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THE

ANCIENT BRITISH DRAMA.

THE

FOUR P's.

BY

-J. HEYWOOD.

John HEYWOOD, or Heewood, one of the most ancient dramatic writers in the English language, was born in the city of London,' und educated in the university of Oxford, at the ancient Hostle called Broadgate's, in St Aldgate's Parish. He was in his time more celebrated for his wit than his learning ; and having some fair possessions at North Mims, he resided there after he left Oxford, and became intimately acquainted with Sir Thomas Mare, who lived in that neighbourhood.? Here the latter wrote his celebrated work called Utopia, and is supposed to have assisted Heywood in the composition of his Epigrams. Through Sir Thomas More's means, it is probable our author was introduced to the knowledge of King Henry VIII., and of his daughter the princess, afterwards Queen Mary : by the former of whom, he was held in much esteem for the mirth and quickness of his conceits; and so much" valued by the latter, that he was often, after she came to the throne, admitted to the honour of waiting upon and erercising his fancy before her, even to the time she lay languishing on her death-bed. His education having been in the Roman Catholic faith, he continued steadily attached to the tenets of that religion; and during the reigns of Edward VI., fell under the suspicion

2

'Wood, in his Athene Oxonienses, Vol. I. p. 149, positively fixes his birth at this place. Other writers have made him a native of North Mims, in Hertfordshire, but apparently without any authority: Bale, who lived nearest to the author's time, calls him Civis Londinensis; which words, though they do not absolutely prove that he was born in London, yet surely are sufficient, in a matter of this uncertainty, to warrant any one to conclude that he was a native of that city, as no circumstance appears to ioduce a belief that he acquired the title of citizen of London otherwise than by birth.

Peacham's Complete English Gentleman, 4to, 1627, p. 95. Gabriel Harvey's MS. Note to Speyght's Chaucer, as quoted in Mr Steevens's Shakespeare, Vol. V. * Athen. Oxon. Vol. I. p. 149. $". But to step backe to my teske, (though everie place I step to, yeeldes me sweeter discourse,) what thinke you by Haywood, that scaped hanging with his mirth; the king being graciously, and (as I thinke) truly perswaded, that a man that wrate so pleasant and harmelesse verses, could not have any " harmefull conceit against his proceedings, and so, by the honest motion of a gentleman of his chamber VOL. I.

А

66

of practising against the government, and narrowly escaped the halter. After the death of his patroness the queen, he left the nation, says Wood, for religion sake, and settled at Mechlen, in Brabant, where he diell about the year 1565, leaving several children; one of whom, Jasper Heywood, translated three of Seneca's plays

, and wrote several poems, printed in the Paradise of Dainty Devises, 4to, 1578. This Jasper Heywood was, according to Fuller, executed in the reign of Queen Elizabeth; but more probably, as Sir Richard Baker asserts, was among those who were taken in 1585, and sent out of England.

John Heywood? appears to be the second English dramatic writer. Oldys 8 says he began to write about the year 1530, but that he could not find he published any thing so early. The following is a list of his works :

A Play betwene Johan the Husband, Tyb the Wife, and Sir Johart the Priest, by John Heywood, 4to. Imprynted at London by William Rastall, the 12th day of February, 1533." (Oldys's MS. Notes, and Companion to the Playhouse.)

" A Mery Play betwene the Pardoner and the Frere, the Curate, and neybour Pratte, 4to. Imprynted by William Rustall, 5th of April, 1533." ( Ames, 182. Oldys's MS. Notes, and Companion to the Playhouse.)

The Playe called the Foure P. P. A newe and a very mery Enterlude of A Palmer, A Pardoner, A Potylary, A Pedler. Jade by John Heewood, 4to. Imprynted at London, in Flete Strete

at the synge of the George, by Wyllyam Myddylton, 4to. no date." Also,

A Play of Genteelness and Nobilitie. An Interlude in two Parts, 4to, no date.(Companion to the Playhouse.)

A Play of Love. An Interlude, 4to, 1533." (Companion to the Playhouse). A Play of the Weather, called A new and a very merry Interlude of all manner of Weathers,

1553, folio.(Companion to the Playhouse. Oldys's .) Also in 12mo, printed by Robert Wyer, no date. (Ames, 157.)

The Spider and the Flie, a Parable, made by John Heywood. Imprinted by Thomas Powell, € 1556, B. L. 4to."

John Heywood's Woorkes, A Dialogue conteyning the Number of the effectual Proverbes in the « English Tongue, compacte in a matter concerning two Maner of Mariages : with one Hundredth

of Epigrammes; and three Hundredth of Epigrammes uppon three Hundred Proverbes, and a fifth hundred of Epigrammes. Whereunto are newly added, a sixte hundred of Epigrammes, by the said John Heywoode. Imprinted by Thomas Marshe, 1576, 4to. B. L.

Another edition was printed by Felix Kyngston, in 4to. B. L. 1598.

A Brefe Balet, touching the trayterous takynge of Scarborow Castle. Imprinted at London by Thomas Powel.On a broad side of two columns, B. L. (Among the Folio Volumes of Dyson's Collections, in the Library of the Society of Antiquarians.) Thomus Stafford, who took that castle 23d'April, 1557, and proclaimed himself protector of the realm, was beheaded 28th May following, and three of his accomplices were hanged. Oldys's MS.

" A Balade of the Meeting and Marriage of the King and Queenes Highness. Imprinted by W. Ryddel.One side of a large half sheet. Oldys.

Winstanly' hath expressed a doubt, whether the author of the Epigrams, and of the Plays, were not different persons. The following Epigrum will be sufficient to set that fact beyond contradiction, und at the same time exhibit a specimen of the author's manner :

Art thou Heywood, with thy mad inerry wit?

Yea, forsooth, master, that name is even hit.
Art thou Heywood, that appliest mirth more than thrift?

Yes, sir, I take merry mirth a golden gift.
Art thou Heywood, that hast made many mad plays ?

Yea, many plays, few good works in my days.
Art thou Heywood, that hath made men merry long?

Yea, and will, if I be made merry among.
Art thou Heywood, that wouldst be made merry now!

Yes, sir, help me to it now, I beseech you.

p. 25,

“saved him from the jerke of the six-stringed whip."-HARRINGTON'S Metamorphoses of Ajax, 1596,

6 Athen. Oxon. Vol. I. p. 140.

7 Dr Palsgrave, whose play of Acolastus was printed in the year 1529, seems to bave been the first. See Ames, 166.

8 MS Notes on Langbaine. 9 Lives of the English Poets, p. 45.

Winstanly and Philips ascribe to him, I think falsely, The Pinner of Wakefield" and Philotus, printed at Édinburgh, 1603.

Dr Fullert mentions a book written by our author, intitled, Monumenta Literaria; which are said to be Non tam labore condita, quam lepore condita.

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· Palmer speaketh.
Now God be here; who kepeth this place?
Now by my fayth, I crye you mercy;
Of reason I must sew for grace,
· My rewdness shewąth me so homely.
Wherof your pardon axt and wonne,
I sew you, as curtesy doth me bynde,
To tell this whiche shalbe begonne,
In order as may come beste in mynde.
I am a Palmer, as ye 3 se,
Whiche of my lyfe muche part have * spent
In many a fayre and farre 5 cuntrie,
As pilgryms do of good intent.
At Hierusalem have I bene

Before Chryste's blessed sepulture :
The mount of Calvary have I sene?
A holy place ye may be sure.
To Josaphat and Olyvete,&
On fote, God wote, I went ryght bare :
Many a salte tere dyd I swete,
Before thys carkes coulde o come thare.
Yet have I bene at Rome also,
And gone the statyons
Saynt Peter's shryve, and many mo,
Than yf I told all ye do know.
Except that there be any suche,
That hath ben there, and diligently
Hath taken hede, and marked muche,
Then can they speke as muche as I.

10 all a row.

p. 93.

+ Vol. 111.

+ Worthies, p. 221. 'Palmer" The difference between a pilgrim and a palmer was thus : The pilgrim bad some home, or dwelling place; but the palmer had none. The pilgrim travelled to some certain designed place, or places; but the palmer to all. The pilgrim went at his own charges ; but the palmer professed wilful poverty, and went upon alms. The pilgrim might give over his profession, and return home; but the palmer must be constant till he had obtained the palm, that is, victory over all spiritual enemies, and life by death, and thence his name Palmer; or else from a staff, or boughs of palm, which he always carried along with him."-STAVELEY's Roman Horseleech, 1769, ? Sexe you-sue now, edition 1569.

3 Ye-you, edit. 1569. * Have-hath, Ist edit.

5. Fayre and furre-far and faire, edit. 1569. 6 Hierusalem-Jerusalem, edit. 1569. ? Have 1-I have, edit. 1569.

* To Josaphat and Olyvete Maundevile thus mentions these places : “And towards the est syde, withoute the walles of the cytee (i. e. Jerusalem) is the vale of Josaphathe, that touchethe to the walles, as thoughe it were a large dyche. And anen that vale of Josaphathe out of the cytee, is the chirche of Seynt Stevene, where he was stoned to dethe.”—Voiage and Travaile, 8vo, 1725, p. 96. " And above the vale is the mount of Olyvete : and it is cleped so for the plentee of olyves that growen there. That mount is more highe than the cytee of Jerusalem is; and therefore may inen upou that mount see many the stretes of the cytee. And betwene that mount and the cytee is not but the vale of Josaphathe, that is not fulle large. And fro that mount steigbe oure Lord Jesu Crist to heven upon Ascension-day; and zit there schewethe the schapp of his left foot in the stone."-Voiage and Travaile, 8vo, 1725, p. 116.

Coulde—would, edit. 1569. 10 The statyons (stationes, or jurnee ) - Answered to the stages between London and Rome, or Holy Land; of wbich there is a map in a Ms. of Math. Paris, Roy. Lib. 14. C. VII. and Bennet. Coll. c. ix, and Pl. VII. Brit. Topog. Vol. I. p. 85. G.

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