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not by sincere repentance, whereby they forsook sin, we can little perceive, or, should some flash of light but by practices which cost the heart no sacrifice,spring up, and give us a momentary glimpse of naand which have no other effect but that of lulling the ture's hidden ways, immediate darkness closes round, conscience to sleep. Numerous companies of peni- and renders our ignorance more manifest. We see a tents spread over Europe, and among the processions wonderfully fabricated creature struggling from the which they made, those of the flagellants were par-cradle of its being, just perfected by the elaboration ticularly remarkable. Their name is celebrated in of months or years, and decorated with a vest of glothe history of those times for the disorders and crimes rious splendour; it spreads its wings to the light of which they committed.

heaven, and becomes the next moment, perhaps, with

all its marvellous construction, instinct and splendour, WHICH WAS THE GREATER FOOL?

the prey of some wandering bird ! and human wisdom In a sermon, preached by Bishop Hall, upon his and conjecture are humbled to the dust. That these eightieth birthday, he relates the following story. events are ordinations of supreme intelligence, for wise

“ There was a certain lord who kept a fool in his and good purposes, we are convinced. But we are blind house; as many a great man did in those days for beyond thought, as to secondary causes; and admiratheir pleasure: to whom this lord gave a staff, and tion, that pure source of intellectual pleasure, is almost charged him to keep it, till he should meet with one alone permitted to us. If we attempt to proceed bewho was a greater fool than himself; and if he met yond this, we are generally lost in the mystery with with such a one, to deliver it over to him.

which the divine Architect has thought fit to surround “Not many years after, his lord fell sick; and in his works; and perhaps our very aspirations after deed was sick unto death. His fool came to see him; knowledge increase in us a sense of our ignorance : and was told by his sick lord, that he must now every deep investigator into the works of nature can shortly leave him. And whither wilt thou go?' said scarcely possess other than an humble mind.-- Journal the fool. “Into another world,' said the lord. 'And of a Naturalist. when wilt thou come again? within a month?'---'No.' * Within a year?'-'No.'—'When then?'—Never.'

CAUSE AND EFFECT. 'Never! and what provision hast thou made for thy When the connection of events with each other is entertainment there whither thou goest?'— None at unknown, ignorance refers them to what is called all.'— No?' said the fool, 'none at all? Here, take “Chance;" and superstition, which is ignorance in my staff then. Art thou going away for ever, and another form, to the immediate agency of some supehast taken no order, whence thou shalt never return? rior malevolent or benevolent being: but philosophy take my staff, for I am not guilty of any such folly as endeavours to discover the foregoing link in the chain this.'

of events.

Near to the Hartz mountains in Germany, a giganTHE MYSTERIES OF CREATION.

tic figure has, from time immemorial, occasionally apThe designs of supreme intelligence in the creation peared in the Heavens. It is indistinct, but always and preservation of the insect world, and the regula- resembles the form of a human being. Its appearance tions and appointments whereby their increase or de- has ever been considered a certain indication of apcrease is maintained, and periodical appearance pre-proaching misfortune. It is called the Spectre of the scribed, are among the most perplexing considerations Brocken (the name of the hill). It has been seen by of natural history. That insects are kept in reserve many travellers. In speaking of it, M. Jordan says, for stated seasons of action, we know, being com- In the course of my repeated tours through the Hartz monly made the agents of Providence in his visitations mountains, I often, but in vain, ascended the Brocken, of mankind. The locust, the caterpillar, the palmer that I might see the spectre. At length, on a serene worm, the various family of blights, that poison in the morning, as the sun was just appearing above the horispring all the promise of the year, are insects. Mildew, zon, it stood before me, at a great distance, towards the indeed, is a vegetable; but the wire worm destroys opposite mountain. It seemed to be the gigantic figure the root, and strips the germs of the wheat, and of a man. It vanished in a moment." In September 1796, hunger and famine ensue. Many of the coleopteræ the celebrated Abbé Haüy visited this country. He remove nuisances, others again incumbrances, and says, “After having ascended the mountain for thirty worms manure the soil; but these are trite and isolated times, I at last saw the spectre. It was just at sunrise cases in the profusion of the animal world; and left in the middle of the month of May, about four o'clock alone as we are in the desert of mere reason and con- in the morning. I saw distinctly a human figure of a jecture, there is no probability that much satisfactory monstrous size. The atmosphere was quite serene toelucidation will be obtained. They are not perhaps wards the east. In the south west a high wind carried important objects of enquiry; but when we see the before it some light vapours which were scarcely conextraordinary care and attention, that has been bes-densed into clouds, and hung round the mountains towed upon this part of creation, our astonishment is upon which the figure stood. I bowed: the colossal excited, and forces into action that inherent desire in figure repeated it. I paid my respects a second time, our minds to seek into hidden things. In some calm which was returned with the same civility. I then summer's evening ramble, we see the air filled with called the landlord of the inn, and having taken the sportive animated beings; the leaf, the branch, the same position which I had occupied before, we looked bark of the tree, every mossy bank, the pool, the ditch, towards the mountain, when we clearly saw two such all teeming with animated life, with a profusion, an colossal figures, which, after having repeated our comendless variety of existence; each creature pursuing pliment, by bending their bodies, vanished.” its own separate purpose in a settled course of action, Now for an explanation of this appearance. “When admitting of no deviation or substitution, to accomplish the rising sun throws his rays over the Brocken upon or promote some ordained object. Some appear oc- the body of a man standing opposite to fleecy clouds, cupied in seeking for the most appropriate stations let the beholder fix his eye steadily upon them, and in for their own necessities, and exerting stratagems and all probability he will see his own shadow extending wiles to secure the lives of themselves or their offspring the length of five or six hundred feet, at the distance against natural or possible injuries, with a forethought of about two miles from him." cquivalent or superior to reason; others in some aim Dr. Arnot, in his work on Physics, says, “It hap

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pened once on board a ship sailing along the coast of masses are usually found in the form of a tree, the Brazil, 100 miles from land, that the persons walking trunk being of the finest quality, and the branches on deck, when passing a particular spot, heard most inferior to it. When taken out of the mine, the wad distinctly the sound of bells, varying as in human re- is sorted according to its various qualities, and the joicings. All on board listened and were convinced; best sent to London, where it is sold to the dealers but the phenomenon was mysterious and inexplicable. once a month. The pencil-makers of Keswick receive The different ideas which this would excite in the their supply from the metropolis, as the proprietors of minds of ignorance and intelligence, may be easily con- the article will not allow any to be sold till it has been ceived. Some months afterwards it was ascertained deposited in their own warehouse. that at the time of observation the bells of St. Salvador, In order to make pencils, the black lead is sawed on the Brazilian coast, had been ringing on the occa- into square slips, which are fitted into a groove made sion of a festival. The sound, therefore, favoured by in a piece of wood, and another slip of wood glued a gentle wind, had travelled over 100 miles of smooth over them. A soft wood, such as cedar, is usually water; and striking the wide spread sail of a ship, ren- employed for the purpose, that the pencil may be more dered concave by a gentle breeze, had been brought to easily cut. In the ever-pointed pencils, the lead a focus, and rendered perceptible."

is formed in the shape of small cylinders instead of B. Montagu's Selections. square slips.

The inferior pencils, hawked about at a cheap rate, are

made of the refuse of the mineral, stirred into melted BLACK LEAD MINE.

sulphur. They may be detected by holding them to Few persons are, perhaps, aware, that there is only a candle, or to a red hot iron, when they yield a one mine of this kind in England. It is situated on the bluish flame, with a strong smell

, resembling that of side of Seatallor Fell, a lofty mountain in Cumberland, burning brimstone. Pure black lead produces neither about eight miles south of Keswick. The view repre-smell nor fume, and suffers no apparent alteration in sents the house erected at the entrance for the resi- a moderate heat. dence of the overseer.

EGGS. The eggs of hens are those most commonly used as food ; and form an article of very considerable importance in a commercial point of view. · Vast quantities are brought from the country to London and other great towns. Since the peace they have also been very largely imported from the Continent. At this moment, indeed, the trade in eggs forms a considerable branch of our commerce with France, and affords constant employment for a number of small vessels !

It appears from official statements, that the eggs imported from France amount to about 60,000,000 a year; and supposing them to cost, at an average, 4d. a

doz. it follows that the people of the metropolis and wi

Brighton (for it is into them that they are almost all Vien of the Black Lead Mine, at Borrowdale.

imported) pay the French above 83,0001. a year for The period when this mine was discovered is un- eggs; and supposing that the freight, importers' and known, but it was certainly worked previous to the retailers' profit, duty, &c. raise their price to the conseventeenth century, and has been occasionally open sumer to 10d. a dozen, their total cost will be 213,0001. ever since.

The mineral has also been found in Ayr- | -The duty, in 1829, amounted to 22,1891. shire, Inverness-shire, and in foreign countries, but of

M‘Culloch's Commercial Dictionary. a very inferior quality.

Various names have been given to the mineral found THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE here, but as many of them denote other substances,

AND EDUCATION; they do not appear very appropriate. It is called on

In compliance with the recommendation contained in the the spot, wad, and in other places plumbago, or black Report read at the Special General Meeting of the Society lead, though lead, properly so called, forms no part of May, have made arrangements for the publication of a

FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE, held on the 21st of its composition. The terms black cawke and gra- Series of Works on Education, History, Biography, Natural phite have likewise been applied to it, though it is ac- History, the Elements of the Sciences, &c. particulars of tually carbonate of iron, consisting of 90 parts of which will speedily be announced. charcoal and 10 of iron. It is principally used for the manufacture of pencils, great quantities of which The FIRST SUPPLEMENTARY NUMBER OF THE are made at Keswick ; but is also employed in mak

SATURDAY MAGAZINE ing crucibles, polishing iron, diminishing the friction will be ready for delivery with No. IV.; and on the 30th inst

. will be published of machinery, &c.

THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE FOR JULY, The mine was formerly worked only at intervals, a Being the FIRST of the MONTHLY PARTS, which will be regularly con:

price Sixpence, sewed in a Neat Wrapper, sufficient quantity being procured in a short time to tinued on the last day of each succeeding Month, so that Subscribers in all

parts of the Country may receive them with the Magazines, &c. from London, last for several years; but the market being consider- by giving the necessary orders to their respective Booksellers. ably extended, and the difficulty of finding the mineral increased, the working has lately been carried on

LONDON: more constantly.

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, 445, (WEST) STRAND. The wad is not found in veins, but in irregular

Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom. masses, some of which weigh as much as four or five Hawkers and Dealers in Periodical Publications supplied on wholesale terms by

W. S. ORR, Paternoster-Row; G. BERGER, Holywell-st., London ; pounds. Many of these pieces are of little value, being And by the Publisher's Agents in all the principal places hard and gritty ; but those which are soft and of fine

throughout the Country. texture are worth several guineas a pound. These C. RICHARDS, Printer, 100, St. Martin's Lane, Charing Cross.

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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

THE BOILING SPRINGS OF ICELAND.

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View of the Great Geyser. ICELAND, whether naturally or morally considered, which are most remarkable have been called the Great is an island equally striking and interesting. Situated Geyser, and the New Geyser. in the region of perpetual cold, its whole surface shows On approaching the Great Geyser, when in a quiet most strongly the tremendous operation of those fires state, it presents the appearance of a large circuwhich burn for ever beneath our feet; and, lying remote lar mound, from the middle of which a quantity of and solitary in the polar sea, its population exhibits the steam is seen to rise. On ascending the side of this happy effects of early civilization. The blessed influ- mound, there appears a spacious basin, partly filled ence of Christianity is no where more beautifully dis- with hot water, as clear as crystal, and moved by a played. The inhabitants of countries in which the gentle bubbling. In the centre of the basin there is works of nature appear in their utmost grandeur, are a round pipe or funnel about eighty feet deep, and in general contemplative, serious, and predisposed to eight or ten feet in diameter, but widening near the religious impressions; and if such is the case generally, top, and opening very gradually into the basin, how remarkably must it be so with a people whose foot- which is about 150 feet round; and, when full, steps tread on nothing but extinguished lava, who the water it contains is about four feet deep. The daily look upon the flaming volcano, and see the hea- inside of it exhibits a whitish surface, consisting of a vens darkened by clouds of vapour and torrents of flinty crust, which has been rendered smooth boiling water, cast into the air from the bowels of the by the constant action of the boiling water. The mound earth?

consists entirely of matter deposited from the water, The boiling springs of Iceland are among the most which is always flowing over the edges of it. On leavsublime as well as beautiful objects of nature. ing the mound, the hot water passes through a turfy They have been well described by several travellers ; soil; and by acting on the peat, mosses, and other by the help of whose accounts we propose now to give vegetable matters, converts them into stone, and af. a general idea of these magnificent objec

fords beautiful specimens of petrifaction. The principal of these springs are situated in the The eruptions take place at very irregular intervals. south-western division of the island, about thirty-six They are announced by loud explosions in the bowels miles from the celebrated volcano, Mount Hecla, and of the earth, like reports of cannon, which shake the about twelve miles from the village of Shalholt. The ground, and warn the visitor to remove from the spot. steam arising from them, during their eruptions, has The water, at the same time, begins to boil more and been seen at the distance of sixteen miles. The springs more violently; and at last, the contents of the basin mostly rise in a plain, near the base of a low range of are suddenly projected into the air; successive jets hills. Many break out from the sides of the hills; and follow irregularly, till a magnificent column of water some very near their summits. Above an hundred of ascends to a great height, surrounded by immense them are contained within a circle of two miles. volumes of steam, which, in a great measure, hide the

Three or four of the principal of these springs are column of water from the view. The scene, at this distinguished by the name of Geyser, which is said to period of the eruption, is indescribably grand. The be the old Scandinavian name for a fountain. The two whole surrounding atmosphere is filled with volumes VOL. I.

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of steam rolling over each other as they ascend, and gular circumstance, that, by throwing a quantity of through which, columns of water, shivering into foam, large stones into the pipe of Strockn, he could, at any are seen spreading in all directions. Much of the wa- time, bring on an eruption in a few minutes; and that ter is lost in vapour ; but the greatest part falls to the the fragments of stone, as well as the boiling water, ground in heavy showers of spray. As the jets rise were thrown in that case to a much greater height than out of the basin, the water reflects the most beautiful usual. colours ;—sometimes the purest and most brilliant It remains to notice the simple and ingenious way blue; at others, a bright sea-green: but in the further by which Mr. LYELL, in his ' Principles of Geology,' acascent, all distinction of colour is lost; and the jets, counts for these grand operations of nature. Не broken into a thousand parts, appear as white as snow. explains it by the following figure. Some of them are forced upwards perpendicularly ; but many are thrown out in beautiful curves. The eruption thus continues, changing its form at every instant, till the force which drives it from beneath is exhausted. The water then subsides through the pipe, and disappears, but immediately rises again, and fills the basin to the extent already mentioned; and in this state it remains till the next eruption.

Such are the general features of these eruptions, as described by all writers. Some spectators appear to have seen them in different states of activity and magnitude from others; and all of them strain their powers of language to give an idea of the grandeur and beauty of the scene, and the impressions of religious awe which it produces.—“While the jets," it is eloquently said by Dr. Henderson, "were rushing up towards heaven with the velocity of an arrow, my mind was forcibly borne along with them to the contemplation of the great and omnipotent JEHOVAT, in comparison with whom, these, and all the wonders scattered over

Mr. Lyell adopts the general, and highly probable the immensity of existence, dwindle into absolute in supposition of a hollow cave at a great depth beneath significance; whose Almighty command spake the the earth where water and steam collect, and where universe into beiitg; and at whose sovereign fiat the the free escape of the steam is prevented till it whole fabric might be reduced in an instant to its ori. acquires sufficient force to discharge the water.— ginal nothing."

Suppose water from the surface of the earth to peneAt a short distance from the Great Geyser, is situ- trate into this cavity beneath, represented at the ated the New Geyser, also called, from its continual letters A D, by the cracks or rents, F F; while, at noise, the Roaring Geyser. By the natives it is called the same time, steam, at an extremely high temStrockn, a word which literally means 'a churn.'l perature, rises upwards through the cracks C C;The outward appearance of this spring is different from when this steam reaches the cold water in the cavity, that of the Great Geyser. The pipe, which is about a portion of it is at first condensed into water, forty-four feet in depth, and nine in diameter, is not while it gradually raises the temperature of the entirely circular, nor is it so perpendicular as the other. water already in the cavity ; till at last the lower Instead of opening into a basin, it is defended on one part of the cavity is filled with boiling water, side by a low incrusted wall, while, on the other, it and the upper part with steam under high presis level with the surface of the ground. The eruptions sure. As the pressure of the steam increases, its of this spring differ little from those of the Great expansive force becomes greater and greater, and at Geyser, except in their lesser size.

Dr. Hender-length it forces the boiling water up the fissure or son gives the following picture-like description of a pipe E B, and a considerable quantity runs over the joint eruption of both these fountains :—“About ten rim of the basin. When the pressure on the steam minutes past five in the morning we were aroused by in the upper part of the cavity A, is thus diminished, the roaring of Strockn, which blew up a great quan- it expands till all the water D, is driven to E, the tity of steam; and when my watch stood at the full bottom of the pipe. When this happens, the steam quarter, a crash took place as if the earth had burst, rushes up with great velocity, as on the opening of which was instantaneously succeeded by jets of water the valve of a steam boiler. If the pipe be choked up and spray rising in a perpendicular column to the artificially with stones, (as was done by Dr. Henderheight of sixty feet. As the sun happened to be be-son) a great increase of heat must take place, for it hind a cloud, we had no expectation of witnessing any is prevented from escaping in steam; so that the thing more sublime than we had already seen. But water is made to boil up in a few minutes, and this Strockn had not been in action above twenty minutes, brings on an eruption. when the Great Geyser, apparently jealous of her re- Mr. Lyell applies the same principle,-the agency of putation, and indignant at our bestowing so much of steam upon melted lava accumulated in cavities in our time and applause on her rival, began to thunder the bowels of the earth—to account for the eruptions tremendously, and emitted such quantities of water of volcanoes, and, though not absolutely demonstrated, and steam, that we could not be satisfied with a dis- there is every presumption in favour of its probability. tant view, but hastened to the mound with as much curiosity as if it had been the first eruption we had beheld. However, if she was more interesting in point

PASCAL of magnitude, she gave the less satisfaction in point of The life of Pascal is memorable, as exhibiting the duration, having again become tranquil in the course singular fame, various ability, and extensive knowof five minutes, whereas her less gaudy but more ledge, which may be acquired at an age scarcely steady companion continued to play till within four beyond boyhood. Born in 1623, at Clermont in Au. minutes of six o'clock.” Dr. Henderson adds the sin- vergne, his father a lawyer of rank in the province, perceived such ndications of genius in the child, that An accident, in the year 1654, added earthly ter. he gave up his profession, for the purpose of educating ror to the gloom and fears of the invisible world. him in Paris. A man of literature and intelligence, His decaying health had rendered exercise necessary, he wished to fix his son's attention on the classics. which he was in the habit of taking in a carriage. But the boy had already chosen a study for himself, One day the horses took fright, and ran into the Seine. and had unconsciously mastered the rudiments of The carriage was fortunately checked on the edge of geometry. This science was so strongly opposed to the bank, and Pascal was saved: but from this mohis father's objects, that he was forbidden ever to speak ment the remembrance of his danger never left his of it. But the ruling passion prevailed. In solitude mind. A precipice seemed perpetually to open before his mind teemed with questions and problems ; and, him; and, even when in his chamber, he dreaded to in a short period, with only a piece of charcoal and look over the side of his chair, lest he should see the the wall of his chamber for his apparatus, he had | gulph yawning for him below. He now saw visions, formed diagrams of a set of propositions up to the and dreamed dreams, lay in trances, and held conthirty-second of the first book of Euclid : at twelve, verse with things not of earth. Pascal was mad. he had been as it were the discoverer of a science ! Yet in the midst of this life of severity, by one

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The celebrated Descartes was then at the head of of those splendid efforts by which genius vindicates scientific fame. The boy, at the age of sixteen, pre- itself in its lowest humiliation, Pascal produced the sented him with a “ Treatise on the Section of the “ Provincial Letters," a satire on Jesuitism, one of the Cone." It won the philosopher's highest applause. most powerful and popular achievements in the history

His father's reluctance was now overcome ; and of literature. It was the first resolute blow given to this extraordinary boy was suffered to pursue his tri- the Jesuits in Europe, and it was effectual : it laid umphs at his will.

the axe to the root of the tree. But its author was The discoveries of Torricelli had attracted general at- soon to be insensible to the applause which showered tention. The invention of the air-pump and of the ba- on him from every part of Europe. He was a broken rometer, which is now become our weather-glass, had old man, a recluse, and sunk into hopeless melancholy. just awoke the whole scientific world. The power | During his latter years he was accustomed to think of grasping the impalpable air, of reducing the and talk much of religion, and to record his thoughts whirlwind to weight and measure, of expelling it on fragments of paper. His object was one which at pleasure from space, of guaging the heights and might have well and worthily occupied the highest depths of the valley and the mountain, of foretelling mind,-a defence and illustration of Christianity ; the capricious changes of the elements, all formed but his powers were now worn away. In this occua magnificent addition to the command of man pation he lingered down to the grave, dying, in 1662, over Nature. Pascal applied himself to the study at the age of thirty-nine ; a period at which the huwith his characteristic vigour ; and, in a series of ad- man intellect has scarcely more than reached its mirable experiments, showed an equal skill in practical vigour, and is little more than beginning to acquire science and in its abstract studies. He was now twenty- the experience which alone can render the spring and four, and had established his rank among the most elasticity of genius, safe, dignified, and wise. eminent names. Five years earlier, he had invented His works were collected soon after his death, and a calculating machine, which proved his mechanical received by the learned world with the honours due dexterity, and to which even the skill of our later to his name. His death was universally regretted, day has ventured to add but little. It was the custom as the premature extinction of one of the lights of his at this period to circulate problems or questions to be country. Yet he cannot be said to have fallen short answered by the leading mathematicians. Father Mer- of the years of man, who has accomplished in few, senne had circulated a problem, demanding to find out more than thousands and tens of thousands accomthe laws and properties of a curve formed by the move- plish in many. And Pascal, at thirty-nine, loaded ment of a point in a coach-wheel. That such a problem with the palms of science, literature, and religion, had should have puzzled men of science may raise a smile ; justly earned his title to immortality. but difficulties are to be judged of in reference to their time, Pascal fixed his mind on the problem ; and to the surprise, and perhaps the chagrin, of the proposer,

LINES ON A BROOK. answered him by a complete solution.

Look at this brook, so blithe, so free! But a painful and melancholy change was soon to

Thus hath it been, fair boy! for ever, show the uncertainty of human genius, vigour, and

A shining, dancing, babbling river ; wisdom. The quarrels of the Jansenists and Jesuits And thus 't will ever be ;convulsed France. The retired habits and metaphy- 'Twill run, from mountain to the main, sical mind of Pascal found a kindred spirit in the

With just the same sweet babbling voice reveries of Jansenism. He became a member of the

That now sings out, “ Rejoice, rejoice!"

Perhaps 'twill be a chain celebrated Society of Port Royal, and rapidly distin

That will a thousand years remain; guished himself by his zeal in their defence, his ardent

Ay, through all times and changes last, adoption of their principles, and his submission to And link the present to the past : their austerities. Of an infirm constitution, and even

Perhaps upon this self-same spot, that constitution exhausted by labour, he put himself

Hereafter may a merry knot under the most rigid and «xhausting discipline. He

(My children's children !) meet ana pay, is said to have worn an iron chain next his skin : he

And think on me, some summer's day;

And smile (perhaps through youth's brief tears, fasted, practised various mortifications to wean him.

While thinking back through wastes of years,) self from what he termed the evils of the world, and,

And softly say at length, by one of those extravagances which form

“ 'Twas here the old man used to stray, the character and the punishment of religious enthu

And gaze upon the sky; and dream, siasm, he broke off all intercourse with his relations

(Long, long ago !) by this same stream.

He's in his grave! 'Ungentle Time and friends. He was now but thirty, but mentally

Hath dealt but harshly with his rhyme; and bodily he was in advanced age. His frame,

But we will ne'er forget, that he withering away under discomfort, solitude, and cheer

Taught us to love this river free.”

P less study, and his mind wandering in airy speculations.

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