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perished; a few who still lingered, were seen crawling, half- | exhausted cattle to draw them along, frequent halts were burnt, amongst the smoking ruins, and others, groaning ! made, when we heard the execrations of the drivers, under heaps of dead bodies, endeavoured in vain to extri- | who, terrified at the surrounding flames, endeavoured cate themselves from the horrible destruction which sur- to push forward with dreadful outcries. The soldiers were rounded them.

diligently employed in forcing open every door. They “But how shall I describe the confusion and tumult seemed to fear lest they should leave one house untouched; when permission was granted to pillage this immense and, as if the booty last acquired was preferable to what city? Soldiers, sutlers, galley-slaves, and profligate women, they had already obtained, they abandoned former prizes eagerly ran through the streets, penetrating into the to seize on every new object. Some, when their cardeserted palaces, and carrying away every thing which riages were laden almost to breaking down, bore the rest could gratify their avarice. Some covered themselves of their plunder on their backs. The flames, obstructing with stuffs, richly worked with gold and silk; some were the passage of the principal streets, often obliged them to enveloped in beautiful and costly furs; others dressed retrace their steps. Thus wandering from place to place, themselves in women's and children's pelisses; even the through an immense town, the avenues of which they did galley-slaves concealed their rags under the most splendid not know, they sought in vain to extricate themselves from a habits of the court; and many crowded into the cellars, labyrinth of fire. Many, instead of approaching the gates and, forcing open the doors, drank to excess the most by which they might have escaped, wandered further from luscious wines, and carried off a prodigious booty.

them, and thus became the victims of their own rapacity. “It was towards the evening of this dreadful day, that The love of plunder was yet predominant, and induced our Napoleon left the city, and took up his quarters in the soldiers to brave every danger. They precipitated themcastle of Peterskoë, a large building outside the town, selves into the midst of the flames; they waded in blood, and which formed the usual residence of the sovereigns treading upon the dead bodies without remorse, whilst the before their coronation. The generals of the army soon | ruins of the houses, buried with burning coals, fell thick followed the emperor, and the soldiers then gave them- upon their murderous hands. They would probably all selves up to a still fiercer licentiousness than they had have perished, if the insupportable heat had not forced yet practised. Forcing their way into the church of St. them at length to withdraw into the camp.".

the is recital :beneath the edifice, and with wanton fury destroyed or “Having received orders to quit Moscow, we proceeded carried off the most venerable relics of national piety. towards Peterskoë, and about the dawn of day, on the 17th

" Penetrated," continues Labaume,“ by so many cala- of September, I witnessed a spectacle at once affecting mities, I hoped that the shades of night would cast a and terrible, namely, a crowd of the miserable inhabitants veil over the dreadful scene; but they contributed, on drawing upon some mean vehicles all that they had been the contrary, to render the conflagration more terrible. able to save from the conflagration. The soldiers having The violence of the flames, which extended from north to robbed them of their horses, the men and women were south, and were strangely agitated by the wind, produced slowly and painfully dragging along their little carts, some the most awful appearance on a sky which was darkened of which contained an infirm mother, others a paralytie old by the thickest smoke. Frequently was seen the glare of man, and others the miserable wrecks of half-consumed the burning torches, which the incendiaries were hurling furniture. Children, half naked, followed these groups. from the tops of the highest towers on those parts of the Affliction, to which their age is commonly a stranger, was city which had yet escaped destruction, and which re- impressed on their features; and when the soldiers apsembled, at a distance, so many passing meteors." The proached them, they ran crying to the arms of their house in which the captain was quartered took fire soon after mothers. Alas! What habitation could be offered to them, he had retired to rest, and when he again contemplated which would not constantly recall the object of their terror? the burning city, it presented to his eyes but one immense Without shelter, and without food, these unfortunate beings Hame. “The different streets," says he could no longer wandered into the woods ; but wherever they bent their be distinguished, and the places on which the houses had steps, they met the conquerors of Moscow, who frequently stood were marked only by confused piles of stones, cal- ill-treated them, and sold before their eyes the goods which cined and black. The wind, blowing with violence, howled had been stolen from their deserted habitations." mournfully, and overwhelmed us with ashes, with burning While the mind is appalled at this awful picture of ruia fragments, and even with the iron plates which covered the and suffering, and while it learns to regard with greater dispalace.

gust than ever the ambition and other vices of the human On whatever side we turned, we saw only ruins ana heart which lead to war, it derives a proportionable degree flames. The fire raged as if it were fanned by some in- of consolation and encouragement from the spectacle

The most extensive ranges of building which succeeds, with inconceivable rapidity, to the objects seemed to kindle, to burn, and to disappear in an instant. of terror it has thus contemplated. Moscow was the saeriA long row of carriages was perceived through the thick fice offered by a nation to preserve its liberties from the smoke, landed with booty. Being too heavily laden for the hand of an invader; and the resolution and patriotism

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which led to the offering of this sacrifice appeared with to the immense number of seventy-two: they are now
prompt energy, after the deed had been done, to recover crossed by no fewer than ninety-eight. As another in-
the city from its ashes. Labour and well-directed zeal stance of the improvement which has taken place in the
every where perform wonders. :Moscow again lifted up its communications from one part of the city to another, it is
head. Its inhabitants gained new strength from the ex- mentioned that the alleys, lanes, and narrow thoroughfares,
ertions they came forward to make; and if this noble city have increased from four hundred and one to five hundred
was at all times a subject of admiration, for its extent and and thirty-nine; while the principal streets have decreased
magnificence, it now inspires a feeling of veneration, from one-hundred and eighty-three to one hundred and
which may in one respect be indulged with more practical sixty-four.
good effects than that awakened by the most impressive The widening of these streets, and the increase of the
relics of antiquity.

thoroughfares, have also had the effect of diminishing the

number of gardens pertaining to the houses of the nobility, POPULATION AND ESTABLISHMENTS. from one thousand three hundred and ninety-three to one

thousand and ninety-one; and though a change of this In the summer of 1812, the population of Moscow was kind is of a very questionable nature in one respect, there estimated at three hundred and twelve thousand, divided can be no doubt but that in another it has greatly added into the following classes :-Clergy, 4,779; Nobility 10,732; to the compactness of the city, and diminished many of Military, 21,978; Merchants, 11,885; Mechanics, &c., of the worst inconveniences to which the lower classes of its various denominations, 19,036; Servants of the nobility, inhabitants were subjected. Thus, while the fish-ponds who remain in Moscow during the summer, to guard the and other ornamental sheets of water have given way to palaces, &c., 38,404; Foreigners, 1,410; Common popu- the increasing lines of building, the wells for supplying the lation and peasantry, 203,776.

population with the means of cleanliness and a healthy be“This number," says Captain Cochrane, to whom we

verage, have been increased from three thousand six hundred are indebted for the above statement, “ certainly fell very and seventy, to three thousand seven hundred and ninetyshort of the winter population, when all the Muscovite and three. other retired noblemen, senators, generals, and governors, Little change is observable in the general arrangereturn to the city to spend the Christmas and other holi- ments and outline of the city. The public entrances are the days, as well as the Carnival. It is also not unworthy of re- same in number as formerly. There are also, as before, mark, that at the period this census was taken, all foreigners twenty-five squares; and the following list has been had been ordered away, and their numbers were not inconsi- given of the edifices and institutions, which are nearly the derable. French, German, Italian, Swiss, Dutch, &c., all, same in number and condition as at first :-The univereven the Prussians, were dismissed, their respective na- sity, the public colleges and schools, the two hospitals, tions having been all in league against this mighty em- the four imperial palaces, the seven cathedrals, the cemepire. The personal dependents upon a Russian nobleman teries, the arsenal, the military barracks, the military are generally as numerous, and upon the same footing, as orphan-establishment, the foundling, the theatre, the statethey are in Spain; they are a species of heir-loom of prison, the signal and watch-towers, and some other buildcharity, are never turned away, and are considered an ex- ings of inferior note. pensive but necessary appendage, for without them much Another of the changes which have taken place is that in evil would ensue. From these considerations, we may state the religious establishments, which have been diminished, the winter population at four hundred, or four hundred and instead of increased. There were, in 1812, 296 churches, at twenty, thousand souls !"

present there are but 289; and the convents and monaIn comparing the state of Moscow at present with what steries have been similarly reduced. In respect to the other it was before the awful conflagration which so nearly con- public edifices, there are, it is stated, 55 workhouses; the sumed it, the same traveller remarks, that there is every same number of storehouses, or granaries ; five cavalryprospect that the population will go on rapidly increasing ; stables, formerly but two ; and twelve printing-houses, and contends, contrary to the common opinion, that Moscow originally but eight. The manufactories are not so nuis far more advantageous for the capital of the Russian em- merous as before the fire; there were then 442, there are pire than St. Petersburgh. " It is a sort of central spot," now but 376. “The shops," says Captain Cochrane, says he,“ between the Caspian and Baltic, as well as the the public bazaar, and which are under the immediate conWhite, Seas, besides other internal parts of the ancient trol of government, were, in 1812, 6776, and are now only empire, or dukedom, not forgetting the most remote parts 6136; private shops in private houses, 1772, now but 1226; of Siberia, to which there is a noble water-carriage by of private seminaries, chiefly kept by foreigners, there were steam, if properly carried into effect. The two rivers, formerly 17, but at present 22: although,” he adds, “the Moskva and Yaouza, with four canals, not a little strengthen gross number of these useful and scientific institutions this assertion: they run into, through, and round the city; will appear to be diminished, the time could scarcely admit and might be made of the most wonderful consequence." of a greater recovery from the ruin into which the city had In 1812, these rivers and canals were crossed by bridges, been plunged. Of the reduction of schools, in particular,

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it is observed, that the general adoption of the Lancasterian | the cathedral, shone with the most dazzling splendour. system has increased the number of scholars in the pro- | From the west flowed the Moskwa, forming a beautiful portion of ten to one."

curve in front of the Kremlin, and again pursuing its Captain Cochrane has descended to an examination of course amidst innumerable churches and spires, till lost in still more minute particulars; and states, that in 1812, the distance; while all around us lay scattered a prodi. that is, before the contlagration, there were 111 hot-houses, gious number of edifices, in all the various styles of Asiatic the number of which, in 1821, was reduced to 107: of and European architecture.” The belfry itself is an object kitchen-gardens, there were at the former date 248, at the of wonder; it is of an octangular shape, and contains latter 233: of smitheries 316 now 237: inns and taverns upwards of thirty bells; the largest of these measures 609, now 406 : restaurateurs 250, now 187: common eating- forty feet nine inches in circumference, and weighs 127,836 houses 182, now 57: kabaks or gin-shops 200, now 132: English pounds; when tolled, it is said to produce a deep beer-houses 99, now 57 : wine-vaults 170, now 161: public and hollow murmur, which vibrates all over Moscow, like baking-houses 159, now 110: bun-houses 274, now 140. the fullest and lowest tones of a vast organ, or the rolling The diminution in the number of taverns, gin-shops, wine- of distant thunder. vaults, observes our traveller, is from one thousand five But the wonder produced by this bell, enormous as is its hundred, to one thousand, or one third less. “To what can bulk, is speedily forgotten, when the traveller passes from this be attributed ? It is as fair to impute it to an increase the tower to an open area, a few yards distant, where still of private morality, and a more domestic conduct of all lies, what has been called one of the wonders of the classes of the Muscovites, as to a falling of public spirit. rld, the great Bell of Moscow, for a description of which, Probably the conflagration of Moscow has done thus much the reader is referred to page 7 of the present volume of permanent good; for a moment it so straitened the the Saturday Magazine. circumstances of the people, as to prevent that gross Rude and powerful nations which have just begun to feel gratification of their appetites at coffee-houses, &c., in conscious of their resources, are generally found to delight which they were wont to indulge; and that denial has now in making gigantic efforts in art. Devotion, however, taught them to relish the more solid enjoyments of home. contributed to the production of the great Bell of Moscow, With respect to Russian noblemen or gentlemen, I can the ringing of bells forming an essential portion of the bear testimony to their abstinence at table in the use of popular religious ceremonies. But this cannot be said of wine or spirits: they dine early, and as soon as dinner is the huge cannon which was cast towards the close of the finished, they quit the table for coffee.” This account of seventeenth century. This tremendous piece of ordnance the nobility of Moscow is strikingly different to that given is about eighteen feet and a half in length: its lip is ten by Dr. Clarke, who visited the city in the early part of the inches thick; and the diameter is so great that a man of century; and no reflecting mind can fail to draw from the middle stature may sit upright in its mouth. contrast the great moral which such a change, produced by Having satisfied his curiosity with a brief view of these such circumstances, is calculated to enforce.

objects on the way, the traveller next endeavours to obtain

admission into the fortress, and ancient palace of ihe PUBLIC BUILDINGS.

emperors. This is done with difficulty; but if he succeed,

his efforts are amply repaid, by the variety of things Of the public places of Moscow, the first to be no- which it presents to excite reflection. As he approaches ticed is the Kremlin; the very centre and heart of the the edifice, its old gothic pinnacles remind him forcibly, city. It is somewhat more than two miles in circumference; of those gloomy times of fierce wars and barbarous custriangular in form, and surrounded by brick walls, and a toms, in which it arose. Nor are these impressions deep moat. The principal entrance to this fortress is an weakened, when his eye catches the window which appears arched portal, painted red, and which, from the earliest in the centre of the building. It was thence, that Demetimes has been called the Holy Gate. Such is the vene- trius, the monarch of a day, lowered himself with a rope, ration paid to this approach that it has been adorned with down the awful height into the court below; but the cord the care of a sacred edifice; the picture of the saint who is proved of insufficient length; he was precipitated upon said to have delivered the city from an army of Poles the pavement, and with shattered frame, fell an immediate just on the point of forcing the citadel, frowns in stern victim to the savage multitude. At that window, also, it gravity over the archway; and before this representation a was, that the emperors sat, in all the pomp of feudal lamp is continually kept burning. As soon as a person majesty, to receive the petitions of their people, who, reaches the extremity of the bridge over the moat, and placing the writing which contained their requests on a enters the portal, he is obliged to uncover his head, and the stone beneath, waited with patient humility, to see if the consequence of neglecting this practice is the same as monarch would order it to him for inspection. that which a similar instance of inattention would produce On entering the palace, a broad stone staircase presents committed in a church. “I wished to see," says Dr. | itself; and the visiter is conducted to the imperial treasury. Clarke, “ if this absurd rule was rigorously enforced, and As he passes up this ascent, to the expected display of nafeigning ignorance, entered beneath the arch with my hat tional wealth, tradition still reminds him of the sanguinary

A sentinel challenged me: but without taking any character of Russian history: points out to him the spot, notice, I walked forward. Next, a bare-headed peasant where the victims of the insurrection, under Peter the met me, and seeing my head covered, summoned the Great, shed their blood; and tells him how it was down sentinels and people, with very loud expressions of anger; | that staircase, that the unfortunate John Narishkin who seizing me by the arms, very soon taught me in what descended, when neither the prayers of the aged patriarch, manner to pass the Holy Gate for the future.”

who, clasping him by the hand, held forth the image of On entering the Kremlin, the stranger finds himself the Virgin as his protectress, nor the tears and entreaties surrounded witn churches, palaces, and shops of every of his sisters and the princesses, could induce the multidescription, crowded together in confused magnificence, tude to forego the sacrifice of his life to their long deterand producing a spectacle presented by no other spot mined vengeance. The apartments to which this celeof equal extent in the world. The first object which brated staircase conducts, are less interesting than the strikes his attention is the Arsenal, which, till lately, re- excited imagination of the traveller expects to find them. mained in the same dilapidated condition in which it was But among the objects most deserving attention, are the left by the contlagration. Near this stands the Senate- numerous crowns of the nations which have fallen under house, a building of vast extent, consisting of three stories, the giant strength of the empire: the robes worn by the and embracing several of the public offices. A little further sovereigns at their coronation, and which present all that on is the Treasury, or Imperial Museum, the Hall of the barbaric splendour of ornament, so attractive to the eyes of Spiritual Consistory, a church celebrated for its ancient an uncultivated people: the fossils which have been dug paintings and inscriptions; and, in the same line, a mag- up from the shores of the frozen sea, from an island in nificent palace, intended for the residence of the present which elephant-tusks have been brought, it is said, in emperor, when he visits his ancient capital. It is from the caravan-loads to the capital; and lastly, the manuscript summit of the octagonal belfry, which stands opposite this containing the code of laws of the various provinces of the edifice, and is known by the name of Ivan Veliki, that empire, collected by the wise and virtuous Alexis, the Moscow is seen in all its extent and grandeur. “ Beneath father of Peter the Great. our feet," says Dr. Henderson, “ lay the Kremlin, with its The apartments formerly inhabited by the patriarchs, and two-and-thirty churches, the magnificent edifices alluded their chapel, form one of the most ancient portions of the to above, and the ancient palace of the Tzars, with its palace. Adjoining the latter, is a room in which their numerous domes and spires, which, together with those of dresses, their tiaras, and a number of relics are exhibited,


carefully preserved in glass-cases; with these also, are the evils, which so far outweig. the advantages of wealth and beautiful onyx-stones wrought into cameos, preserting Jesus power, to the low condition of religion in this country. and the Virgin; and the sixteen massive silver vases, each The Russian Church has continued to form a part of large enough to contain three or four gallons, given by that great division of Christendom, which adhered to the Emperor Paul, to receive the consecrated oil, so essen- the patriarchs and emperors of Constantinople, while the tial in the services of the Greek Church. But, one of the west, and_its subject provinces, became obedient to the most curious things in Moscow, is the model of the Krem- power of Rome. But not less open to the corruptions of lin, made by command of the Empress Catherine; and superstition than the quarters subjugated by the papacy, had the design after which it was formed been completed, each succeeding age brought some new addition to the mass this fortress, it may be safely allowed, would have been of growing errors, and the Greek church fell lower than the wonder of the universe. The model, which was the the Roman, under the enormous weight of its corrupt apwork of a Russian, who had studied in Paris, cost fifty pendages. thousand roubles, and the expense of the proposed struc- The religious ceremonies performed at Moscow are on the ture was estimated at twenty millions. By the plan laid same scale of magnificence as every thing else in that redown, the whole Kremlin, embracing an extent of two markable city; and travellers describe in picturesque lanmiles, was to be formed into one immense palace. Its guage the surprise with which they beheld the splendour triangular form offered some difficulties, it is observed, but of those pomps which the people are, unfortunately, led to the model was rendered complete; ranges of beautiful receive, instead of that pure, direct teaching of the truth, pillars decorated the different fronts, and so minutely was which alone can securely conduct them to salvation. “We every particular attended to, that even the fresco paintings went," says Dr. Henderson, “ to the Patriarchal Hall, to for the ceilings, and the colour of the marble columns for see the ceremony of the preparation of the Holy Oil. Here, the interior of the buildings, were represented with scru- over a stove, constructed on purpose, we found two large pulous nicety.

kettles, in which the different ingredients were mixed, and The view from the belfry of St. Ivan is very magnificent, kept, in constant motion by six deacons, who stirred them but it is, perhaps, surpassed by that from the terrace in the with long rods of cypress, the handies of which were Kremlin. " It would afford,” says Dr. Clarke, “a fine covered with red velvet. This was the third day since the subject for a panorama. The number of magnificent ceremony commenced, and another day would still be rebuildings, the domes, the towers, and spires, filling all the quired, ere the oil would be ready. This oil, which conprospect, make it, perhaps, one of the most extraordinary sists of the ingredients prescribed in the Levitical law, is sights in Europe. All the wretched hovels, and miserable not prepared every year, but only every third or fourth. wooden buildings, which appear in passing through the When the fire is kindled, and also when the ingredients streets, are lost in the vast assemblage of magnificent are put into the kettles, the Metropolitan is present, to edifices. Among these, the Foundling Hospital is parti- give his benediction; and this he repeats in a most solemn cularly conspicuous. Below the walls of the Kremlin, the manner, when the ceremony is about to be completed. Moskva, already become a river of importance, is seen During the whole time of the preparation, a succession of flowing towards the Volga. The new promenade forming deacons keep up the reading of the Gospels; and should on its banks, immediately beneath the fortress, is a superb they read through the Evangelists, they commence afresh. work, and promises to rival the famous quay at Peters- To us, it was most interesting to behold a crowd of poor burgh: it is paved with large flags; and is continued from people leaning forward over each other, and listening to the the stone bridge to another, which is called the Moskva words of eternal life. Bridge, being fenced with a light but strong iron palisade, “ At the east end of the hall rose a stand, resembling and stone pillars, executed in a very good taste. A flight that used in rooms for receiving flower-pots, the steps or of stairs leads from this walk to the river, where the shelves reclining and diminishing as they approached the ceremony of the Benediction of the Water takes place. top. On these was placed a great variety of gold and silver Another flight of wooden steps leads, through the walls of cups and flagons, of various sizes, among which, at certain the Kremlin, to an area within the fortress.'

distances, was a vast profusion of lighted candles, which The two principal Cathedrals, that of the Assumption, gave great brilliancy to the scene. and of the Archangel Michael, present many objects of “ The most remarkable object in this splendid exhibition considerable interest. It is in the former that the emperors of sacred utensils was a large flagon, made of mother-ofare crowned ; and the magnificence of its furniture and pearl, which still contains some of the oil brought from ornaments rendered it one of the chief scenes of violence Constantinople, on the introduction of Christianity into Rus and spoliation during the conflagration of 1812. The French sia, in the tenth century. It is preserved with great care, soldiers erected a furnace at one end of the Church, and so that when only a few drops are taken from it, as on the began to melt the gold and silver vessels which they found present occasion, their place is supplied by some of that in its sanctuary; but in the midst of their proceedings, the which had been prepared at a former period, by which trumpet sounded a retreat, and they were obliged to leave means its perpetual virtue is supposed to be secured. the best part of their sacrilegious spoils behind. The Close to the stove, we observed an immensely large silver cathedral of the Archangel Michael is celebrated as con- urn; and on a table on the opposite side of the hall, taining the tombs of the Czars, which, as related by La-sixteen smaller ones, resembling the common tea-urn, baume, suffered similar injuries at the hands of the invaders. only much larger. The oil, thus prepared and deposited

in these utensils, is sent to all parts of the empire, to be MANNERS, CUSTOMS, AND RELIGION,

used for sacramental purposes."

The season of Lent, and the succeeding festival of The private dwellings of the nobility at Moscow are fur- | Easter, are observed with innumerable ceremonies, but they nished with unparalleled magnificence, and the museums are followed by every species of excess; and the s lemnity and libraries which they contain surpass in extent many with which the patriarch proclaims “Christ is risen," is public collections in other countries. In their style of scarcely concluded, when intoxication removes every living, the nobles display a similar ambition to rival the thought, which the long and strictly observed fast of the grandeur of princes. Some of them have as many as five season could have brought to mind. hundred domestics; and in the banquets which they give, "The first ceremony," says Dr. Clarke, “which took the splendour which reigns around is said to equal the place previous to all this feasting, was that of the Pâque sumptuous exhibitions of oriental courts. But the state of fleuries, or Palm Sunday. On the eve of this day the the people at large is little in accordance with these ex- inhabitants of Moscow resort, in carriages, on horseback,

power and grandeur.

or on foot, to the Kremlin, for the purchase of palmThe higher classes themselves foster the most degrading branches, to place before their Boghs, and to decorate the customs, are sensual in the worst extreme, are constantly sacred pictures in the streets, or elsewhere. It is one of involved in difficulties, though possessing almost unlimited the gayest promenades of the year.

The governor, means of luxury; and, in the midst of their libraries and attended by the master of police, the commandant, and a museums, remain uninquisitive and ignorant. The inferior train of nobility, go in procession mounted on fine horses. classes, subject to the caprices, and intluenced by the ex- The streets are lined with spectators; and cavalry are ample, of the nobility, make but slow progress in the work stationed on each side to preserve order. Arriving in the of improvement; and ages will probably have passed away Kremlin, a vast assembly bearing artificial bouquets and before the people of Russia begin to enjoy the blessings of boughs, are seen moving here and there, forming the novel true civilization and enlightenment. We may, without and striking spectacle of a gay and moving forest. The much fear of error, attribute a large proportion of these boughs consist of artificial towers and fruit. Beautiful

ternal signs

representations of oranges and lemons, in wax, are sold censers, who were making three times in procession, the for a few copeeks each, and offer a proof of the surprising tour of the Cathedral; chanting with loud voices, and ingenuity of this people, in the arts of imitation. Upon glittering in sumptuous vestments, bespangled with gold, this occasion, every person who visits the Kremlin, and silver, and precious stones. The snow had not melted so would be thought a true Christian, purchases one, or more rapidly within the Kremlin as in the streets of the city: of the boughs, called palm-branches; and in returning, this magnificent procession was therefore constrained to the streets are crowded with droskies, and all kinds of move upon planks over the deep mud which surrounded vehicles, filled with devotees, holding in their hands one or the Cathedral. After completing the third circuit, they all more palm-branches, according to the degree of their piety, halted opposite the great doors, which were still closed; the or the number of boghs in their houses.

archbishop, with a censer, then scattered incense against “ The second grand ceremony of this season," continues the doors, and over the priests. Suddenly, these doors our traveller, “ takes place on Thursday before Easter, at were opened, and the effect was magnificent beyond denoon, when the archbishop is said to wash the feet of the scription. The immense throng of spectators within, Apostles. This we also witnessed. The priests appeared bearing innumerable tapers, formed two lines, through in their most gorgeous apparel. Twelve monks, designed which the archbishop entered, advancing with his train to to represent the twelve Apostles, were placed in a semi- a throne near the centre. The profusion of lights in all circle before the archbishop. The ceremony was performed parts of the Cathedral, and, among others, of the enormous in the cathedral, which was crowded with spectators. The chandelier in the centre, the richness of the dresses, and archbishop, performing all and much more than is related the vastness of the assembly, filled us with astonishment." of our Saviour in the thirteenth chapter of St. John, took The archbishop then took his seat on the throne, amid the off his robes, girded up his loins with a towel, and pro- loud and continued peals of music; after being seated a ceeded to wash the feet of all the monks, until he came to few minutes, he descended, and offered incense, first to the the representative of St. Peter, who rose and stood up; people, and then to the priests : on his returning to the and the same interlocution passed between him and the throne, the priests, two by two, performed the same cerearchbishop, which is recorded to have taken place between mony“ beginning with the archbishop, who rose and made our Saviour and the Apostle.

obeisance with a lighted taper in his hand;" the people, The third, and most magnificent ceremony of all, is from the moment they entered the church, continuing to celebrated two hours after midnight, in the morning of bow and cross themselves, without intermission. “ After Easter Sunday. It is called the Ceremony of the Resur- two hours had been spent in various ceremonies, the archrection, and certainly exceeds every thing of the kind at bishop advanced, holding forth a cross, which all the peoRome; not even excepting the Papal Benediction, during ple crowded to embrace, squeezing each other nearly to the Holy Week. Ai midnight, the great bell of the suffocation. As soon, however, as their eagerness had Cathedral tolled. Its vibrations seemed to be the rolling been somewhat satisfied, he retired to the sacristy, under of distant thunder; and they were instantly accompanied a pretence of seeking for the body of Christ; where putby the noise of all the bells in Moscow. Every inhabitant ting on a plain purple robe, he again advanced, exclaiming was stirring, and the rattling of carriages in the streets three times, in a loud voice, ‘Christ is risen. The whole was greater than at noon-day. The whole city was in a ceremony was then concluded by the archbishop's deblaze; lights were seen in all the windows, and innu- | scending from his throne, and proceeding on his knees merable torches in the streets. The tower of the Cathedral from one part of the church to another, to kiss the paintings, was illuminated, from its foundation to its cross. The the images, and relics which enriched its aisles" same ceremony takes place in all the Churches; and, what is truly surprising, considering their number, they are all equally crowded. We hastened to the Cathedral; it was The history and present condition of Moscow hare both filled with a prodigious assembly, consisting of all ranks their value as subjects of inquiry and reflection. They of both sexes, bearing lighted wax-tapers, to be afterwards tend to inspire us with a feeling of profound thankfulness heaped as vows upon the different shrines. The walls, the for the security, the freedom, and the light, which we enjoy ceilings, and every part of this building, are covered by in this favoured land; and they afford us one of the the pictures of saints and martyrs. In the moment of our strongest proofs that could be given, that a country may arrival, the doors were shut; and on the outside appeared advance to the highest degree of power and wealth, but Plato, the archbishop, preceded by banners and torches, remain sunk, if unblessed by a pure form of Religion, in and followed by all his train of priests, with crucifixes and I all the essential characteristics of barbarism.

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