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which I am by no means disposed to do, that there was something wrong in seizing the funds in question, to whom, let me ask, ought the fault to be attributed? To me, who had no power whatever to raise contributions, or loans; or to the congress, who, during a period of eight months, had not supported the revenue, or devised a single financial plan? To me, who could not do otherwise than execute a peremptory law; or to the congress, who dictated it? Through what fatality, therefore, does it happen, that my reputation is to suffer for what was no other than the effect of the indolence and malice of others?

The act of Casa-Mata served as a complete justification to my determinations with regard to the congress, taken in August and October. The political change effected by that act, was no other than the realisation of a plan at the time pursued by the conspirators within its walls. On this last occasion, no step did they take that was not exactly conformable to the charges resulting from the examinations and preliminary proceedings instituted at the time some of the deputies were detained. The points on which the cry of alarm was first to be raised; the military corps most implicated; the persons who were to direct the revolution; what was to be done with me and my family; what was to be decreed by the congress and the government, subsequently to be established-all is to be found on record in the preliminary proceedings above mentioned. Yet, let me ask, what better proof could be required to show, that the detention of the deputies, the remodelling of the congress, and the seizure of the convoy, were not the real causes of the late change?

I several times endeavored to have an interview with the leaders of the opposite party, without being able to obtain more than a vague answer, conveyed in a private letter from Echavarri. No doubt they were withheld by the crime committed, and confounded by their own ingratitude. They were enraged to see that they were treated with indulgence; and this is another proof of their weakness, notwithstanding they were well aware that I was always ready to pardon my enemies, and that I never availed myself of the authority which I held to avenge personal offences.

The occurrences at Casa-Mata had served to unite the Republicans and Bourbonists, who never could have been reconciled to each other, unless it had been for the mutual object of destroying me. It was, therefore, the interest of this new party to throw off the mask as soon as possible, and make themselves known. 'This could not be done, without withdrawing me from the supreme command. I consequently resolved, as soon as I was able to return to the capital, to assemble the very same congress which had been remodelled. I then abdicated the crown, and requested

to be allowed to emigrate, a wish which I made known to the legislative power through the medium of the minister of foreign affairs.

...I surrendered up the supreme command, because I was then released from the obligations which, contrary to my own inclinations, led me on to obtain it. The country no longer required my services against external enemies-they had all disappeared, and, as regarded the internal ones, far from being useful, my presence might be injurious, as it would afford a pretext for its being said that the civil war, in that case inevitable, was entirely occasioned by my ambition, and operate as a motive for the parties to conceal their political hypocrisy for some time longer. I did not do it through a dread of my enemies-I know them all, and am well aware of their intrinsic worth. My resolution was formed, not because I had lost the good opinion of the people, or the love of the soldiery. I was fully confident that, if I raised my voice, the greater part of the troops would join the brave men who still accompanied me, and the few who remained would do the same at the first rencontre, or otherwise experience a defeat... With greater reason did I rely on the people, as many of the towns had consulted me on the subject of the conduct they ought to pursue, in so critical an emergency, at a time when they all did not cease to obey my orders, in which I strictly enjoined them to remain tranquil, as being most conformable to their own interests and my reputation. In the department of state, as well as in the captaingeneral's office of Mexico, the addresses of the principal towns will be found, together with my answers, all recommending peace, and that the effusion of blood should be avoided.

The love of my country led me on to Iguala; it was my stepping-stone to the throne, and the same feeling caused me to descend from so dangerous a height. Still, at this distance, and after so long a lapse of time, I do not repent of having relinquished the sceptre, or of acting as I did. I quitted the land of my birth, after obtaining for it the blessings of freedom, in order to become a foreigner in another hemisphere, accompanied by my numerous and delicate family, destitute of all other means than the claims above mentioned, and a pension on which little reliance could be placed by those who know what revolutions are, and the state in which I myself left Mexico.

Persons will not be wanting who may attribute to a want of foresight, or weakness, on my part, the re-establishment of a congress, of whose irregularities I was fully aware, and whose members could not cease to be my most decided enemies. My reasons for this measure were, my anxiety that some known authority should remain, and because the assembling of another VOL. XXVIII. Pam. NO. LVI. 2 E

congress required time, whilst existing circumstances allowed of no delay. If any other plan had been adopted, anarchy was inevitable, as soon as the parties discovered their real designs, when the dissolution of the state must necessarily have followed. Even on that occasion, I wished to make the last sacrifice in behalf of my country.

To this same congress did I leave the choice of the place where I was hereafter to dwell, as well as the appointment of the troops intended to accompany me as an escort, to the port of embarka tion. The congress fixed on a port in the Mexican gulph, and 500 men, as an escort. I wished that the escort should be selected out of the troops who had withdrawn from my obedience and commanded by General Bravo, whom I also chose out of the party opposed to me,' in order to show that it was no motive of dread that induced me to decline the contest, and lay down my arms, in order to deliver myself up into the hands of persons of whose bad faith I had already such fatal experience.


The day on which I intended to leave Mexico I was unable to carry my design into effect, being prevented by the people. When the army which, without knowing why, was called the Liberating Army, entered the city, no demonstration was evinced that could be taken as a favorable reception. The troops were quartered, and the artillery posted in the principal avenues of the city. In the towns through which I passed, which were few, because care was taken to convey me from one estate to another, the people received me with the ringing of bells, and, notwithstanding the violence with which they were treated by my conductors, the inhabitants ran forth, anxious to see and give me the most sincere testimonies of their love and respect. After my departure from Mexico, the armed force restrained the people, who still hailed me with shouts of applause; and when the Marquess de Vivanco, in his character of general-in-chief, harangued the troops left by me in Tacubaya, I had the mortification to hear them cry out, "Long live Augustin the First," and witness the disregard shown to his harangue. These and many others which, if they were mentioned, would not appear in the mere light of trifles, are demonstrations tending to show that my being withdrawn from the supreme command was by no means conformable to the general will.

I had before declared, that as soon as I became sensible that my government had ceased to be agreeable to the people, or that my remaining at the head of affairs was likely to disturb the public tranquillity, I would willingly descend from the throne. I had

Of the troops I had in Tacubaya, I took with me two out of each company, in order to tranquillise the minds of the soldiers, and for them to allow me to depart.

further added, that if the nation chose a kind of government, in my opinion, injurious to it, I would not contribute to its establishment, because it is not in accordance with my principles to act contrary to what I consider just and expedient; but that I would nevertheless make no opposition, although it were in my power, and that I would abandon my country for ever. Such was the assurance which I gave, in October 1821, to the general junta of government, and repeatedly to the congress,' as well as to the constituent junta and the troops. I repeated the same to many individuals, in private and in public. The time arrived I kept my word; and I have to thank my persecutors for having afforded me the opportunity of manifesting to the world that my words were always in strict accordance with my sentiments.

My greatest sacrifice has been to abandon a country at all times so dear to me; an idolised father, whose advanced age of 80 prevented me from bringing him with me; a sister, whom I cannot recollect without grief, and relatives and friends, who were my companions from my childhood, and whose society, in happier times, constituted the best part of my life.

Mexicans! this record will reach you. Its principal object is to manifest to you that the best of your friends never rendered himself unworthy of the affection and confidence which you once lavished on him. Fatal to me as was your choice, my gratitude will end only with my life. When you instruct your children in the history of your country, inspire them with love for the first commander of the army which obtained for you a triple guarantee to your independence; and if mine should ever require your aid and protection, remember that their father employed the best portion of his life in laboring to render you happy. Receive my last adieu, and may happiness attend you!

Country House, in the vicinity of Leghorn,

September 27th, 1823.

I always expressed my sentiments frankly; and as a proof 1 appeal to what I said to the congress on taking leave.

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