song, consisting only næus himself, at one time, considered the of two loud piercing notes, which it conanimal to be a species of lizard, and ar- tinues through the summer, and even till ranged it under the genus Lacerta ; after- late in September. wards he placed it under the genus in “ Young otters are produced and young which it now stands, with the specific lambs are yeaned this month. This latname Piscis. By others it has been con- ter is one of the prettiest, yet most pathesidered not to be the larva or tadpole of a tic sights that the animal world presents ; frog, but to change from a frog to a fish; the early lambs dropped in their tottering indeed, they are considered as such by the and bleating helplessness upon the cold natives, and are by them denominated skirts of winter, and hiding their frail jackies. The size is commonly from six forms from the March winds, by crouch. to eight inches long, and in the beginning ing down on the sheltered side of their of the dry season they are generally re- dams; their constant enemy, the raven, garded as a great delicacy for the table. keeping a sharp look-out for them, this At this period, their appearance is pre- bird, about this time, frequenting sheepcisely that of a fish, and the relater hav- . pastures, and watching for any young ing procured a number of them in this lambs that may be dropped feeble or dead. state, alive, confined them in a tub in They are speedily noticed by the raven, order to watch their change, and contrived and their eyes immediately pulled out. to have vegetables growing in the water, The raven has always been a bird held for the purpose of renovating its air. in great veneration by mankind, much of Upon a minute examination, two small which it no doubt obtained from its relegs might be perceived immediately be. peated mention and agency in Scripture. hind the head, which are to become the He was the messenger of Noah, and the hind legs of the frog. In about a fort- first bird that flew ander the heavens, night these legs arrive at a considerable upon the waters of the great deluge: he size, and the body of the animal is very was appointed to sustain the prophet Elimuch enlarged ; during this change the jah in the wilderness, and is three or four animal remains in a very torpid state. In times mentioned in the sacred writings as about three weeks the animal becomes under the peculiar care and protection of more active and lively, and the fore legs Providence. The changes in our manmake their appearance, and the head be- ners and ideas, in many things, have decomes distinct. From this period till prived the raven of much of this reveabout the sixth week the animal is always rence ; yet he is a bird of some eminence

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