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rages him to deftroy Inez. Coello, the difcarded lover of Inez, meets Alvaro (there is too much of this cross intrigue);. and, while the latter is ftimulating him to take vengeance on Pedro, the king enters with Gonfalez, an old Portuguese nobleman, inflamed

• With all his country's rancour to Castile,' P, 16.

The retired habits of Pedro, fince his attachment to Inez, and the favour with which he is fuppofed to treat the Caftilian exiles for her fake, have excited the anger of the king. The disappointed paffion of Alvaro and Coello, and the prejudices of Gonfalez, increase his anger; and he fends Coello inftantly to fummon the prince. This meffenger, finding Inez alone, treats her with infolence; and her cries alarm Pedro. At this moment the command of his father is intimated to him; and Coello informs the king on his return, that he has been infulted by the prince, and fent away without an answer. Pedro, however, obeys the mandate; and being reproached with an indolent and inglorious love of peace, he replies:

Think me not, fire, without the pulse that quickens
Beneath the touch of greatnefs.-War itself,
By juftice own'd, can please me with its trophies.
But far more grateful to my foul, I own,

The triumphs of fair peace :-to fpread to cherish
The growth of man, and fill the wond'ring defert
With fmiling population to fupport

Society with morals;-feed with wealth h;

Adorn with arts-to prompt the nerves of labour
To hang the mountain with the cluft'ring vintage,
Or float the plain with harvests;to command
The flood with the bold arch:-to make the precipice
Patient of human feet, and speed the intercourse
Of man with man :-to waft the navy, fraught
With science and religion, to the favage,
To teach and bless :-to bid the general force
Be general good, and thus to prove that all
Were made for all :-O!-this indeed is greatness
That lifts us near to gods!-but the poor pride
Of vulgar statesmanship, to cog and juggle
With artifice and mystery for power;-
To feize the unguarded weaknesses of men,

And make them work our ftrength, to play off paffion
'Gainft paffion, and by difuniting govern:

To form the whole into a mine, and ladder
To raise our pride and glut our avarice—

Is meannefs,-guilt, and trick,-resembling wisdom
As love of bloodshed valour :-'tis beneath me!' P. 659

The king quits him angrily, and commands him to difmifs the Caftilian. A letter, forged by Theresa in the name of Leonora, has been given to the prince, upbraiding him, and darkly hinting at the danger of Inez. Therefa has written this at the inftigation of Alvaro, who hopes, by this contris vance, to irritate Pedro against Leonora, that he may treat her harshly, and that her refentment may induce her to liften to himfelf. The expected event is produced. Pedro is en raged by the infinuations and threats against his wife (for fuch Inez fecretly is); and Leonora leaves him, after pouring out curfes, ftrongly refembling thofe of Caliban.

The difcovery of Inez' father is the fubject of the fourth act. A letter from the king, declaring, in equivocal language, that Inez fhall not be exiled as he had before threatened, fatisfies and deceives Pedro ; and he leaves her for the chase. During his abfence, his wife is dragged before the king, She earnestly implores his pity.

Alphonfo. Encourage not

A hope from me :-if heaven indeed can help thee
Addrefs it, and be quick!

• Inez. What mean you, fir?

Alphonfo. All the poor folace, which departing life
Can fteal from hope of heaven,-I'll not deny thee.
Short be thy fuperftition!

Inez. Will you murder me?

Alphonfo, No!-as a victim offer thee to justice.
Murder's the deed of paffion.—I am temperate :
No infurrection ftruggles in my breaft:

My pulfe beats health.-No-I'll not murder thee;
-But thou muft die.

• Inez. Oh! let me live, dread monarch!
A feeble trembling woman.-Valour scorns

An unrefifting foe :-and man embrues not

His hands in woman's blood!-Heaven gave to man

Courage and ftrength;-poor woman fears and weakness :
But made thofe fears and weakness her defence

In man's conciliation.-O Alphonfo!

Stain not your victor-fword, nor wrong your greatness
With fuch a deed of horror!

Alphonfo. Talk to heaven!

I'll wait:-be fpeedy !—for your forfeit life
'Tis not the foldier takes it—but the fovereign;

Not as an act of valour-but of justice.

Juftice, not less than war, can boast her triumphs,
Oft as illuftrious,-and as dearly earn'd

By victory o'er instinct, and brute nature.—

• Įnez. Viæt'ry o'er nature !-most dishonourable !

What was made man to harden into fiend

Moft impious! The fine clay, which form'd man's


God foften'd with compaffion's milk,-to make it

Apt to receive the stamp of other's woe.
Oh! deem not great what is unnatural!
Submit to heaven's benevolent appointment!
Nor fcorn to feel as man!

Alphonfo. Thou talk'ft in vain !

'Tis reafon's glory to prefide o'er instinct.
And why disturb'd at death?—it is life's goal
That all muft reach.-I foon muft follow thee.
Even this proud fabrick of the earth and heavens,
Built for eternity,-they fay,-fhall perish,
Faded and loft:-then why fhould't thou repine,
That thou art not immortal?—no-die !-die!
'Tis but a few thick rifings of the breath,
And the fhort toil is o'er.

Inez. Death!-agony !

Most horrible!—oh nature shrinks from them!
-And in life's prime !-torn from my late-found parent!
From my fweet infant, nourish'd with my bofom!
From my dear-dear-Oh! mercy-grant me mercy!
Mercy is heav'n's own effence ;-thence derived
Into the breasts of kings to make them god-like,
Refembling their great Lord!


Gonfalez. Think, fire! of juftice;

'Tis juftice is divine.

Inez. Ah! justice never

Could fave a foul !-and they who fhew ne mercy
Shall have but juftice!-Oh! deftroy me not!
Banish me rather to fome diftant fhore,
Whence I may ne'er return to injure Portugal!
There will I toil to linger out my days:
To glean a scanty meal for my poor child,
Strain'd to my breast and moisten'd with my tears,
On the cold ground beneath the churlish skies!
Our state may touch even savages with pity,
And they may lend it aid; and I will pray
For bleffings on the king that faved our lives.
But fhould you fpill my blood,-my guiltlefs blood,
Each vocal drop will to the ear of God,

Call not in vain for vengeance!-Oh!-that look
Shot comfort to my foul' P. IOI.

But the pleads in vain, being forced from the ftage, and murdered by Alvaro and Gonfalez. The defpair or madness of Leonora, and the punishment of the murderers, whom the peasants tear to pieces, conclude the play.

Befides our objections to the crofs intrigues in this drama, we may obferve, that the father of Inez is unneceffarily introduced, as he contributes nothing to the plot. In the fecond act Inez relates a dream; a mode of difcovering the catastro phe always injudicious. The author has, in feveral paffages, too clofely copied the language of Young and Shakspeare. But, upon the whole, we are pleafed with this drama; for, though it discovers not the marks of fuperior genius, it is interefting, and has none of the inflated and pompous inanity that characterises the generality of our modern tragedies.

The Elements and Practice of Rigging and Seamanship. IIluftrated with Engravings. 2 Vols. 4to. 41. 45. Boards. Steel.

IN this refpect we should rely on the judgment of the build

er, who ought to know the qualities of his fhip even before he puts her on the stocks.'

So fays the author; and, without doubt, every artist ought to be fully acquainted with the nature of the work which he undertakes. We fhould think ill of a watch-maker who, pretending to make an accurate time-keeper, fhould bring us one which loft a minute every day. Yet our art of thipbuilding is at prefent in a more imperfect ftate. Far from giving us an early intimation of the qualities of his ship, the builder is much obliged to the captain who furnishes an accurate account of her movements and operations during a voyage. Naval architecture is a very intricate art; and it has not hitherto been purfued in a fufficiently fcientific manner. In common architecture, the artift works upon fixed principles; his materials are folid, and, when once placed, are liable only to trifling accidents. The naval architect has to estimate the power of two conflicting elements, the fea and the air; and he muft accommodate the lower part of a fhip to the refiftance of the one, the upper part to the action of the other. As his vetfel is defigned for velocity, for carriage, for the fight, a very different fyftem must be refpectively adopted. But, notwithstanding the difficulties which attend this fcience, much might be gained by a proper attention to it; and, if due encouragement were given, it cannot be doubted, that, with the opportunities of improvement which the building of every new fhip muft afford, much might be done towards the eftablishment of certain principles, effectually to guide the artift in all his operations. At prefent, if a hip is ordered at the yards to carry a certain tonnage with a given length and breadth, the builder would be at a lofs to fay at what rate the

fhip would go with a given wind in the river or in the fea, in mid-channel, or in the middle of the Atlantic.

The prefent writer does not aim at fcientific perfection; but he has been very usefully employed in giving inftructions to the fhip-builder, the rigger, and the failor. The work is divided. into the feveral heads of Maft-making, Anchor-making, Sailmaking, Block-making, Rigging, Seamanship, and Naval


Under each head is given a vocabulary of terms employed in that branch; and the reader who has not made himself master of these terms, will in vain endeavour to understand the fubfequent accounts. To the defcription of each part is annexed an appropriate plate. The best materials, with the places where they are procured, are noted; and tables are given of the proportions which the different parts bear to each other, and alfo abftracts of acts of parliament which relate to the manufactory or import of materials. To all perfons employed in the maritime fervice, the work will therefore be of the utmost importance. The builder will find in it the whole of his practice, and may derive hints for further improvement. The fabricators of anchors, and the manufacturers of fails, will fee in what they excel or are deficient. The failor will obferve the nature of various fhips, with the advantage or difadvantage of each. The theory of working a fhip is explained in an eafy manner, from the firft plate of all the courses which a fhip can make, to the evolutions of a fquadron; and at the end we find tables of the quantities and dimensions of the standing and running rigging from thips of 110 guns down to ketches of 150 tons.

From a work of this nature, it is difficult to felect extracts; but, to fhow the ftyle of the author, we will transcribe one, in which he points out an error by no means uncommon in our navy.

There are many cafes in which the adding of a few fails, instead of increasing a ship's velocity, retards it. It is however an error into which all seamen almost continually fall, when, in a ftrong gale, they want either to distance, or approach a fhip. When their own fhip is arrived to a very great velocity (fometimes of twelve and more knots an hour), if they have to do with an adverfary the rapidity of which is nearly equal to that of their own fhip, they fancy that, by adding more fails to thofe they have already, at the time when their fhip is perhaps beft difpofed and arrived at its utmoft degree of fwiftnefs, they fhall increase the rapidity of her head-way; and, accordingly, they hoift up some additional stay or ftudding fails, especially if the wind happens to be on the beam or a little more aft. But, by this their expectations are baulked; for the fhip becomes more inclining, her head plunges,

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