Recognition in International Law: With Special Reference to Russia

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The Place of Recognition in the Relations of States
3
Tests of Premature Recognition
9
8 Recognition as a Question of Fact
23
Defined Territory
30
16 The Incidental Political Element of Recognition
36
The Declaratory and Constitutive Views of Recognition 17 The Constitutive View page
38
18 The Declaratory View of Recognition
41
The Declaratory View and the Practice of Courts
43
The Collectivization of Recognition of Governments
165
RECOGNITION OF BELLIGERENCY
175
The Reasons for the Relative Infrequency of Recognition of Belligerency
182
61 The Right of the Lawful Government to Recognition of Belligerency
193
The Right of Insurgents and of the Lawful Government Contrasted
199
Opinions of the Law Officers of the Crown on Conditions of Closure of Ports
214
Opinions of the Law Officers of the Crown on Recognized Belligerents
222
The Duty of Recognition of Belligerency and the Independence of States
228

20 The Existence of a State and the Commencement of International Personality page
45
21 The Automatic Test ofExistence
48
The Declaratory and Constitutive Views of Recognition continued 22 The Criticism of the Constitutive View on Ethical Grounds page
52
The Right of Existing States to determine Statehood
55
The Retroactivity of Recognition and the Traditional Doctrines
59
The Problem of the Legal Nature of Recognition
61
The Acknowledgment of the Legal Nature of Recognition
63
The Procedure of Recognition 28 The Collectivization of the Process of Recognition page
67
International Courts as Agencies of Recognition
69
Municipal Courts and the Function of Recognition
70
31 The Meaning of the Legal Duty of Recognition
73
32 Recognition as Declaratory of Facts and as Constitutive of Rights
75
The Antinomy of the Legal and Political Character of Recognition
76
The Problem of Recognition and the Political Integration of International Society page
77
Opinions of the Law Officers of the Crown concerning the State of the Fiji Islands prior to their Annexation page
79
International Law and Revolutionary
87
38 Presumption in Favour of Established Governments
93
40 The Test of Legitimacy
102
Willingness to fulfil International Obligations
109
The Principle of Effectiveness and
115
45 The Practice of the United States
124
The Abandonment of the Traditional Test of Recognition after the First
130
The Value of the Principle of Subsequent Legitimation through Popular
136
Unrecognized Governments before Judicial Tribunals
145
The Current Criticism of the Attitude of Courts in the Matter of Recognition
153
Duty of Recognition
158
The Formal Argument against the Duty of Recognition of Belligerency
236
The Duty of the Lawful Government to grant Recognition
243
73 Recognition of Belligerency and the Spanish Civil War of 19369
250
Opinions of the Law Officers of the Crown on Insurgency and Municipal
265
Recognition of Insurgency during the Cuban War of Independence
271
Wrongs committed by Rebels not recognized as Insurgents
278
Effects of de facto and of de jure Recognition
284
Recognition of Insurgency and the Limits of de facto Recognition
290
88 Declaration of Piracy by the Lawful Government
296
Judicial Decisions page
300
93 The Development of the Conception of Piracy
306
PROBLEMS OF RECOGNITION
329
The Meaning of the Distinction between de jure and de facto Recognition
336
Implied Recognition de facto Recognition and de facto Intercourse
346
103 Withdrawal of Recognition of Governments
352
Appendix to Chapter XIX
365
109 The Conclusion of Treaties
371
no Participation in Conferences
380
113 The Appointment of Agents
388
Implied Recognition and the Policy or Obligation of NonRecognition
395
117 Implied Recognition of Belligerency
403
The Principle of NonRecognition
409
123 Acceptance of the Obligation of NonRecognition
416
Invalidity of Titles based on Treaties inconsistent with Former Treaty
426
The Principle of NonRecognition and the Maintenance of International
434

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