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in rendering herself more evident in this them in the air,' with his thrilling heart operation than in any other. Winter seems to be carrying one of their songs rains and summer suns may appear to to heaven. the superficial observer, to bring him
Hark, hark ! nothing but cold and heat ; but the wa.
The lark tering the vegetation with light showers, At beaven's gate sings, then warming it, and then watering it And Phoebus 'gins arise, again, seem to show to our very eyes her His steeds to water at those sprirgs,
On chaliced flowers that lies: own sweet hand,” divested of its cunning.” She dresses her plants vi. And winking marybuus begin
To ope their golden eyes : sibly, like a lady at her window.
With every thing that pretty hin, This is truly the spring and youthful.
My lady sweet, arise. ness of the year. March was like an honest blustering servant, bringing home
This is a serenade, and one of exquisite buds and flowers for his yourg mistress.
delicacy. April is she herself, issuing forth adorned The nightingale, this month, is recog. with them. To these she adds, of her nised towards evening, keeping up his own rearing, columbines, jonquils, lady- inexhaustible song ; and, about the midsmocks, “ all silver white,” lilies of the dle of the month, the lover of nature, valley, the lychnis, fumitory, alysson who ventures among the hedges and fields cretan, gentianellas, pulsatillas, moth- to see how the wild flowers get forvard, mullein, ornithogalum, saxifrage, stocks, is happily startled with the voice of the and the large crimson pæony, or piony, invisible cuckoo, repeating at intervals
The Greeks had one of which is enough to give a glowing its two fluty notes. light and centre to twenty of the white songs also for the cuckoo; and now that vernal flowers. Shakspeare seems to have
our days of poetry have returned, we too observed the singular beauty of this con.
have a song for it as genuine as any of trast, when he speaks of “ Banks with pionied and lilied brims.'
O blithe new comer! I have heard,
I hear thee and rejoice : If the season is fine, and the places
O cuckoo ! shall I call thee bira, where they are planted favourable, and
Or but a wandering voice ? taken care of, the delicate sprouting green of the trees and shrubs is now inter
While I am lying on the grass,
Thy loud nute smites my ear! spersed with the blossoms of the barberry,
From hill to hill it seems to pass, of the cherry.plum, of the double-flow.
At once far off and near! ering cherry, the bird cherry, the sweetscented and sweet-named honeysuckle,
The same which in my school-hoy days
1 listened to; that cry hypericums, the black-thorn or sloe, la
Which made me look a thousand ways, burnum or gold-chain (truly so called,)
In bush, and tree, and sky. the service or sorb-apple, scorpionsenna, privet (the ligustrum of Virgil,) the And I can listen to thee yet; apricot, peach, and nectarine, lilacs, Can lie upon the plain laurustinuses, the laurel vulgarly SO
And listen, till I do beget
That golden time again." called, more properly the lauro-cerasus, and lastly the real laurel of old, or bay. April however is proverbial for its tree, which the Greeks associated with fickleness. All its promises may someevery species of victory, which Sopho- times be retarded, sometimes blighted, cles and Epaminondas thought of with by the return of frosty winds; and the reverence, which Cæsar wore day by day, agriculturist the more exuberant the sea. and with which Petrarch was crowned in son is, thinks with greater anxiety of the the capitol.
next that depends upon it. The domestic The swallow, whom the Greeks used cultivator of flowers should still take parto welcome with a popular song, re-ap
ticular care of them. Hardy annuals pears at the beginning of this month. may still be planted; anemone, ranunThe other birds of passage follow by de- culus, and hyacinth roots, past flowering, grees; and all the singing birds are now should be taken up to be preserved ; and in full life, and saturate the trees with autumnal flowering bulbs be taken up niusic. The lark, climbing up above and transplanted. Shrubs on very fine * Evelyn says, that if the lauro-cerasus, or
days may now be brought into the balcocherry-laurel, were not always suffered to run nies, in order to refresh the eyes with the 80 low and shrubby, it would make a hand- sight of the spring-green; but the balco
stera, with a head resembling the orange. Since writing this note, we have
nies should be defended from cutting seen it so cultivated and the look was still winds. The more the light is seen handsomer and more diffuse, than what we couceive of the orange in our climate.
* Poems by Mr. Wordsworth, vol i p. 299.
some tree on
through the leaves of plants, the finer often sigh at the reflection, that their and more vivid they look. They seem young offspring, innocent and unthinking to show the amber sunshine that nourish- as they are now, must, after the lapse of ed them.*
a few years, submit to the infirmities of time.
G. W. N. A correspondent presents us with a sketch from nature, which we now lay EVERGREEN SHRUBS. before our readers. SPRING.
To the above general observations on
the appearances of this interesting month, (For the Mirror.)
we add a list of evergreen shrubs that « Surly Winter passes off,
may be planted in the common garden Far to the north, and calls his ruffian blasts;
soil, in the open air.
Those marked His blasts obey, and quit the bowling hill, thus (*) are rather tender, and require The shatter'd forest, and the ravag'd vale." a sheltered situation,
Arbutus andrachne. * WHERE the fell tyrant, Winter, so lately ....... hybrida.* held his reign, we now behold rising
Unedo. beauty and tranquil peace, for Spring has
rubra. again returned. The fields and meadows,
plena. which a few weeks since were uninviting Aristotelia Macqui.* and desolate, are now all covered with a
Atriplex Halimus. charming verdure of various hues, among Aucuba japonica. which, however, the green, so refreshing Baccharis halimifolia. to the eye after the sombre tints of winter, Buddlea globosa. -mostly predominates. The trees and Bupleurum fruticosum. shrubs shoot forth their delightful blos- Buxus balearicus.* soms to our view ; while the hedges dis
sempervirens. play a numerous variety of wild flowers,
variegata. which disperse a pleasing fragrance on angustifolia, the air. And now how truly delight.
suffruticosa. ful is the appearance of the little flower.
Cistus populifolius. garden. The crocus, the daisy, the
latifolius. * polyanthus, and the dark violet, all ri
corboriensis. valling each other in beauty, now excite
vaginatus.* our utmost attention ; while the tulip,
candidissimus. the hyacinth, and the carnation, scent the
laurifolius. air with their sweetness.
Ledon, All is harmony and joy, for the cheer.
ladaniferus. ing rays of the sun have returned to gild
Cyprius. the produce of the earth, and to make
monspeliensis. merry the heart of every living thing. laxus. The feathered songsters of the grove are
hirsutus. now busily employed in collecting to
salvifolius. gether materials for their little nests, and incanus. in providing food for their young ones.
creticus.* In the ploughed field the rustic sower is
parviflorue. engaged in depositing the seed in the
purpureus. ground, leaving to heaven the glorious
albidus. task of completing the work :
villosus. “ Laborious man
crispus. Has done his part. Ye fostering breezes, blow!
obtusifolius.* Ye sostening dews, ye tender showers descend ! Cneorum tricoccum.* And temper all, thou world-reviving Sun."
Cupressus sempervirens.* This season, by far the most interest
thyoides. ing, as it is the most lovely of the whole Daphne Laureola. year, always considerably 'exhilarates the
pontica. spirits both of the young and the aged.
oleoides. The season of youth is remembered with
collina. pleasure by the advanced in years, on the
neapolitaria. return of spring ; for they recollect their Enonymus americanus. juvenile rambles, their pleasures, and
angustifolius. their loves,-contrasting their present Genista candicans.* situation with that of their children, and Helianthemum formosum. * The Mouths,
orientalis. Viburnum Tinus.
rugosum. strictum, lucidum.
Helianthemum halimifolium. *
algarvense. * umbellatum.*
libanotin. * Ilex aquifolium.
albo-marginata. ...... aureo-marginata.
balearica. Juniperus Sabina.
lycia. Laurus nobilis.
salicifolia. Ligustrum lucidum.*
ANCIENT DIVERSIONS IN
(For the Mirror.) FITZSTEPHEN,* otherwise called William Stephanides, a monk of Canterbury, who lived in the reign of king Stephen, to the time of Richard I., is the author of a treatise, in which he gives an account of the several diversions which were countenanced in his time. The play at ball, derived from the Romans, is first introduced by this author as the common exercise of every school-boy. The performance was in a field, where the resort of the most substantial and considerable citizens, to give encouragement and coun. tenance to this feat of agility, was splendid and nụmerous. The intention of this amusement, at this period of time, was to make the juvenile race active, nimble, and vigorous ;, which qualities were requisite whenever their assistance should be wanted in the protection of their coun. try. The next species of diversion, indeed, does not seem to have this tendency; but it was only, as it seems, an annual custom : this was cock-fighting. The author tells us, that in the afternoon of Shrove-Tuesday, on which day this custom prevailed, they concluded the day with throwing at ball; which seems to insinuate, that the cock-fighting was merely in conformity to ancient usage, and limited only to part of the day, to make way for a more laudable performance. We may reasonably suppose, al. though this author is entirely silent upon this head, that while cock-fighting was going on, cock-throwing was the sport of the lowest class of people, who could not afford the expense of the former. This kind of diversion has happily, of late years, been laudably abolished, for it was a species of cruelty towards an innocent
vulgare, sempervirens. Magnolia grandifloru. *
. ferruginea. Phlomis fruticosa.
purpurea. Phillyrea angustifolia.
nana. Quercux Ilex.
exoniensis. Rhamnus Alaternus.
* Bale, in his writings, draws a pleasing portrait of him. He is likewise sketched in strong and forcible outlines of praise and commendation, by Leland. Bale says thus of him :-“The time which other people usually misemployed ja an idle and frivolous manner, he consecrated to inquiries which tended to increase the fame and dignity of his country; in doing which, he was not unworthy of being compared to Plato; for like him, he made the study of men and beaven his constant exercise."
and useful animal; and such a cruelty as which leisure was devoted by our ances. would have kindled compassion in the tors, so far back as the year 1130. Their heart of the rankest barbarian..
immediate successors breathed the same The other diversions which Fitzstephen generous spirit. In the year 1222, the sixth relates, were truly martial, and evidently of Henry 111. we find, that certain masters intended to qualify the adventurers for in exercises of this kind, made a public martial discipline
Every Friday in profession of their instructions and disci. Lent, a company of young men comes pline, which they imparted to those who into the field on horseback, attended and were desirous of attaining excellence and conducted by the best horsemen : then victory in these honourable achievements. march forth the sons of citizens, and other In this reign, the persons of better rank young men, with disarmed lances and
and family introduced the play of tennis, shields, and there practise feats of war. and erected courts, or oblong edifices for Many courtiers, likewise, when the king the performances of the exercise. This is near the spot, and attendants upon no. was likewise a great amusement of the blemen, do repair to these exercises ; and reign of Charles II., and one at which while the hope of victory does inflame his majesty himself' frequently played. their minds, they show, by good proof, In Henry III.'s time, or about the year how serviceable they would be in martial 1253, the quintain was a sport much in affairs.” This, no doubt, is of Roman fashion in almost every part of the kingdescent, and corresponds with the Ludus dom. This contrivance consisted of an
Troja, supposed to be the invention, as upright post fixed firmly on the ground; it was the common exercise, of'Ascanius. ' upon the top of which was a cross piece The common people, in this age of mas- of wood, movable upor. a spindle ; one culine manners, made every amusement end of which was broad, like the flat part where strength was exerted the subject of a halberd, while at the other end was matter of instruction and improveinent: hung a bag of sand. The exercise was instructed to exert their bodily strength performed on horseback. The masterly in the maintenance of their country's performance was, when, upon the broad rights ; and their minds improved, by part being struck with a lance, which such exertion, into every manly and ge- sometimes broke it, the assailant rode nerous principle. In the vacant intervals swiftly on, so as to avoid being struck on of industry and labour, commonly called the back by the bag of sand, which turned the holiday, indolence and inactivity were round instantly upon the stroke being found only in those whose lives were dis given with a very swift motion. He who tempered with age or infirmity. The executed this feat in the most dexterous view which our author gives us of the manner was declared victor, and the prize Easter holidays is animated :-“ In Easter to which he became entitled was a peacock. holidays they fight battles upon the water. But if, upon the aim taken, the conA shield is hanged upon a pole, fixed in tender miscarried in striking at the broadthe middle of the stream. A boat is side, his impotency of skill became the prepared without oars, to be borne along ridicule and conteinpt of the spectators. by the violence of the water ; and in the M. Paris, speaking of this manly diver. forepart thereof standeth a young man, sion, says, The London youths made ready to give charge upon the shield with trial of their strength on horseback, by his lance. If so be that he break his running at the quintain ; in doing which, lance against the shield, and doth not whoever excelled all the rest was rewarded fall, he is thought to have performed a with a peacock.” This sport is obworthy deed. If without breaking his served in Wales ; and being in use only lance he runs strongly against the shield, upon marriages, it may be considered as down he falleth into the water ; for the a votive diversion, by which these heroic boat is violently forced with the tide : but spirits seem to wish, that the male issue on each side of the shield ride two boats of such marriage may be as strong, vigofurnished with young men, who recover rons, and active, as those who are at the him who falleth soon as they may. In time engaged in the celebration of this the holidays all the summer the youths festive exertion of manhood. are exercised in leaping, dancing, shoot
F. R. Y. ing, wrestling, casting the stone, and practising their shields; and the maidens trip with their timbrels, and dance as DELAMAINE, a mathematican, made a long as they can well see. In winter, ring dial for king Charles I., which his every holiday before dinner, the boars majesty valued so much, that on the prepared for brawn are set to fight, or morning before he was beheaded, he orelse bulls or bears are bated."
dered it to be given to the duke of York, These were the laudable pursuits to with a book showing its use.
This astonishing assernblage of stones the outer circle. The upright stones are is situated on Salisbury Plain, about two from eighteen to twenty feet high, from miles from Amesbury, and seven miles six to seven broad, and about three feet north from Salisbury. It is gerierally in thickness, and being placed at the disbelieved to have been a British temple, tance of three feet and a half from each dedicated to the sun, in which the Druids other, were joined at the top by mortise officiated, and is supposed to have been and tenon, to the imposts or stones laid erected about 420 years before Julius across like architraves, uniting the whole Cæsar invaded Britain. It was the me. outer range in one continued circular line tropolitan temple in this island, and was at top. The outsides of the imposts were called by the Britons, Ambers, or Main rounded a little to favour the circle, but Ambers, which signifies anointed stones, within, they were straight, and originally that is consecrated or sacred stones, and formed a polygon of thirty sides. when the Druids were driven from hence A little more than eight feet from the hy the Belgæ, they, well knowing its use, inside of the exterior circle, is another of called it Choir Gaur, meaning the great forty smaller stones, which never had church, which the monks latinized into any imposts. The stated proportion of Chorea Gigantum, the Giants' Dance. these stones appears to have been about Its present name was given it by the half the size every way of the uprights, Saxons, who were entirely ignorant of though that measure has not been preits original use, as is evident irom their cisely attended to in the execution of calling it Stonehenge, that is the Hang.. them. There are only nineteen of the ing Stones, or Stone Gallows.
forty stones remaining, of which only The whole structure was composed of eleven are left standing. Within this one hundred and forty stones, including second circle stands that part of the structhose of the entrance, forming two circles ture called the cell, Adytum, or Sanctum and two ovals, respectively concentric; Sanctorum : it is composed of five com. the whole is bounded by a circular ditch, pages of stones, having one impost cooriginally fifty feet broad. The vallum vering them both; these are all remainis placed inwards, and forms a circular ing, but only three of them are perfect. terrace, through which was the entrance On the inside of the greater oval is to the north east. The outer circle, when another arrangement of nineteen smaller entire, consisted of sixty stones, thirty stones coinciding in form with the outer uprights, and thirty imposts, seventeen oval. Of these there are only six reof the uprights remain standing, and six maining upright. Near the upper exare lying on the ground, either whole or tremity of this inside oval is the altar, in pieces, and one leaning at the back of which lies flat on the ground and is nearly the temple; these twenty-four uprights buried by some of the fallen stones ; it and eight imposts, are all that reinain of consists of a coarse blue marble similar