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home government, from depriving it of the lucrative patronage of these places, but getting thus rid of the importunities of the crowds of clamorous applicants for the like (the curses from the numerous disappointed groups of whom must be ten times more annoying than the blessings of the lucky few can possibly atone for); therefore it will eventually prove as pleasant to the home government to get quit of this patronage, as it will be beneficial to the colonies for their own governments to acquire it. Time has now shown that the business of the nation can be carried perfectly well on without all that influence of patronage which was formerly deemed essential to it; for government acts only require to be made manifestly conducive to the general interests of the country to meet the general support of both parliament and the nation, as we have seen the government party and opposition go hand in hand in these measures for several sessions back. Many able and worthy individuals have certainly been sent out to fill colonial appointments, but the reverse has been also but too often the case; and indeed otherwise than this cannot be expected, considering how the government has had hitherto to humble to influential individuals connected with parliament, and that it must often provide for those recommended by them however unworthy they might be. If the relative of influential individuals got into debt, became a sot, or was so idle, so stupid, or so worthless that nothing could be done with him at home, it was then, "Oh, let us get a colonial appointment for him :" while the colonies have also been made alike the asylum for the libellers and the puffers of the government to be pensioned off in, as well as for the spies made use of in times of political agitation, whose safety would have been compromised by a residence at home. However useful the latter class of individuals may be in periods like those already past, it is more consonant with justice that they ought to be pensioned off by the mother country, instead of being fastened on the colonies. It is quite impossible for the character of any person to remain long unknown in a colony for curiosity in small communities is so great, that if an individual does not frankly make known his former course of life, it is immediately set down as one that he is ashamed to acknowlege, and every effort is consequently made to find it out, which by slips of the tongue from him, inquiries from those who may come from the same part of the country, or even by queries sent home. In this way his character is soon fished out; and on finding the scum of the mother country thus dispatched to lord it over the most respectable individuals in the colony, who are placed in high situations, can it be otherwise than that the breasts of the colonists should often be fired with the most deadly

hatred against the mother country, for the contempt she has thus displayed towards them. The governors also unfortunately seem but too often to conduct themselves as if the governments of the colonies were instituted solely for their sole individual benefit, instead of for the sole benefit of the colonies. It cannot be expected that strangers should take so much interest in the welfare of a colony as an individual possessing property therein: neither can it be expected that the description of governors sent out, from the despotic nature and narrow views of their military education, should give much satisfaction either from the urbanity of their manners or political wisdom, with which the measures of their administration are concocted; but if a code of general instructions was but furnished them before their departure as to the tenor of their behavior, and a well-timed recal of an offending one was occasionally had recourse to, much future annoyance would be saved to the government at home, and much good result therefrom to the colonies at large. If, also, all the governors were directed to publish an annual exposé of the state of their government, the income and expenditure, list of officers, and their incomes from fixed salaries and otherwise, as also a full detail of all the improvements made in the colony during the preceding twelvemonths, and of proposed ones also, a spirit of honorable rivalry would be excited among the various governors, who to signalise himself most in the path of useful improvement, while the administration and the public at home would be enabled to judge as to the fitness of these individuals for a continuance in office. The sources of nearly all the quarrels between the governors and the colonists originate in the former being practised on immediately on arrival by the usual knot of loyalists subsisting in every colony, who represent their antagonists in the most hostile light to the yet raw and unsuspecting governor, in order to exasperate him against them, and thus secure all the good things at his disposal to themselves and their friends; but chiefly, however, from the governors receiving their salaries from England, and consequently, being independent of the colony, care little whether their conduct give pleasure or pain. In most of the West India islands the colonial legislatures very knowingly allow the governor a salary, which being voted from year to year, he is consequently bribed into good behavior, thereby knowing that it will be instantly withdrawn in case of giving dissatisfaction; and in one of the colonies so situated, where the governor was frequently quarrelling with the legislature, the wags would jocosely remark, "Oh, his Excellency will make friends again before the supply-day comes round:" and it was most amusing to observe what a foreknowlege of coming events these prophetic humorists displayed

in their predictions. To administer indeed towards that good understanding which the good of the colony requires should subsist between the local legislature and the governor, it would be a most judicious step to have all the salaries of governors paid in future by the colonies they ruled over, instead of by the mother country stipulating for a certain fixed sum annually for them, just sufficient to keep them in a state of proper respectability, and leaving it to the discretion of the local legislatures to give as much more as they pleased: so that individuals in future would not be fond of courting such appointments with the view of enjoying a comfortable sinecure, heedless whether their conduct gave satisfaction or not; but on the contrary, none except such as were zealously disposed to exert their abilities for the benefit of the colony they governed, and to make themselves popular therein, would be desirous for such an appointment.

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With respect to the East Indies, also, a strange delusion seems to exist regarding the impolicy of encouraging the settlement of British subjects there, as well as the increase of their half cast descendants, and christianising of the great body of the native population. To argue that those partaking of the same flesh and blood, speaking the same language, professing the same religion, and imbued with the same feelings and prejudices, would more readily rebel against us than those opposed to us in all these respects, would be tantamount to a belief that children will more readily combine for the destruction of their parent, than even strangers over whom the ties of natural affection have no control. As long as those differing in descent and in religion far outnumber the European progeny, common sense would point out to them the propriety of clinging to the fortunes of a country to which the affinities of blood, language, and religion, allied them, and which upheld their superiority over the others, in preference to overturning the power of their parent country, and thus subjecting themselves to the control of those from whom they so essentially differed. Even the profession of the same religion would serve as a great bond of union between the two countries; and hence proselytism to the Christian religion ought to be zealously though cautiously pursued; and this will be most speedily and effectually attained by leading the youths through a system of instruction which will destroy their native prejudices, expand their minds, and teach them to reason. By doing this alone, without inculcating into their minds a single Christian precept, the cause of idolatry in India would quickly fall; for it is too absurd to stand for a moment against the lights which knowlege will hold up against it. It is calculated that not more than five per cent of all the Europeans who emigrate to India ever return; and hence how

necessary is it not to train up a population of English descent to obviate in some measure the immense waste of life here displayed, and serve besides as a link of connexion to unite the destinies of the two countries together. By permitting the descendants of Europeans, nay even all native Christians, to occupy stations in India on an equality with their English brethren, a greater stability would doubtless be given to our Indian supremacy, and a greater impulse to the commerce existing between the two countries; for even on commercial principles, the proselytising of India should be encouraged, considering what a greater consumption there will be in all mercantile commodities when the population can eat what they like, drink what they like, and wear what they like, instead of as now when tied down to a diet of the simplest vegetables, and to dresses generally of the simplest and cheapest form and material.


Standing armies-immeasurable superiority of the discipline and science of civilised nations over the undisciplined bravery of uncivilised hordesEquality of courage among all nations-Mode of education tending rather to infuse greater confidence than add to the innate courage-Discipline so tending-Obliging the cowardly to be as effective as the brave-Enabling a body of men to act with the energy and unity of a single individual, and on established scientific principles-Passive obedience necessary to such -Active and passive courage-Superiority of the latter over the former under a state of discipline-French and English actions as illustrationsNecessity of standing armies to prevent civilisation from being again overthrown by barbarous hordes-Standing armies and the liberty of the press the two most powerful instruments of civilisation-Examples of past history in confirmation-Danger of annihilating the system of standing armies.

The truth of Bacon's aphorism that "knowlege is power," is in no case more forcibly illustrated than in that of military organisation and science; for whether we compare the military skill and discipline of the civilised nations of antiquity with the undisciplined bravery of the uncivilised hordes opposed to them, or even those of modern date, we are struck with wonder and astonishment in every case at the immense superiority displayed by the former over the latter. The pigmy band of disciplined Romans under Lucullus who advanced with a certainty to victory against the numberless undisciplined hosts of Tigranes, scarcely excite more astonishment in the mind of the reader, than exploits of the same kind in more recent times: for to the 4500 British troops who advanced undaunted to overturn the powerful empire of Burmah, the observation of Tigranes might have been with equal aptitude applied, "they are too few for soldiers, and too many for am

bassadors. Man born in every condition of life inherits the same natural portion of courage; it being only the circumstances under which he is placed, and his mode of education, that more fully develope it; which may be said to be accomplished more by the acquirement of a greater degree of confidence in himself, and a proportionate contempt for his opponents, than in any actual addition to the share of courage with which he had been originally endowed. If we consider courage to be a contempt of death, of pain, or of danger, what people portray these in a greater degree than the pusillanimously looked on natives of Bengal, who fearlessly ascend the funeral pile to sacrifice themselves on the bodies of their relatives, precipitate themselves from precipices, or throw themselves before the death-dealing wheels of the chariots of their divinities with the most callous indifference, or inflict tortures on their persons which make Europeans shudder to think of: yet with all these tokens of innate courage about them, what despicable soldiers do they not make; it being to the mountain tribes that our Indian government looks for the filling up of the ranks of the army, never to the timid-consider natives of the plains of Bengal. If, however, they were habituated to arms from their infancy, and had confidence inspired into them by a few successful encounters, they would no doubt become ultimately as good soldiers as the more warlike tribes around them, whom they might equal in physical powers. There is scarcely, however, an individual existing who is totally void of fear, the amount of courage varying in every person from the highest to the lowest scale; and therefore, on undisciplined hordes being brought into action, the bravest rush on in front, while the more cowardly follow in their rear, till the first falling victims to their temerity, the whole body becomes one disorderly mass of terror and confusion. It is the province of discipline to make the cowardly as efficient in contest as the brave, which is accomplished through the medium of fear: for the whole secret of discipline rests on this, and which we see fully portrayed in the manner in which an army marches to actionthe captains and other superior officers only marching in front to direct and encourage their men, while the subalterns and noncommissioned officers march with drawn swords and pikes in the rear, to keep the cowardly from flinching: for when it comes to be a matter of consideration with a soldier whether he shall run the chance of falling by the ball of his antagonist, or the having the certainty of being run through by the sword of his own officer, he will naturally prefer the chance to the certainty, and bear himself out as boldly as his cowardly spirit will admit of. In an undisciplined rabble, each man being doubtful of the support of his neighbor is constantly looking warily round

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