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It alfo contains pot-afh or vegetable alkali, and a volatile effential oil; and, in its juice or water, there is an acid that difappears on burning to ashes.

The doctor is of opinion, that ninety-eight or ninety-nine parts out of a hundred of the meal of the potatoe, are convertible into animal matter; and that there is no juft ground for fuppofing that the meal of wheat affords much more nourishment than an equal quantity of potatoe meal.

The statements of Mr. Hayes, Dr. Anderfon, and Mr. Somerville, are entitled to the confideration of farmers, from the curious hints which they offer.

The Report before us certainly comprehends many important facts and juft obfervations; but we cannot think that they are placed under that mode of arrangement, or in that point of view, which would be moft advantageous to the readers for whom they are principally intended.

In examining the work, we have alfo noticed feveral paffages that are obfcure, probably from errors of the press.

Picturefque Views on the River Wye, from its Source at Plinlimmon Hill, to its Junction with the Severn below Chepflow with Obfervations on the Public Buildings, and other Works of Art, in its Vicinity: by Samuel Ireland. Royal 8vo. 1. 16s. Boards. Faulder. 1797.

MR. Ireland has long been confidered as a traveller of tafte; and this work will not difcredit the reputation which he has acquired in that department, however his character may have fuffered in other refpects. The courfe of the Wye, though not very long, prefents a variety of interefting fcenes; and they are well reprefented in the prints which accompany this publication.

Of Mr. Gilpin, whofe remarks upon the Wye and its environs are well known, it is faid, in the Preface to the production now under review, that

'One ingenious author indeed has given obfervations upon the river, and fuch as have unquestionably merited the high commendations they have received from the admirers of the picturesque and beautiful: and he has accompanied his obfervations with drawings. He does not however profefs to give exact reprefentations, or portraits of the various objects that prefent themfelves, but aims rather at exhibiting their general effect on the eye, when confidered technically, and as picturefque forms by the learned and profeffed artist.' P. vii.

Mr. Ireland profeffes to be a more faithful obferver of picturefque fcenes.

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It is his aim, that his drawings fhould, like the tranfparent mirror of his ftream, truly reflect the landfcape that exifts around, as well as the objects that decorate its banks. And, content with the fimple charms and varieties of nature, he cannot prevail upon himfelf to contemplate in every winding of the stream the forms of his own idea, the image of his own mind and its complicated fameness, reflected again, and again. P. ix.

The laft reflection is too applicable to the affected refinements of Mr. Gilpin to be deemed unjust or illiberal.

Near the fummit of Piinlimmon hill, the Wye iffes from a cavity, and falls feveral hundred yards down a rocky steep, nearly perpendicular, till, meeting with various small currents, it prefents itfelf in the shape of an immenfe catara&t." It continues for feveral miles to roll over a rocky bed; but its impetuofity is at length diminished. A view of its fource is annexed to the first fection.

Following the course of the river, Mr. Ireland foon reached the wretched town of Rhaidr-Gwy, which formerly had a caftle; but he found no traces of that fortrefs. He fpeaks of Llandrindod-wells, near Builth, as being little frequented, though the medicinal qualities of the waters have been highly


He has given a pleafing view of the approach to Hay, taken

from a fpot about a mile below the bridge, which presents a fcene highly enriched by an affemblage of woods, meadows, and corn fields, at once extenfive, and in a peculiar degree interesting.

The town is happily fituated on the declivity of a hill, on which the houses rifing gradually, convey the idea of a place of infinitely more confequence than really it poffeffes, and in no small degree gives the general outline of an Italian landscape.' P. 31.

In fpeaking of the cathedral of Hereford, he takes an opportunity of panegyrifing (perhaps beyond Mr. Wyat's real defert)

the rare talents of an architect, whofe knowledge of the Gothic, and natural tafte for grandeur and fimplicity, fo peculiarly fitted him for the office of restoring this venerable fabric to its true characteristical dignity, and who does not appear to have deviated from the original defign, where it was poffible to conform to it, One principal improvement has been the removing fome walls that encircled a material part of the church, by which means a view was opened, of two beautiful chapels, called Stanbury and Audley, that had been long concealed from the public eye.' P. 53. He proceeds to remark, that

This magnificent ftructure has ever been confidered by the

antiquary, notwithstanding its irregularity, as a fplendid specimen of the piety and munificence of our early churchmen; and the arched roof of the upper cross aifle, fupported by a fingle pillar, is peculiarly deferving attention. Tradition fays, it was erected in the reign of William Rufus, by Robert de Lozinga, fecond bishop of the fee of Hereford. The height of the tower was one hundred and twenty-five feet, upon which was a lofty fpire, that has, fince the accident, been taken down.' P. 54.

The account of Rofs is eked out with an unnecessary quotation from Pope, refpecting John Kyrle; and a portrait of that philanthropift, fuppofed to exhibit a good refemblance, is given.

The fpacious remains of the romantic caftle of Goodrich, and the ruins of a neighbouring priory, are thus defcribed.

This celebrated caftle was nearly square, covering a space of ground forty eight yards by fifty two, it was defended at each angle by four large round towers, one of which formed an irregular heptagon. Through a perfect Gothic arch, we are led to a spacious hall of good proportion overgrown with ivy, adjoining which is an area, presenting the remains of a lofty fquare building, with cir cular arched windows in the Saxon ftyle, refembling Gundulph's tower at Rochefter caftle. By the fragment of a stone staircase, we afcend another embattled tower, through which at a great depth appears the immenfe foffé, or trench, which is hewn out of a folid rock, and is twenty yards in breadth. Here was once a draw-bridge and two gates with receffes between each, evidently intended as places of fafety for its guards, who unfeen might annoy the enemy. The various points from which this castle may be viewed to advantage, would afford ample matter for the antiquary, artift, and military architect.

Quitting this fpot, feveral views of the caftle prefented themfelves, but they were all undignified and uninteresting when compared with thofe we had before contemplated. The country on the oppofite fide of the river towards the village of Walford, is peculiarly beautiful. In the church of Walford, one of the aisles is now called Kyrle's chapel, it was erected by that family for their private ufe, before it became a parochial church; about a mile below the castle, is a finall remain of Goodrich priory; a few Gothic windows are yet standing, and part of the chapel which is now converted to a granary: the whole affords an object fufficient to attract the notice of the curious.

This priory was a monastery of the order of black canons regular of St. Auguftine, founded and endowed with the king's licence in the twentieth of Edward the fourth, 1347. Its fituation correfponds with the happy choice ufually made by the ancient poffeffors of religious houfes, it stands in a fertile valley, wawered by one of the fineft rivers in the kingdom. The building

with the lands contiguous to the caftle are occupied by a Mr. Bellamy. From the afcent, approaching the village of Goodrich, a rich and extenfive view prefents itself across the forest of Dean, from whence Rure-dean church happily breaks upon the eye.

Here the Wye in a long and ferpentine reach, appears in a perspective point of view and affords a pleafing and happy termination to the scenery; its banks are fcreened on the fouth, by an extenfive coppice wood, and on the north, by fertile meadows rifing towards Bifhop's-wood, from which a confiderable iron furnace in this vicinity derives its name. From the ftone quarries in this neighborhood, the new bridge at Bristol was principally erected.' P. 84.

We afterwards have accounts of the town and environs of Monmouth, of Rhaglan caftle, Tintern abbey, Chepstow, &c. but no other extracts are requifite.

The work, upon the whole, is amufing, though numerous violations of grammatical propriety are obfervable, which are rendered more glaring by the fplendour of the typography.

The Proceedings of the Governor and Assembly of Jamaica, in regard to the Maroon Negroes: published by Order of the Alfembly. To which is prefixed, an introductory Account, containing, Obfervations on the Difpofition, Character, Manners, and Habits of Life, of the Maroons, and a Detail of the Origin, Progrefs, and Termination of the late War between thofe People and the White Inhabitants. 8vo. 5s. Boards. Stockdale. 1796.

THE original part of this volume was written by Mr. Bryan Edwards, whofe Hiftory of Jamaica entitles him to the praise of accurate information, great perfpicuity, and those powers of investigation, which diftinguish the hiftorian from the mere compiler. In thefe refpects, his character will not fuffer by the prefent publication, which furnishes a correct detail of the late Maroon war, and, what indeed appears to be the principal purpofe, the beft defence that has yet been offered for fome parts of the conduct of the Jamaica government. We do not, perhaps, co-incide with him in all his pofitions on this fubject; nor do we approve that afperity with which he treats the characters of fome members of the fociety formed for promoting the abolition of the flave-trade. But we shall not interpole between them. There are writers be longing to that fociety fufficiently able to vindicate its views and intentions.

This work commences with a history of the Maroons, from the conqueft of Jamaica by the English, to the year

1738. This is borrowed from Mr. Long's Hiftory of Jamaica, which Mr. Edwards chofe to adopt for two reafons; first, because he had nothing to add, concerning the origin of the Maroons, to what Mr. Long has fo diftinctly related; and, fecondly, because its adoption exempts him from all suspicion of having fabricated a tale, calculated to justify certain circumftances and tranfactions, of which complaint was made in the British parliament.

An account is afterwards given of the manners and cuftoms of the Maroons, who are reprefented in a very unfavourable light. As their number always bears a very small proportion to that of the other inhabitants, it feems very extraordinary that no methods of civilifing them were ever adopted. Mr. Edwards juftly remarks, that, instead of being eftablished in feparate hordes or communities, in the strongest parts of the interior country, they thould have been encouraged by all poffible means to frequent the towns, and to intermix with the negroes at large. In that cafe,

All diftinctions between the Maroons and the other free blacks would foon have been loft; the greater number would have prevailed over-the lefs: whereas the policy of keeping them a distinct people, continually inured to arms, introduced among them what the French call an efprit de corps, or a community of fentiments and interefts and concealing from them the powers and resources of the whites, taught them to feel, and at the fame time highly to overvalue, their own relative ftrength and importance.' P. xxiv.

After this introduction, the author gives a hiftory of the late war. It began in 1795, and was happily concluded by the fubmiffion of the Maroons, who have been fince (to the number of 600) tranfported to Halifax, in Nova Scotia. As the particulars of this war are generally known, we thall extract only that part of the hiftory, in which Mr. Edwards explains the reafons for the employment of dogs.

The general affembly was convened the latter end of September, and their firft deliberations were directed to the subject of the Maroon rebellion, with a folicitude equal to its importance. On this occafion it was natural to recur to the experience of former times, and enquire into the measures that had been fuccessfully adopted in the long and bloody war, which, previous to the treaty .of 1738, had been carried on against the fame enemy. The expe,dient which had then been reforted to, of employing dogs to difcover the concealment of the Maroons, and prevent the fatal effects which refulted from their mode of fighting in ambuscade, was recommended as a fit example to be followed in the prefent conjuncture; and it being known that the Spanish Americans poffeffed a certain fpecies of thofe animals, which it was judged would be

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