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among the others, there was a regular form of outrage and calum ny, which had established a kind of poffeffion; and as it feldom happens, that founds which perpetually ftrike the ear do not finish by inftilling fome prejudice into the mind; as impoftors, by the habit of repeating their falfhoods, at last perfuade themselves that they are true, fo the cruel man, by conftantly giving the name of juftice to his cruelty, and the qualification of guilt to his victims, may fometimes come to believe that he is nothing more than fevere. But here the whole heap is collected together! Here all recollections are awakened, all confciences warned, all rights revivified. Here the whole fyftem of that horrible profcription, difencumbered from all that obfcured it, is difplayed in full light. All its parts are connected together. It is feen, it is followed, in its birth, in its means, in its execution, in its confequences. Thofe who, like you, worthy and wife republicans! feel the want of juftice in their hearts, and feel it to be neceffary for the Lafety of the republic, will rejoice to fee themfelves relieved from the dif grace of being concerned in a crime fo manifeft and fo hideous. They will from this moment exclaim, let the law of Collot d'Herbois be anathematized! they will no longer invoke clemency, but juftice, for every emigrant who is accused of nothing more than having merely abandoned France. As to the men, if men they can be called, to whom Collot d'Herbois and Robespierre have bequeathed their minds and their inclinations, they will at least perceive that in speaking of us in future, they must renounce all thofe common-place infults, of treafon, of cowardice, of infamy; because it has been clearly demonftrated, that to them alone do those appellations apply, while I, on the contrary, am pleading before you, people of France, for the martyrs of fidelity, for them who have carried the courage of virtue even to temerity, for beings, in fhort, of both fexes and of all ages, who, at the risk of incurring greater calamities, refolved to preferve a pure heart, and pure hands. Yes, whoever ye be, who fhall ftill dare to fupport the law of Collot d'Herbois, ye can no longer be either criminal or audacious by halves. Hypocrify is no longer practicable; I have reduced you to the neceffity of using one language; and that language is this:


"The law of Collot d'Herbois was not more congenial to his mind than to our minds. Collot d'Herbois, Carrier, Le Bon, Barrere, Couthon, Saint-Juft, and Robespierre were our colleagues, our friends, our affociates, until they endeavoured to become our rivals and our mafters. All thofe whom they put to death previous to the 31ft of May 1793, were put to death juftly; becaufe at that time they executed their projects of destruction in 'concert with us. All who were put to death after the 31st of May would have been put to death with equal juftice, if they had not wifhed to put us to death alfo. It is our pleasure to date the reign of terror, not from the day on which we extended it, in conjunc

tion, over all France; but from the hour at which they extended it to ourselves. Now that we have punifhed their treachery to us, we will purfue the accomplishment of their defigns upon you. We will finish the career which we began with them, and which they would ftill be pursuing with us, if they had been as faithful to their accomplices as they were pitilefs to their victims. The law of Collot d'Herbois fhall be executed." P. 167.

In commencing the difcuffion of the concerns of the other class of emigrants, he makes the following appeal :

If it were true. that, in the clafs of armed emigrants, there were different defcriptions, if it were true, that, among thofe different defcriptions, there were feveral in whom the act of taking up arms, was a right, a merit, a neceffity, a duty, would it not be unjust to confound them with those to whom fuch act might be imputed as a crime?' P. 172.


He then endeavours to prove, that even the armed emigrants, with fome exceptions, did not deferve the rigours of profcription, as they only exercifed inalienable rights, or difcharged the moft facred of duties, or acquired the firft of merits, or were led away by the most irrefiftible of neceffities.

In reply to the charge of their having produced the war by their complaints and expoftulations, he affirms that the jacobins alone brought it on, and that they alone with to continue it but he is not altogether fuccessful in this part of his argument.

The imputations of criminality, thrown out against the emigrants, he repels upon their oppreffors. Can juftice (he afks) confider that man as a criminal who is fill armed against the infatiate fury of his adverfaries?'

Ah! theirs is the crime, who, having it in their power to reconcile all the French, perfift in the determination to arm them against each other, in order to render their divifion the bafis of their own fcandalous fortune and their own deteftable domination. The crime is theirs who punish thousands of unfortunate beings for the very neceffity to which they themselves have reduced them. The crime is theirs who declare war, and yet will not fuffer themselves to be oppofed; who have recourfe to every means of attack, and yet will admit of no means of defence; who break capitulations, promife men their lives if they will lay down their arms, and then put them to death. The crime is theirs who calumniate the memory of the victims whofe heads they have cut off; who... but I will not proceed; for it is my wish to point out the innocent and not the criminal; fuch is the fatality of my fituation, to which I muft and will fubmit, that I muft, at the fame time, denounce affaffination, and cast a veil over the affaffins.' P. 242.

He allows, however, that fome of the party acted criminally, in favouring the crimes of their enemics in order to rum them,' in oppofing all accommodation, and in several other instances; but he fubjoins, affuredly they are not criminal towards you, republicans; for it is probably to their fyftem that you are indebted for the establishment of your republic. This reafoning is not logical, or conclufive; for, even if the conduct of the moft active of the emigrants had proved fo different from their views as to promote the intereft of the oppofite party, their intentions were ftill equally criminal. He proceeds to ftate the fources of the decices against them:

They are not criminal with respect to your written laws; for against them, as against us, against all the emigrants of every defcription, not a fingle decree has been paffed which did not ema


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From accufations without a crime;

From condemnations without a trial;

From retroactive punishments;

" From the infraction of exifting and known laws;

From ufurping villany, which polluted the firft moments of the republic;

From thofe two monftrous corporations, the jacobins and the commune of the 10th of Auguft;

From those malfacres of the 2d of September, which they confpired together;

From the empire of terror, of crime, and of death ;

From that throne the fteps of which were composed of heaps of ruins and dead bodies;

From the reign of Robespierre;

From the legiflation of Collot d'Herbois ;

In fhort, from the crimes which have been gradually increasing for fix years. That is to fay, that there is not one of those decrees which justice does not reject; that there is not one of those written laws which can be called law, which can ever be regarded as a law: Neque in populo lex, etiam fi populus acceperit.' P. 248.

He ftrongly maintains, that it is not only the part of justice and of duty to redrefs the grievances of the emigrants, and repeal all the laws enacted against them; but that policy, ́and the intereft of the republic, concur to recommend fuch conduct. He affirms, that, while the prefent fyftem is purfued, the four ends of every good political eftablishment' cannot be obtained. Thefe ends are the liberty of the people, "the justice of the laws, purity of manners, and ftability of govern


An addrefs to the deity, in which fervour is combined with fimplicity, clofes the volume. The author occafionally dif

plays the brilliancy of eloquence; and, though fometimes fophiftical, he is not infrequently clofe and pointed in his arguments. Not having the original before us, we do not vouch for the ftrict fidelity of the tranflator: but his ftyle is in general neat, though he has fallen into fome errors of expreffion which would difgrace a mere tyro in literature *.

Minutes of the Society for Philofophical Experiments and Converfations. 8vo. 8s. Boards. Cadell and Davies.

THE defign of a meeting for the regular difcuffion of chemical or philofophical queftions is at firft plaufible, and, even on confideration, feductive. But, if it be ever profecuted with advantage, the fociety thould not be numerous; and all the members thould have advanced fome fteps in the fubjects of their inquiries, that they might be rather proficients than tyros. The perfon felected for the task of making experiments, if not a fervile affiftant, fhould not be a dictator; the fociety thould not fee only with his eyes, or merely adopt his conclufious. Some member should indeed lead; yet the leader may be different on different fubjes, as thefe may have been the more particular objects of his refearch. Thefe obfervations may appear perfonal and invidious; but, though they were certainly in part fuggefted by the experience of this fociety, we intend them as flight hints to those who may wish to form a fimilar one the fociety will not furely regret its own failure, if it can be rendered fubfervient to future fuccefs.

This volume has long remained unreviewed, as we hoped to receive a continuation; but fuch an expectation is at an end: we thall therefore now enter upon our criticism.

The fit propofition relates to caloric, and its combination; but this meeting, in compliance with the wifhes of the lefs informed members of the fociety, was employed in explaining fome fundamental points of chemistry, and fhowing that caJoric is really a body. At the next meeting, the fubject was inveftigated by experiments. In thefe, caloric, from a state of free fire, was in various inftances combined with bodies, and again feparated from them. Light is fuppofed to be fire in active motion; but we have lately learned to confider it as a feparate body, capable of combination and feparation, like other chemical elements. Some dispute arofe, whether caloric, in gaffes, was chemically combined, or abforbed like wa

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*For instance, he fays, You devote to the fame punishment the min, &c. and be who, &c. that is, you devote be!' He apples banditti to out person. He fpeaks of every pains; and obferves, You are their victims as much as, and ftill more than, us! REV.

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ter in a sponge; but, on examination, it feemed moft probable that a true chemical union took place. The experiments, for this purpose, are entertaining, and are applicable to other inquiries.

The fubject of another meeting was to fhow, that preffure, combined with attraction, contributed to the extrication of caloric: this was chiefly proved by the evaporation of æther in vacuo, and the cold produced by it. With care, the experimentalift obferved, that the thermometer may be funk 40°. Thus, if, at Bengal, the heat of fprings be at 53°, and the apparatus, as well as the water, be cooled to this point, ice might be abundantly produced, as the heat would be brought to 13° of Fahrenheit; a ftep far beyond Mr. Walker's boafted difcoveries. The effects of the preffure of the atmosphere, on many other bodies, were alfo thown for the fame purpose. The experiments on the analyfis, &c. of air, offer nothing new or interefting. In thofe which relate to refpiration, we find, that the effects of azote in air, when in a fmall proportion, are merely negative. Carbonic acid air feems to act on the air-veffels of the lungs, by producing stricture, fince, when it was introduced by a canula, at an opening made below, it had the fame effects as when it passed through the glottis.

The experiments on refpiration, in men, are vague and trifling; and the obfervations on animal heat are trite, and of little value, though enunciated in a pompous didactic ftyle.

Attempts were made, by the combination of hydrogen and oxygen, to form water, and extricate caloric. The method practifed was more convenient than that of Lavoifier, and the refult was nearly the fame.

A new inftrument for refpiration, and fome unfuccessful attempts to folve the problem, whether caloric gravitates, are afterwards defcribed. The meeting, in which the phænomena. of the oxydation of metals were examined, is interefting; and many ingenious, as well as new, remarks occur. But we do not find any thing which we can felect with advantage: the defultory ftyle of colloquial communication feems to preclude abridgment.

Some experiments on the menfuration of caloric, and on frigorific mixtures, follow. The method of feparating phofphorus, and its union with airs of different kinds, are noticed, as well as the process of rectifying it, and applying hydrogen gas. We have alfo an account of the oxydation of various inflammable fubftances, but the experiments are not


As Dr. Higgins fuppofes light to be caloric thrown off with a projectile motion, it required fome ingenuity to explain the explotion of gaffes by a spark only, which, as luminous, added

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