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horizontally before him to a perpendicular brass bar.

This brass bar is fitted into the top of a small four Most of our readers will recollect the celebrated In-legged stool, near one end of it. While in this attitude dian Jugglers, who a few years ago visited England, he appears engaged in prayer, holding in his hand a and performed some very extraordinary feats at public number of beads, and having his eyes half-closed. exhibitions. One of them had acquired the astonish- As soon as the exhibition, which usually continues ing and dangerous power of passing a naked metal only a few minutes, has ended, he is again screened blade into his stomach, or, as he himself termed it, by his attendants till he has dismounted and taken of “swallowing a sword.” He fell a sacrifice to his the whole of his apparatus to pieces, when he protemerity: in one of his performances, the blade taking duces only the stool, the brass bar, and the deer skin a wrong direction, wounded him internally, and he for the inspection of the spectators. expired in violent convulsions.

In person he is a slender, middle sized man, and Another person of this description, but of a higher has attained a considerable age. He wears a long native caste, has lately appeared in India. His per- chintz gown, a yellow dyed turban, and a high waistformance, though of a no less astonishing, is altoge-band. Around his neck is suspended a row of large ther of a harmless, nature. By the kindness of a Pundaram beads. friend we are enabled to present our readers with an Sheshal is frequently invited to the gardens of engraving, from the original drawing of an Indian artist, gentlemen residing at Madras, for the purpose of together with an account, which may be relied upon, exhibiting his singular skill. By this mcans he obtains of this singular person, as he appears when exhibiting a considerable sum of money. A friend who has this strange feat.

witnessed his performance, writes us the following account of it from Tanjore.

“ He exhibited before me in the following manner : he first allowed me to examine a stool about 18 inches in height, on the seat of which were two brass stars inlaid, a little larger than a dollar; he then displayed a hollow bamboo 2 feet in length and 24 inches in diameter. The next article was a roll of antelope skin, perhaps 4 inches in circumference, and 2 fcet in length. The man then concealed himself in a large shawl, with these three articles and a large bag ; after a delay of five minutes, during which he appeared very busy under the shawl, he ordered the covering to be taken off him, and he was discovered actually sitting cross-legged on the air ; but leaning his right arm on the end of the antelope skin, which communicated horizontally with the hollow bamboo, which again was connected perpendicularly with the stool immediately over one of the brass stars.

He sat for more than half an hour, counting his beads in his right hand, and without once changing the expression of his countenance which was quite calm, and as if this new mode of sitting was no exertion to him.

I saw him exhibit four times, and each time tried my utmost to discover the secret but without

A large bribe was offered to induce him to reveal his mode of performance, but he declined the explanation.

“I account for it thus. The brass stars conceal a receptacle for a steel bar passing through the hollow bamboo; the antelope skin conceals another steel rod which is screwed into the one in the bamboo; other machinery of the same kind passes through the man's sleeves and down his body, and supports a ring on which he sits."




When the Great Plague was ravaging the metropolis, The drawing was taken at the Government House Milton removed to the small house which is here reat Madras, and represents the Cuddapah Brahmin, presented, and which is situated at Chalfont St. Giles, named Sheshal, in the act of sitting in the air, ap- in Buckinghamshire. It had been hired for him by parently without any support, an exploit which he his friend Elwood, the Quaker, who was then residing performs with great address. When he is about to in the vicinity, having been driven from London by exhibit, his attendants surround him with a blanket the persecutions he experienced on account of his so as to screen him from the view of the spectators peculiar tenets. Here,” says Dr. Symmons, in his till he is mounted; a signal is then given, the blanket Life of Milton, “the young quaker called upon his is removed and he is beheld sitting in the posture friend and received from him a manuscript, which the represented in the sketch.

author desired him to carry home and to read at his The only part of his body which appears to have leisure. This manuscript was that of Paradise Lost. any support whatever is the wrist of his right arm, After I had with the best attention read it through,' which rests upon a deer skin rolled up and fixed says the respectable Elwood, “I made him another

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visit, and returned him his book, with due aknowledg- blest individual in the country—he who knows the ment of the favour he had done me in communicating least and fares the worst—owes far more to society it to me. He asked me how I liked it, and what I than he does to himself. The good institutions, and thought of it : which I modestly and freely told him; all that is excellent in society, are the result of the and, after some further discourse, I pleasantly said to labours of the wise and the good through many him, Thou hast said much here of Paradise lost; but ages,—from the very beginning of civilization indeed; what hast thou to say of Paradise found? He made for nations are the scholars and imitators of nations, me no answer, but sat some time in a muse: then just as men are the scholars and imitators of men. broke off that discourse, and fell upon another sub- Thus, when we reflect duly, we discover that every ject. After the sickness was over, and the city well man who earns his bread in society, is indebted to cleansed and become safely habitable again, he re- society for it. Take a man who digs the ground :turned thither; and when afterwards I went to wait how did he find out that digging the ground would upon him, which I seldom failed of doing whenever make it more fertile ? Where did he obtain a spade ? my occasions led me to London) he showed me his Who taught him how to use it? Who instructed him second poem, called Paradise Regained, and in a plea- as to the roots which it is best to plant, and the seeds sant tone said to me, this is owing to you, for you put which it is best to sow; or who told him the times at into my head by the question you put to me at Chal- which the planting and the sowing could be done to font, what before I had not thought of.'

the greatest advantage ? Certainly not himself; for before any man could have found out the way and the time of doing the very simplest thing that the humblest labourer has occasion to do, the term of his life would have been out, and he would have been in his grave. Indeed his term would have been but short, for he would have died of hunger before he had been long in existence.

This debt to society is not confined to those in humble life ; for the higher the station, the debt is the greater; because all civilization, all knowledge, and all enjoyment, except those which man has in common with the beasts, had their origin in society, and were by society brought to the condition in which we find them. We are, in fact, debtors to society for

the wisdom and the improvements of more ages than “The term of Milton's residence at Chalfont has we have years to spend in it. That wisdom and those not been precisely specified; but from the circum- improvements are talents committed to our care, and stances to which it was accommodated, the prevalence if we do not hand them down to the generation which and the extirpation of the plague in the capital, we is to come after us, in a more valuable condition than may infer that it extended from the June or the July we ourselves received them in, we are shamefully unof 1665 to the March or the April of the following grateful to our fathers, and cruelly unjust to our year. In this period, as I fully concur in opinion children. with its editor, Mr. Dunster, was the poem of Paradise The common boast of a rich man that," he can Regained not only begun, but brought to its conclu- pay his way, and is obliged to nobody," is a very silly sion. It was shown, as we have just been informed, boast; for the man is a debtor to others for all that to Elwood on his first visit to London after the author's he possesses ; and of course the larger his possessions return from Chalfont; and there is nothing in the. are, the more he is in debt. That debt is, however, poem, whether we respect its length or the style of due only to society generally; and therefore no indiits composition, evidently marked with the characters vidual member of society is entitled to ask payment of haste, which can induce us to reject as improbable of it. It is not a debt which can be paid with the fact of its production, by a mind like Milton's, in inoney. It must be paid in conduct; and in doing the space of ten months.

those particular duties which belong to his station.

In like manner, the man who is destitute, who

possesses nothing, and has nothing to do, is not inON THE DUTIES AND ADVANTAGES OF

dependent of society, for to society he is indebted for SOCIETY.

his very powers of doing; and if he has had opporNO. 1.-INTRODUCTORY.

tunities of turning those powers to account and has Ir people always knew and kept in mind the obliga neglected them, he is more deeply and more crimitions they are under to society, they would be much | nally a debtor. However wretched he may feel, or better members of it, and much happier in every may be in reality, he is still much better than if he respect. Robinson Crusoe, on the desert island, be- i were not in society; for then he would be without fore he got his man “Friday," is a picture of solitude the abilities of doing; whereas, the very worst that which every body knows. But the picture of solitude can happen in society, is being without the opportuthere given, though it be pleasantly painted, is far nity or the will of turning those abilities to account. from being true. All the arts, stratagems, and con- It is not always very easy to distinguish between the trivances which Crusoe puts in execution, are derived want of opportunity and the want of will, because from society. Crusoe is not a solitary, nor even a there is a will to find opportunity, as well as a will savage ; and though his means of gratification are dif- to improve it, when it is known; and in both cases, ferent, his desires are just the same as if he had been the proverb, “where there is a will there is a way," all the time in England.

holds true. We who have lived all our time in society, can There are only two classes of persons who can be form no notion of what a wretched and destitute strictly said to have claims upon society; those creature man would be if he were alone, and had to whom Providence has denied, or has taken Lever profited by the aid, the instruction, or the ex- away, those abilities which, called forth as they are ample of others. But it is certain, that the very hum-l by society, may be considered as “the stock in trade"


of social man ; and those who have done society of the least exceptionable means of making that provimore than the average good, according to their means sion. We may anticipate so far as to say that BENEFIT and opportunities. The first is not so much a claim Societies are the means to which we more particularof right as a claim of pity, and should be voluntary on ly allude. But, as the subject is very important, and as the part of the giver. The other is more a claim of right; the examination of it will require some extent, we but it is one which is very difficult to adjust and set- shall bring it before our readers from time to time, in tle equitably. When the matter is left to be decided small portions; and we most earnestly solicit their by the public generally, we but too often find that candid and patient attention. they award the prize to him who claims it in the most noisy and forward manner; and every day THE HYMN OF THE LANCASHIRE COTTON. shews that the floating opinion of the public, which,

SPINNER. after all, is nobody's opinion, because nobody is re

Oh, God! my God! from morn to night sponsible for it, changes from praise to censure, or

I see thy guiding hand ! from censure to praise, without any reasonable cause

Through every hour I feel thy might, for either.

I hear thy dread command! Nothing, however, is plainer, than that all who can

How wild, unto the strangers' eye support themselves, are bound to do it; and that

These busy scenes appear! those who claim support from others, without being

What sights uncouth around them lie; able to shew in the most clear and satisfactory man

What jarring sounds they hear! ner, that they cannot support themselves, are not

Yet I, who know each whizzing wheel,' only guilty of an injustice to society, for which soci

Each dancing spindle know, ety may punish them, but that they are degraded in

See skill, where they confusion feel,

And Art from Discord their own estimation, and thereby rendered incapable

grow. of the good which they otherwise might do, and the

I know their object, use, and end; pleasure which they otherwise might feel. Even if

They act from hour to hour,

And to a glorious issue tend the support obtained in this manner be of the most

Impell’d by one great Power ! temporary nature, it destroys our confidence in our own exertions, and breaks down the manly tone of

And, if with such a skilful eye

I could my being scan, the character to a far greater extent than they who

No doubt my spirit would descry have not studied it, and watched its effects, would

That such machine is Man! suppose. A man who readily finds charitable main

Confusion seems his steps to guide, tenance when out of work, will be less zealous in search

And discord haunts him still; of employment, than if starvation appeared in his view

Yet one Great Being rules his pride as the necessary associate of idleness. There may be

And bends him to his will. cases, and numerous cases, especially in sickness,

Then let me learn, from what I see, where those means of relief must be resorted to; but

To credit what I hear, the experience of all ages has shewn them to be bad

And know my Saviour works for me as a general system, and even worse to the relieved

While I am working here! than to the relievers.

Teach me to feel my thread of life The cases of individuals and of nations mutually

By hands Divine is spun, throw light upon each other. Nations have their times

An still in sorrow, want, and strife, of distress and of stagnation of business, just as indivi

To say—“God's WILL BE DONE !" duals have theirs of sickness and want of employ

St. Abbs.

R. P. ment. Though the cases are not quite parallel, a nation is a member of the world, just as one man is

STEAM ENGINES IN 1543. a member of society. Now, it has always been found It appears from a late valuable publication, Navarthat attempts to support a nation with any thing like rete's Collection of Spanish Voyages and Discoveries, character and independence, at the cost of other that the first known experiment of propelling a vesnations, has uniformly failed-ended in the degrad-sel by the agency of steam, was made at Barcelona, ing of that nation, and the blotting out of its name more than eighty-five years before the idea of profrom the map. If England had to beg of France, or curing motion by means of it was first started by Trance of England, at every time of temporary dis- Brancas in Italy ; more than a century before this tress, the begging country would soon come to an power was applied to any useful purpose by the marend. In like manner it has been found that all quis of Worcester in England ; and near three cenattempts to support classes of society upon the turies before Fulton, adapting and combining the bounty of other classes, have failed-plunged the sup- inventions of a host of contemporary mechanics, sucported class into deeper and deeper misery, and, if cessfully solved the same wonderful problem in the long continued, worked its final ruin.

United States. Singular, however, as the fact may One nation may help another, and so may one be, it is fully established by various documents lately class of society ; but then, in order that the help found in the archives of Simancas, and is so circummay do good-in order that it may not actually do stantially stated as to be incontrovertible. evil, it must be mutual. “ Help us now in our In the year 1543, a certain sea-officer, called Blasneed, and when your time of trouble comes, ap- co de Gavay, offered to exhibit before the emperor ply to us, and we shall not be backward,” are the Charles V. a machine by means of which a vessel words which, spoken or implied, turn that which should be made to move, without the assistance of otherwise would be evil, into good.

ether sails or oars. Though the proposal appeared Among individuals, the most noble and valuable ridiculous, the man was so much in earnest, that the of all help is helping one's self; and if that were in emperor appointed a commission to witness and reall cases possible, none other would be necessary. port upon the experiment. The experiment was made But there are cases, and those too of the most urgent the 17th of June, 1543, on board a vessel called the pature, in which there can be no self help ; and it is Trinidad, of two hundred barrels' burden, which had for these that society is peculiarly called upon to pro- lately arrived with wheat from Colibre. The vessel vide. On a future occasion we shall point out one I was seen at a given moment to move forward, and turn about at pleasure, without sail or oar, or human HOW MUST I DISPOSE MYSELF ON THE agency, and without any visible mechanism, except a

LORD'S DAY ? huge boiler of hot water, and a complicated combina- Avoid all servile work, and expend it only in such tion of wheels and paddles.

actions, as tend to the sanctifying thereof. God, The assembled multitude were filled with astonish- the great Landlord of all time, hath let out six days ment and admiration. The harbour of Barcelona re- in the week to man to farm them ; the seventh day sounded with plaudits; and the commissioners, who he reserves as a demesne in his own hand : if, thereshared in the general enthusiasm, all made favorable fore, we would have quiet possession, and comfortable reports to the emperor, except only the treasurer use of what God hath leased out to us, let us not enRavago. This man, from some unknown cause, was croach on his demesne. Some popish* people make prejudiced against the inventor and his machine. He a superstitious almanach of the Sunday, by the fairtook great pains to undervalue it, stating, among other ness or foulness thereof, guessing at the weather all things, that it could be of little use, since it only pro: the week after. But I dare boldly say, that from our pelled the vessel two leagues in three hours; that it well or ill spending of the Lord's Day, a probable was very expensive and complicated, and that there conjecture may be made, how the following week will was great danger of the boiler's bursting frequently. be employed. Yea, I conceive, we are bound (as The experiment over, Gavay collected his machinery, matters now stand in England) to a stricter observand having deposited the wooden part in the royal nance of the Lord's day, than ever before. That a arsenal, carried the rest to his own house.

time was due to God's service, no Christian in our Notwithstanding the invidious representations of kingdom ever did deny: that the same was weekly Ravago, Gavay was applauded for his invention, and dispersed in the Lord's day, holy days, Wednesday, taken into favour by the emperor, who promoted him Fridays, Saturdays, some have earnestly maintained : one grade, gave him two hundred thousand marave- seeing, therefore, all the last are generally neglected, dises, and ordered the jealous treasurer to pay all the the former must be more strictly observed ; it being expenses of the experiment. But Charles was then otherwise impious, that our devotion having a nartaken up with some military expedition, and the oc- rower channel, should also carry a shallower stream. casion of conferring an inestimable benefit on man- -FULLER's Wounded Conscience. kind was neglected for the business of bloodshed and

* If it rains on the Sunday before Mess, devastation; while the honour which Barcelona might It will rain all the week more or less. —Popish Rhyme. have received from perfecting this noble discovery was reserved for a city which had not yet started in the career of existence.

BUCKSTONE. The fact that a vessel was propelled by steam as early as the sixteenth century thus rendered certain, Among the many natural curiosities of our country, the the question next occurs, whether it in any way de- admiration of the scientific, as well as of the ordinary tracts from the honour due to Fulton, not for having observer, has long been excited by those huge single made the first successful application of steam to pur- masses of rock, which, resting on a comparatively poses of navigation, (for he was even anticipated by small pivot, and exactly balanced there, still stand as Fitch, in the United States) but for having brought steadily as though the narrow part were upperit into use over the whole civilized world. By no most, and the whole body were firmly lodged on means. This experiment at Barcelona, owing to the its base. Such are the celebrated Boulder Stone absence of journals and newspapers, those modern of the North, and the Logan Rock of Cornwall. vehicles and wings of intelligence, was unknown to The woodcut on the next page represents with great the world generally, at the time of making it, as it accuracy the character of another called BUCKSTONE, ever was to Fulton. And, besides, who can tell but on the borders of Gloucestershire and Monmouththat in like manner many inventions, which constitute shire. at once the pride and profit of the present age, may Buckstone is by no means the largest of its kind ; have existed centuries ago, in countries of forgotten though in some respects, perhaps, it repays more than civilisation.- A Year in Spain.

any other the visit of a tourist. Independently of its extraordinary form and position, the situation in which

it is placed, gives it a very strong additional interest. THE LARK AND THE HAWK.

Removed only a few yards from the summit of a high How nimbly doth that little lark mount up singing sugar-loaf hill,commanding one of the most varied and towards heaven in a right line; whereas the hawk, beautiful landscapes of which this country can boast, which is stronger of body, and swifter of wing, towers it is itself seen in some directions at a very great disup by many gradual compasses to his highest pitch. tance, conspicuous above the copsewood, which cmThat bulk of body and length of wing hinder a direct bosoms it on every side; and inviting us to examine ascent, and require the help both of air and scope to only its own extraordinary character, it presents to us advance his flight; whilst that small bird cuts the air a view which would otherwise probably have escaped without resistance, and needs no outward furtherance our notice altogether. This view would of itself amply of her motion. It is no otherwise with the souls of repay us for the time required to make the excur. men in flying up to their heaven. Some are hindered sion from any of the neighbouring places. by those powers, which would seem helps to their This rock is about three miles from Monmouth, soaring up thither ; great wit, deep judgment, quick near the village of Stanton. The tourist may reach it apprehension, send men about with no small labour either by a footpath through beautiful woods and for the recovery of their own incumbrance ; whilst fields, or by a more round-about road in a carriage. the good affections of plain and simple souls raise The scene opening at this spot is very extensive and them up immediately to the fruition of God. Why greatly diversified. It is bounded to the west and should we be proud of that which may slacken our north by the mountains of Monmouthshire and Breway to glory? why should we be disheartened with conshire; towards the north-east and east, by the the small measure of that, the very want whereof may Clay Hills in Shropshire, and the Malvern Hills in (as the heart may be affected) facilitate our way to Worcestershire; to the south-east, and south, by happiness.-Bishop Hall.

the long Gloucestershire range beyond the Severn.

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Besides these counties, it is said, the experienced eye in its stead, gave us the light of eternal truth. And may discover points in Glamorgan, Radnor, and So- thus to the Christian this is still a sacred spot, a merset. The home views comprehend the Forest of temple, where the sacrifice of thanksgiving may be Dean, some of the richest districts of Herefordshire, acceptably offered. with one of the sweetest vallies of the Wye, whose

“ The place where man his God shall meet, silver thread is seen winding its way between the

Be sure is holy ground.” woods and rocks of the north-east, whilst immediately round the rock, and at the feet of the spectator, waves

EXTRACT FROM A BOTANICAL DIARY a noble ocean of oak woods, spread over a wide and undulating surface of hill and dale.

* * * * How often as a child I have played with The rock itself is composed of a substance called the catkins of the hazel, (pussy-cats, as we used to call millstone-grit,-a plum-pudding stone, consisting them) without dreaming that within were the embryos chiefly of sand and quartz pebbles, familiarly known of the future nuts; and that in picking to pieces the in the neighbourhood by the name of Jackstones. blossoms of the hazel, I was idly destroying the proIts circumference at the top is above fifty-three feet, mise of future fruit. Yet such is the fact ! An exwhilst its base is less than eleven feet in girth. Its amination of this plant shews the careful contrivance perpendicular height from the extremity of the pro- by which an Almighty Creator has preserved these jecting point to the level of the centre of the base seeds from the accidents of weather. The stamens, is nearly fourteen feet. The whole mass rests on the which contain the fruit-bearing principle, are disposed middle of a square even table of stone, corresponding in clusters, from one end to the other of the catkin ; in extent very nearly with the extremity of the rock and each cluster is sheltered by a little pent-house, itself, and composed of the same material. But what which overshadows and protects them, tier above tier, makes the balance in this rock still more wonderful in their snug retreats. While thus hanging upon is, that this large square smooth insulated stone, the bough, not a drop of rain has the power of penewhich serves for its bed, far from being horizontal, trating to the precious deposit within ; although when is an inclined plane, sloping at an angle of almost the same catkin is surveyed in the hand, all the stamens twenty-five degrees ; consequently, many bodies that are exposed to view. Had they been thus placed might be balanced, on a level ground must of necessity within a calyx or cup which grew, or which was liable roll down this leaning stone, yet this huge rock has to be turned into any other position, what frequent kept its place for ages.

accidents might have happened to them. But the upright position of the catkin protects them from rain which falls steadily and downright; while its pliancy and suppleness enable it to bend from the wind, and thus secure its contents from the accidents of a side breeze, .or the drifting shower. Thus deals the All Good Creator with all the objects of his care. And thus full of wisdom and contrivance is the structure of every plant we see !-E.T.


Natural History is no work for one that loves his chair or his bed. Speculation may be pursued on a soft couch, but Nature must be observed in the open air. I have collected materials with indefatigable pertinacity. I have gathered glow-worms in the evening, and snails in the morning ; I have seen the daisy close and open; I have heard the owl shriek at midnight, and hunted insects in the heat of noon.—JOHNSON.

Geologists probably will almost unanimously agree, THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE that the hand of man never interfered in either plac

AND EDUCATION, ing this rock on its present site, or in hewing it into In compliance with the recommendation contained in the its present form,—that it is the work of nature only.

Report read at the Special General Meeting of the Society The imagination of the tourist indeed has often re- FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE, held on the 21st garded it as the work of art, and pronounced it to of May, have made arrangements for the publication of a be nothing less than a Druidical altar; and fancy may Series of Works on Education, History, Biography, Natural discern in an adjoining stone, the solid basin to re. History, the Elements of the Sciences, &c. particulars of

which will speedily be announced. ceive the blood of the victim, or to cleanse the hands of the sacrificer. Certainly no place can be imagined

THE FIRST SUPPLEMENTARY NUMBER OF THE more fitted for those priests of the oak and the moun

SATURDAY MAGAZINE tain, who raised their altars“ upon every high hill, is ready for delivery with the present number ; and on the 30th inst. will be

published and under every green tree,' than Buckstone. And perhaps there is nothing absurd in conceiving


price, with the Supplement, Sixpence, sewed in a Neat Wrapper , that they employed this natural altar, like many

Being the FIRST of the MONTHLY PARTS, which will be regularly conothers which tradition assigns to the same purpose,

tinued on the last day of each succeeding Month, so that Subscribers in all

parts of the Country may receive them with the Magazines, &c. from London, in the performance of their cruel rites. All such by giving the necessary orders to their respective Booksellers. inquiries, however, must at last end only in speculation; harmless it may be and amusing, but leading

LONDON: to no satisfactory result. Be this as it may, one can

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, 445, (WEST) STRAND, scarcely visit this spot, and have the mere question Hawkers and Dealers in Periodical Publications supplied os wholesale terms by

Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom. suggested to us, by the recollection that so gross a

W. S. ORR, Paternoster-Row; G. BERGER, Holywell-st., London; superstition for ages prevailed in our own island, And by the Publisher's Agents in all the principal places without feeling a glow of gratitude to that Father of

throughout the Country. us all, who rescued us from its thick darkness, and

C. RICHARDS, Printer, 100, St. Martin's Lane, Charing Cross,

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