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Mr. CASE. According to that map, as shown on the legend there,

Mr. Day. The polluted waters are in the vicinity of the city of Portland on the Willamette River. We hope next year to be able to assist in clearing up some of this pollution. The States are now as salmon are concerned if the pollution is not cured? Mr. Case. Will this program that you have here be effective as far

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Mr. Case. How many people will you employ under this $1,490,000?
Mr. Day. A total of 40.
Mr. Cass. Does that include both Washington and the field?
Mr. Day. There are none in Washington.
Mr. CASE. There are none in Washington?
Mr. Day. No, there are none in Washington. This is a field
program. We will not need to increase the staff here this year, I
am sure, Mr. Chairman.

Mr. Case. These people will all be within the authorized personnel
ceiling fixed by the Bureau of the Budget?
Mr. Day. That is right.

Mr. Case. With respect to these specific projects, what do you
propose to do in the way of stream improvements with the $400,000?

Mr. Day. The stream improvements would consist of clearing side
streams, removing obstructions, screening diversions, building fish
ladders and fishways around low waterfalls and carrying on the neces-
sary studies to find out the areas of spawning ground above these

Mr. Case. Will these improvements be below or above McNary

Mr. Day. They will be below McNary Dam.
Ir, Case. Does this program that you are proposing here deal
entirely with restoring the area below McNary Dam as a possible
habitat for salmon?

Mr. Day. That is right. This map sindicating! shows the program
that we are submitting to you, all below McNary Dam.

Mr. Case. Does it contemplate the installation of ladders at
McNary Dam?

Vr. Day. Ladders are planned for McNary Dam.
Mr. Case. In this appropriation?
Mr. Day. No, not in this appropriation.
Mr. Case. Are those to be entirely below McNary Dam?
Mr. Day. That is right.
Mr. Case. And most of this area on this map which is above that
is not involved here at all?
Mr. Day. All that is involved in the program is the area below


McNary Dam.

working on that.

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Mr. Day. It can be improved greatly if the pollution is cured. The fish population can be built up if the pollution can be controlled.

Mr. CASE. The success of this program that you are proposing is really dependent on the collateral program of cleaning up the pollution?

Mr. Day. Only on the Willamette. There is little pollution in the main Columbia River above Portland.

Mr. DIEFFENBACH. There is no pollution between McNary Dam and the mouth of the Willamette.

Mr. SCRIVNER. Then why is it colored purple?

Mr. Day. This purple with brown (indicating] is the pollution designation.


Mr. CASE. You are asking for $185,000 for Spring Creek hatchery. Where is that hatchery to be located in relation to any existing hatchery?

Mr. Day. That hatchery has been operated by the Fish and Wildlife Service and formerly by the Bureau of Fisheries since about 1885. It is a hatchery that is terribly run down, and which is badly in need of repairs. This program would increase the output of that hatchery. It is about 40 miles above Bonneville.

Mr. CASE. What Federal funds were appropriated for this hatchery in the current fiscal year?

Mr. Day. Not over $15,000.
Mr. CASE. So that you are proposing an increase of $170,000.

Mr. Day. For construction, for enlarging the pools, and enlarging the hatching facilities, improving the water system, constructing new residences, and putting it into a productive state will require the full $185,000. Detailed justifications will be placed in the record.

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Mr. Case. The third item is Carson hatchery, $185,000. When was that established?

Mr. Day. Carson hatchery is a hatchery which has been operating for at least 10 years. It can be made much more productive by increasing the size of the pools, the hatching and spawning facilities and improving the water system.

Mr. CASE. What was the appropriation for it last year?
Mr. Day. The amount would not exceed $15,000.
Mr. CASE. What will you use the other $170,000 for?

Mr. Day. For the building of ponds and pools, and increasing the water supply, and for building some residences, and to increase in general the output of that hatchery and the facilities.


Mr. Case. How many residences will you build?

Mr. Day. Four residences. We have difficulty in getting people to live at these hatcheries. They are isolated, and we must provide living facilities to secure and hold employees. Mr. CASE. What is the estimated cost per residence? Mr. Day. $10,000, four residences at $10,000 each, $40,000.

Tequtions at that point, there has been a tremendous increase in the spawning runs of Te mau iall Chinooks into the station ponds, which are supplied from Spring Creek, and

Mr. Case. Why is it necessary for you to build these houses? Is there a town located there?

Mr. Day. No; these hatcheries are located in the country, and they have no facilities other than those which are furnished by the Government.

Mr. CASE. Are you also proposing to build houses in that Spring Mellir Creek hatchery item?

Mr. Day, Yes.
Mr. Cass. How many will you have there?
Mr. James. That is to replace one residence which goes back to
the time of construction of the hatchery, and to construct two addi-
tional at a cost of $30,000, or $10,000 apiece.

Mr. CASE. Have you found there the break-down of the total
Fish amount here on both the Spring Creek and Carson hatcheries, showing

what you want to use this money for?

Mr. DIEFFENBACH. We have the break-down but not here. that Mr. Case. Will you place the break-down on both of them in the

Mr. DIEFFENBACH. Yes, sir.
(The matter referred to is as follows:)
In the planning for maintaining salmon runs on the lower Columbia River, the
Spring Creek station is important because of its location. As a result of opera-

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into the Big White Salmon River These contribute a substantial portion of the total river runs.

This year approximately 13,000,000 eggs could not be taken from the runs that have been developed by the station because of the lack of facilities. Although every effort was made to utilize State facilities, including their trout hatcheries, it was only possible to place approximately 6,000,000 eggs in hatcheries other than Federal facilities. Even on the basis of the present run it will be necessary to provide facilities for these additional 13,000,000 eggs. With the installation of additional dams, it is anticipated that we will need additional facilities for much beyond that number. The estimates here are based entirely on present needs. A. Purchase of additional lands and water rights...

$5, 000
Spring Creek is actually only a small spring and is insufficient for anticipated
hatchery requirements. Preliminary explorations have shown that there is a
considerable amount of water available near the surface on rough land located
on the other side of the highway from the Spring Creek station. It is proposed
to purchase approximately 30 acres of this property to develop these sources of
water. Otherwise the present capacity of the hatchery could not be increased
very much. Therefore, any plans for expansion must include the purchase of
additional lands and water rights.
B. Construction of concrete retaining wall to sufficient height to prevent

erosion of soil from Bonneville pool; fill entire area to permit re-
establishment of ponds, water supply, drains, and buildings above
high water..

$60,000 The Spring Creek station is located on a flat which is subject to periodic flooding during the times when the Bonneville pool levels are raised. At present considerable erosion takes place around the hatchery buildings and this jeopardizes the pond system, drainage lines, and the hatchery buildings. The flat upon which

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the station is located is limited in area. By constructing a retaining wall and filling the space behind it, a considerable amount of land may be reclaimed upon which to enlarge the present facilities, particularly the necessary rearing ponds. It is only by reclaiming this land and protecting it from the erosion by the Bonneville pool that the facilities at Big White Salmon can be expanded. It is undesirable to relocate the station because of its strategic location and because of the fact that a run of salmon has been established which enters the fish ladders on Spring Creek and moves directly into the concrete pools at the hatchery. It would be impossible to relocate this run elsewhere. The Big White spawning run is also handled from the Spring Creek station. This station is best located to take care of the run from the Big White Salmon River since there is a considerable problem involved in the transportation of eggs should an attempt be made to relocate the station. C. Install spring water supply, intake structures and filters at higher elevation

$5,000 In the development of additional water, it will be necessary to install structures which will provide for the collection of this water. It is also essential that the present spring be improved so that the best use possible may be made of the water supply. D. Reconstruct concrete adult salmon holding ponds, fingerling rearing ponds and fishway --

$10.000 The present pond system was constructed in the earlier days and was designed primarily for the propagation of fingerling salmon. These ponds will have to be removed and the holding system redesigned in such a way as to provide better facilities for holding the adult salmon during the short ripening period and to provide more adequate facilities for spawning these salmon. The pond system can also be designed in such a way that a much larger number of fingerling salmon can be reared with the water supply available. Our experimental work on hatchery design has progressed very rapidly over the last 4 or 5 years and as a result of these investigations we are able to handle many more fish in a smaller volume of water. It is intended to plan the facilities in such a way that the maximum number of salmon can be handled with the available water supply. E. Replace present obsolete hatchery, office, and food preparation buildings with modern structure...

$30,000 The present hatchery building was constructed a great many years ago and was intended as a temporary structure to be used only for hatching eggs. There are no facilities for storing and preparing fish food for feeding fingerling salmon as is done under present day hatchery procedures. The present hatchery has very little value since it is constructed only of outside sheeting and has never been finished on the inside. It is not suitable for improvement. No office or other space has ever been provided there. The new hatchery should be a compact unit designed for modern fish culture in such a way as to hatch the eggs and rear the fingerling salmon to a large enough size so that they can be placed in the outside rearing pools without loss. It must necessarily include storage facilities and a food preparation room. The success of the rearing program depends upon adequate cold storage and proper preparation of the diets. F. Replace shop, garage, oil and paint house with one utility building including general storage..

$15, 000 At the present time the shop facilities are a small temporary building which is entirely inadequate for even present needs. The garage is located on the lower part of the flat and is subject to frequent flooding from the Bonneville impoundment. A composite building which would include limited shop facilities for making minor repairs to equipment, garage for trucks, and oil and paint house or other utility purposes essential to hatchery operations. There are no storage facilities of any kind on the station and the building would necessarily have to include these also. G. Replace present old and inadequate residence and construct two additional residences.--.

$30, 000 Although it was estimated that it might be possible to construct residences for $10,000, under present-day costs it is doubtful if this can be accomplished On the west coast the cost of labor is much higher than in other parts of the country and the cost of construction is higher in proportion. It is entirely

possible that the residences will have to be prefabricated, such as the aluminum or steel types that are on the market at the present time.

Residences are essential because live animals are being handled, water supplies have to be watched, and a great many things may happen which require a certain proportion of the fish-culturists to be on 24-hour notice in case of an emergency. The Spring Creek station is not located near a town and it is essential that the houses he constructed on the hatchery itself. If a certain proportion of the fishculturists are not on stand-by duty, it is possible to have a complete loss of the season's work and the hatchery stock. It is highly important that these men be on the grounds in case of such need.



The Carson hatchery was constructed as a part of the program for relocating salmon runs below Grand Coulee ana the the purpose of propagating additional fish to enlarge the lower Columbia River runs. The Carson hatchery is located on Forest Service lands adjacent to the Wind River. The present plans for the development of the lower Columbia River include a fishway around the falls on the Wind River which would enable the spawning runs to migrate above the barrier and into the upper reaches of the Wind River and the Carson hatchery. On the basis of the present run in the Wind River, it was impossible this year to take care of approximately 1,500,000 eggs that might have been taken from spawning fish coming into the Wind River and which had no place to go to spawn. The Wind River run has been on the down grade since the impounding at Bonneville because of the fact that there are no spawning facilities and because the capacity of the Carson hatchery is limited. It is proposed to increase the run in the Wind River by a combination of natural spawning through the removal of the barrier, and by hatchery operations. It has been demonstrated at a number of places that spawning runs can be developed which will come into the hatchery ponds for spawning and that spawning runs can be increased over and above the normal carrying capacity of the stream. This can be accomplished by hatchery operations. The Wind River has very good possibilities for a project of this na

Water supplies available to the station are quite large and need to be developed in order to accomplish the goal. 4. Supplementary water supply pipe line and intake structure from Wind River to station distribution system..

$15, 000 Although the spring-water supply available to the Carson hatchery is almost adequate enough to take care of the needed facilities, it is proposed to place an intake structure on the Wind River for the purpose of s'ipplementing this water supply. It will be used for the purpose of obtaining warmer water during the growing season since by warming the water somewhat it will be possible to save funds by increasing the growth rate and shortening the growing period with a resulting saving in labor and fish food. The resulting saving would pay for this supplementary supply over a short number of years. B. Twenty-five concrete rearing ponds, raceway type...

$50, 000 Rearing ponds are essential since investigation over a period of years has indicated that the survival of salmon released into the streams is much higher if the fingerlings are grown to a considerable size and are in good condition when placed in the stream. The return from the spawing runs have confirmed this point time and time again. The success of the rearing program, therefore, depends upon adequate rearing facilities. C. Develop adult holding and fingerling rearing pools with diversion racks and flow-control structures in creek.

$50, 000 Experience over the last 5 or 6 years has shown that successful spawning operations can be conducted only if proper holding facilities are provided in order to allow the adult salmon to properly ripen in the holding ponds after they have reached the hatchery. These holding ponds must be designed in such a way as to prevent a loss of spawning salmon and in order to provide the necessary facilities for spawning these fish. These ponds have added value in that at other times of the year when spawning salmon are not migrating into them or when they do not contain spawners they can be used for the rearing of fingerling salmon. In one or two instances, hatchery operations have almost failed because of inadequate facilities and on the upper Columbia River it has been necessary in the light

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