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with 24,000 men. He sent an insulting communication to Washington which he very properly refused to receive. On the 27th of August that part of the army stationed at Brooklyn under Gen. Sullivan was attacked and defeated with great loss and Generals Sullivan, Sterling and Woodhull taken prisoners. Two days after, Gen. Washington effected a retreat and landed his troops safely in New York without the movement being discovered by the energy until completed. Chagrined and mortified at the loss of their prey the British prepared to attack the city which induced the Americans to evacuate it and retire to White Plains. Here they were attacked on the 28th of September-the British were repulsed, a considerable loss was sustained on both sides and no victory to either. The disasters of the patriots multiplied-Fort Washington and Lee fell into the hands of the Englishthe American army was flying before a relentless foe. Washington crossed the Hudson and retreated through Jersey into Pennsylvania with Lord Cornwallis pressing on his rear. His army was now reduced to 3000 men who were destitute of almost every comfort of life. They could be tracked by blood from their naked feet upon the frozen ground. Think of this ye who are now enjoying the rich behest of Liberty so dearly purchased and but by few properly appreciated. Reverses had chilled the zeal of many leading men who at first espoused the cause of freedom but whose hearts were not yet sufficiently harrowed by oppression to have the good seed take root. A fiery cloud of indignation, ready to devour them, hung over the bleeding colonies. Washington was still confident of ultimate success. He believed that in the archives of eternal justice their FREEDOM was written. Guardian angels listened to the vesper orisons of those who were true to themselves, their country and their God who directed their destiny. The bold career of the roaring lion was arrested. This Spartan band was crowned with victory. On the night of the 25th of December Washington crossed the Delaware to Trenton amidst floating ice-surprised and took one thousand prisoners-pushed on to Princeton, killed sixty and took three hundred prisoners, spreading consternation in the ranks of the enemy. This success re-animated many of the cold hearts that could be warmed only by prosperitysunshine patriots whose love of freedom was very similar to selfrighteousness. Washington retired to Morristown N. J. for the winter the English occupied Brunswick.
In the spring of 1777 the army of Washington amounted to about 7000 men. No action occurred between the main armies until August when the British landed in Maryland with the intention of capturing Philadelphia. On the 11th of September the two armies met at Brandywine-a desperate battle ensued and a partial dearly purchased victory was gained by the English. On the approach of the enemy the City of Penn was abandoned. On the 4th of October another severe battle was fought at Germantown which proved disastrous to the American troops in consequence of their becoming separated and confused by a thick fog. These keen misfortunes were more than balanced by the capture of the entire British army in the north under Burgoyne by Gen. Gates on the 17th of October. On the reception of this news France recognised the Independence of the United States, entered into a treaty of alliance and furnished important aid by sending many of her brave sons to the rescue. The English retreated to New York in the spring of 1778 from which place they made frequent descents upon various places, destroying private property, murdering the inhabitants and spreading desolation wherever they went. They sent an expedition to Georgia and were crowned with victory. During this year no decisive battle was fought. The same during 1779. The British seemed to be better pleased with a predatory warfare than pitched battles which they carried on in a manner that put savage barbarity in the shade and made the inquisitor general of Madrid mourn for lost humanity. Alas for the Christian majesty of mother Britain.
Again the exertions of Washington were alınost paralyzed for the want of men and money. The French Admiral D'Estaing was unfor. tunate in all his movements. The British lion was prowling through the land in all the majesty of cruelty. The anchor of hope could scarcely keep the shattered bark of Liberty to its moorings-the cable of exertion lost thread after thread until but a small band of genuine patriots and heroes were left as a nucleus to breast the fury of the storm that rolled its dashing surges over them. But they clung to the creaking craft with a death grip and weathered the terrific gale. The campaign of 1780 terminated more favorably to the American arms. The south had become the main theatre of action. The cruelties of the enemy had prepared more hearts to do service in the cause of Liberty. The people were brought to see their true interests and rallied under the banner of freedom determined on victory or death. Gates, the hero of Saratoga, was put in command of the southern army-fresh aid arrived from France-the conflict was one of desperation. On the 18th of August a severe battle was fought near Camden, S. C. The British were the victors. Defeat now only served to rally the bone and sinew of the land. The hardy sons of Columbia rose like a phænix from ashes and hurled the thunderbolts of vengeance among their savage foes with the fury of Mars. Every battle weakened and disheartened the enemy when a victory was gained. A few more conquests like those at Camden and Guilford Court House would seal their doom The energetic Greene succeeded Gates. The campaign of 1781 opened. Washington moved to the south. Wayne, Lee, Greene, La Fayette, Nelson and other brave officers were there. Count de Grasse was co-operating with his fleet. In their turn the British lords, admirals and generals found themselves surrounded with impending dangers. An awful crisis was pressing upon them. Retribution stared them in the face. Their deeds of blood haunted their guilty souls-consternation seized their troubled minds. Lord Cornwallis concentrated his forces at Yorktown which he fortified in the best possible manner.
On the 6th of October the combined forces of Washington and Rochambeau commenced a siege upon this place which surrendered on the 19th of the same month. The grand Rubicon was passed-the work was done-the Colonies were free. That was the dying struggle of British monarchy in America. Hope of conquering her indomitable sons expired like the death flickering of a glow-worm. Heaven had decreed they should be free-that decree was consummated. Like Jordan's dove, the Eagle of Liberty descended to cheer the conquering heroes-snatched the laurels from Britain's brow and placed them triumphantly upon the CHAMPIONS OF AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE. To the friends of FREEDOM the scene was joyful, sublime-to its enemies-painful, humiliating. This victory was hailed with enthusiastic gratitude. It placed Washington on the loftiest summit of immortal fame-secured Liberty to his beloved country, stopped the effusion of human blood, sealed the foundations of our Republic-prepared an asylum for the op- . pressed-planted deep the long nursed TREE OF LIBERTY.
On the 30th of September 1783 a definitive treaty was signed at Paris by Messrs. Fitzherbert and Oswald on the part of Great Britain and Messrs. John Adams, Franklin, Jay and Laurens on the part of the United States. On the 2d of November Washington issued his farewell orders to his army in terms of affectionate eloquence and parental soli. citude. On the 3d the troops were disbanded by Congress. With mingling tears of joy and gratitude they parted and repaired finaliy to their homes to meet the warm embrace, the fervent grasp of their families and friends-there to reap the rich fruit of their perilous toils free from the iron scourge of despotism. On the 23d of December Washington appeared in the hall of Congress and resigned his commission. This act was one of sublimiiy and thrilling interest. The past, present
and future-all rushed upon the mind of this great and good man as he invoked the blessings of Heaven to descend and guard the Liberty of his beloved emancipated country. Every eye was fixed upon himevery heart beat quicker-emotion rose to its zenith-he laid the commission on the table-a burst of applause rent the air-a flood of tears closed the scene.
No longer under the maternal care of their old mother, the people of the United States were left to try the yet problematical experiment of self government. Difficulties arose from local jealousies and conflicting interests-a debt of forty millions of dollars had been contractedgovernment paper became greatly depreciated-the public credit was shivering in the wind-the Liberty that had been so dearly purchased seemed doomed to a premature dissolution. To avoid this threatened disaster delegates convened at Philadelphia from all the States except Rhode Island for the purpose of devising a plan to preserve and perfect that freedom which had cost millions of treasure and fountains of noble blood. Washington was unanimously elected President of this august body. After long and patient deliberation the labors of these patriots resulted in the production of the Federal Constitution, one of the brightest specimens of a republican form of government on record. It is the grand palladium of our LIBERTY, the golden chain of our UNION, the broad banner of FREEMEN, a terror to tyrants, a shining light to patriots, the illustrated chart of our rights and duties, a safeguard against disorga. nizing factions and stamped its illustrious authors with a meritorious fame that succeeding generations will delight to perpetuate.
On the 17th of September this was reported to Congress and was promptly approved. It was immediately sent to the several states for consideration all of which sanctioned it at that time except North Carolina and Rhode Island. The former acceded to it in 1789, the latter in 1790. Confidence was then restored and Independence made seeure. From that time to the present our nation has advanced on the tiood tide of successful experiment and been blessed with an increasing prosperity that has no parallel in the annals of history. The star spangled banner waves proudly on every sea and is respected by all the nations of the earth. Our improvements at home have marched in advance of the boldest conceptions of the most visionary projectors-the fondest anticipations of their most ardent friends. They have often outstripped the most adventurous speculators.
By the unanimous voice of a free and grateful people Washington was elected the first President of the new Republic. With the same proverbial diffidence and modesty that had marked his whole career he
took the oath of office on the 30th of April 1789. This imposing ceremony was performed in presence of the first Congress under the Federal Constitution assembled in the city of New York and in presence of a crowded audience who deeply felt and strongly expressed their filial affection for the father of their country. He at once entered upon the important duties that devolved upon him which were neither few or small. A cabinet was to be created, a revenue raised, the judiciary organized, its officers appointed and every department of government to be established on a firm, impartial, just and humane basis. In all these arrangements he exhibited great wisdom, exercised a sound discretion and proved as able a statesman as he had been a general. Deliberation and prudence guided him at all times. He acted up to but never transcended the bounds of equal justice and delegated authority. An angel could do no more.
During his administration of eight years he brought into full force his noblest energies to advance the best interests of his country-meliorate the condition of those who were suffering from the effects of a protracted war-improve the state of society, arts, science, agriculture, manufactures-commerce-disseminate general intelligence-allay local difficulties and render the infant Republic as happy and glorious as it was free and independent. His patriotic exertions were crowned with success-his fondest anticipations were realized-he finished the work assigned him with a skill before unknown-the government foundations were laid deep and strong-the superstructure was rising in grandeurWashington wrote his farewell address and on the 4th of March 1797 retired from public life honored and loved by a nation of freemen, respected and admired by a gazing world-crowned with an unsullied fame that will grow brighter and more brilliant through all time. He then repaired to Mount Vernon to repose in the bosom of his family and enjoy that domestic peace by his own fireside that he had long desired. He had served his country long, ably, impartially, justly. He could look back upon a life well spent in the cause of human rights, liberal principles and an enlarged philanthropy.
For his arduous services during the revolutionary war Washington took no compensation. More than this, owing to the depreciation of continental money he paid three-fourths of his own expenses. He kept a correct book entry of every business transaction and produced a written voucher for every disbursement he had made of public funds. During his presidential terms his expenses exceeded his salary over five thousand dollars a year which he paid from his private funds and refused a proffered remuneration. With the exception of his appointment