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Let the people know the truth, and the country is safe.”—Lincoln

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WE AND
OUR GOVERNMENT

Ву
JEREMIAH WHIPPLE JENKS
Research Professor of Government and Public Administration

New York University

and
RUFUS DANIEL SMITH
Associate Professor of Public Economy, New York University

With fourteen full page drawings by Hanson Booth, and over

five hundred halftone and line illustrations

The AMERICAN
VIEWPOINT
SOCIETY

A DEPARTMENT OF
BONI & LIVERIGHT.INC.
PUBLISHERS.NEW YORK OTY

DONALD F. STEWART

Editor

The text of this book has been read and approved by an Editorial Advisory Board
composed of many of the leading educators of the whole country. The
book is published in cooperation with Federal

Educational Activities

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1922

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WW HE Government of the United States must be carried on by og intelligent American citizens who have a grasp of the funda

mental principles underlying its organization and activities. The purpose of this first volume of The American Viewpoint

Series, “We and Our Government," is to state and discuss these principles simply and concisely. The main emphasis throughout the book is placed on ideas vital to an understanding of the actual workings of our Government rather than on a purely encyclopedic statement of detailed activities which change so rapidly from day to day.

The authors are indebted to the Editor of the Series, who, with infinite patience and skill, has re-expressed in pictures and captions the text of the book. These illustrations (there are over 500), with their captions, make in themselves a simplified and concise text emphasizing the outstanding points in each chapter much in the same manner as a moving picture develops its theme. In fact the reader has really three connected narratives: First, pictures; second, captions, and third, text.

Educators who have examined the first volume have expressed the opinion that this original plan of illustration makes it for all an exceptionally easy, interesting, and helpful book to read.

The authors will indeed be satisfied if “We and Our Government meets the need so often expressed to them by teachers and students for a book which would explain clearly and simply how our Government works and the principles upon which it is built. If it arouses in its readers a desire to take a greater interest in our country and its problems; to know more of its resources, its economics and its people, then those who are responsible for it will be richly rewarded.

The authors are greatly indebted to the members of the Editorial Advisory Board of the American Viewpoint Society for their valuable cooperation in the preparation of the text of this book.

J. W. J.
R. D. S.

New York, September, 1922

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REDUCED FAC-SIMILE OF THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
United States of America, Department of State. To all to whom these Presents shall come, Greeting:

I certify that the foregoing is a fac-simile of the original Declaration of Independence as it engiossed, laid on the Speaker's table, and signed in the Continental Congress in 1776, and deposited with the papers of the Continental Congress in the Department of State.

In testimony whereof, I, John Hay, Secretary of State of the United States, have hereunto subscribed my name and caused the seal of the Department of State to be affixed.

Done at the City of Washington this 8th day of November, A. D., 1902, and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and twenty-seventh.

(signed) JOHN HAY

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America

To prove

WHEN, in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entities them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governinents are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be

changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly, all experience hath shewn) that mankind are more 9) disposed to suffer, while

evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them to compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the meantime exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has ei ected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our Legislature.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowl. edged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by fury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offenses:

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighboring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation,

He has constrained our fellow-Citizens taken captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warefare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have we been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpa tions, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

WE THEREFORE, the REPRESENTATIVES of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, IN GENERAL CONGRESS, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and DECLARE, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as FREE AND INDEPENDENT States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which INDEPENDENT States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.

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