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tained the provoftfhip; and fir John Cheke and Dr. Whichcot enjoyed it in the fequel with high reputation.

Among the fellows of Eton, John Hales, ftyled the ever memorable,' makes a confpicuous figure; but the account here given of him is ill written. Many of the fellows of this fociety were not educated at the fchool, but were transferred from other feminaries.

The perfons elected to fcholarships at Eton form a numerous lift, including a period of 353 years, The names of most of thefe have long been forgotten by the world.

The following extract comprehends Mr. Harwood's account of a celebrated Etonian, who united a taste for literature with the courage and skill of a warrior. Sir William Draper took both his degrees in arts at Cambridge; but, preferring a military fituation to the exercife of a learned profeffion, he

• obtained a commiffion in the guards, and afterwards went to the Eaft Indies, where, in 1760, he received the privilege of ranking as a colonel in the army, with Lawrence and Clive, and returned home that year. In 1761, he was promoted to the rank of brigadier in the expedition to Belleifle. In 1763, with admiral Cornish, he conducted the expedition againft Manilla. They failed from Madras, Auguft 1, and anchored September 27, in Manilla Bay, where the inhabitants had no expectation of the enemy. The fort furrendered October the 6th, and was preferved from plunder by a ranfom of four millions of dollars, half to be paid immediately, and the other in an appointed time. The Spanish governour drew on his court for the first half, but payment was never made. Colonel Draper loft his fhare of the ransom to a very large amount. In this expedition he was only nine months abfent from England. The colours taken at this conqueft were prefented to King's College, and hung up in that beautiful chapel with proper folemnity, and 'the conqueror was rewarded with a red ribband. Upon the reduction of the 29th regiment, which had served so honourably in the Eaft Indies, his majefty, unfolicited, gave him the 79th regiment of foot, as an equivalent. This he refigned to colonel Gisborne, for his half pay, 1200l. Irifh annuity. In 1769, fir William Draper may be viewed in his literary character, drawing his pen against that of Junius, in defence of his friend the marquis of Granby, which was retorted on himself, and answered by him in a second letter to Junius, on the refutations of the former charge againft

On a republication of Junius' firft letter, fir William renewed his vindication of himfelf, and was anfwered with great keennefs by Junius. Here the controverfy dropped. He is fuppofed to have entered the lifts once more, under the name of Modeftus, with this celebrated and ftill concealed writer, in defence of a late general officer, who had been arrested for debt, and who was faid to have been refcued. In October, 1769, he retired to

South Carolina for the recovery of his health, and took the opportunity to make the tour of North America. That year he married mifs De Lancey, daughter of the chief juftice of New York, who died in July, 1778, and by whom he had a daughter, who furvived him, with an ample fortune; fhe afterwards married capt Gore, and is now dead. May 29, 1779, fir William being then in rank a lieutenant-general, was appointed lieutenant-governour of Minorca, on the furrender of which ifland he exhibited twentynine charges against the late governour, Nov. 11, 1782. Of these twenty-feven were deemed frivolous and groundless, and for the other two the governour was reprimanded. Sir William was then ordered to make an apology to general Murray, for having inftituted the trial against him, in which he acquiefced. From this time he lived in retirement at Bath, till his death, which happened on January 8, 1737.' P. 328.

We cannot speak of the execution of this work in terms of high praife. It might, with little difficulty, have been rendered more pleafing than it now is, and more generally acceptable.

The Anatomy of the Human Body. Containing the Anatomy of the Heart and Arteries. By John Bell, Surgeon. Vol. II. Boards. Cadell and Davies. 1797.

125.

THE fame general character which we gave to the preceding volume of this work, is applicable alfo to the prefent: we here obferve a fimilar accuracy and vividness of defcription, accompanied with occafional peculiarities of style and improprieties of expreffion. The volume before us confifts of two parts; the anatomy and phyfiology of the heart, and the arrangement and defcription of the arteries. The author has in the first part illuftrated his ideas by explanatory fchemes, and drawings from nature, which will be of great utility to ftudents. The plates of the arteries are, we underftand, to be published feparately.

We could have withed that this work had been more strictly anatomical, and that only fuch phyfiological remarks had been introduced as might have enlivened the fubject, or impreffed on the mind of the reader the remembrance of the structure and ufe of parts. The ftudent, we fear, will lofe fight of the facts of anatomy, when difperfed amidft fuch a quintity of other matter; and neither the phyfiology nor the patology of the heart are fo complete as we are convinced the author could have rendered them. The obfervations on the compa

* See Crit. Rev. New Arr. Vol. XII. p. 128.

rative refpiration of animals are however entitled to much praise; and, on this fubject, Mr. Bell feems to have laboured with equal diligence and fuccefs.

We think it our duty to reprobate the perfonalities which occur in this work. It is unjuft in Mr. Bell to affault thofe who have given him no provocation; and if he thus acts from a confcioufnefs of fuperior talents, it is ungenerous in him to attack a weaker adverfary. We find it difficult to select a part of this performance as a fpecimen of it: the anatomical defcriptions are unfuitable, and the phyfiological difcuffions are too long. We will, however, quote the remarks on the dilatation of the aorta. This disease most frequently happens in the decline of life.

It is then a disease of weakness; it arises from a cause quite different from that which is commonly laid down. The celebrated Dr. Hunter believes that it arifes from that predisposition or weaknefs which naturally belongs to the form of this part, viz. a sudden angle of the artery, expofed in the most direct manner to the whole force of the heart. Dr. Hunter also believed, that no fooner is nature fenfible of this danger, than the feeks to prop up the artery; and for this end thickens its walls till it offifies by flow degrees. Haller's theory is different from this, and comes nearer to the truth; for he makes thefe fcales of offification not the confequence, but the caufe, of the difeafe. He fays, the artery becoming fcaly, and partly offified, no longer yields to the force of the heart; and the heart thus excited to a higher action is itself dilated, and at last forces alfo the aorta. In truth, neither of thefe is the true theory; but the aorta in aged perfons beginning to offify, has its middle or mufcular coat annihilated, and its outer and inner coats thickened, by the fame procefs. Its mufcular power is loft; it is no longer capable of withstanding, much lefs of feconding, the ftroke of the heart by a fecond ftroke; it ceafes to act, fuffers itself to be dilated, and in a few years grows into a dreadful difeafe. I never faw an old aorta wanting fome fpecks of offification, or rather of calcareous concretion, nor an aorta fo affected which was not dilated in proportion pretty nearly to the degree of this thickening and offification; at which we need not wonder, fince we find not a bone (as it is ufually called offified aorta), but a vile calcareous concretion fubftituted to its mufcular coat. Nature is not at this time, as Hunter fuppofed, building up and ftrengthening the walls of the aorta against this difcafe; but taking down flowly that fabric which has lafted its appointed time.

However it is produced, it is an awful difeafe; for every organ, when once deranged, efpecially if it be one as active as this is, never ftops in its courfe; and this especially ends early or late in fome terrible kind of death. Sometimes, increafing in fize, it deftroys all the furrounding parts and bursts within. Sometimes it bursts

into the cheft, and then the patient drops fuddenly down; fometimes into the trachea, and then the cause of the fudden death is known; for the patient, after violent coughings and ejections of blood by the mouth, expires.' P. 233.

Of a palpitation of the heart Mr. Bell thus fpeaks:

Palpitation is like that fluttering which fear brings on; the heart rifes in its action till it throbs, and beats against the ribs; it is ftrongly felt, it is even audible to the by-ftanders, and ftill it is but a nervous disease. Its intermiffions usually diftinguish it from any organic difeafe; its paroxyfms last for many days or weeks; and for weeks or months again it goes quite away. We fee it relieved by a jaunt, by living from home and in company, by leav ing all business and thoughts of business quite behind: we see the caufes which bring it on as plainly as we know the cause of marsh fever, or the plague. The confinement even of a boil will caufe it; the confinement of severe study is fure to cause it; and fevere study, with an anxious mind, in a young man unused to study; neglected where he is, and at a distance from all his friends, are fure to produce this diftrefs. "My fon," fays Wierius," while at Bologna, pursuing his ftudies, had this afflicting palpitation, accompanied with a capricious, frequent, and intermitting pulfe; but by bleeding (which the older physicians never neglected), and care, and relaxation from his ftudies, he got quite well." This is the palpitation which the older authors diftinguifhed by the name of palpitatio cardiaca, marking it as proceeding from the stomach; equivalent, in the language of the present time, to the calling it a nervous disease.'

P. 241.

The last account is inferted near the conclufion of that chapter which treats of the diseases of the heart; and which contains remarks on the enlargement of the heart, attended with a decline of strength in that organ; on the state of the heart when contracted and apparently increased in strength; and on the aneurifms of the aorta. There are other particulars in this chapter; but it is not fo copious as to preclude the remark that the pathology and the phyfiology of the heart are incomplete. The descriptions of the arteries are given in a spirited and perfpicuous manner, and ought to be gratefully received by the English ftudent, who has hitherto been obliged to read Winflow's tedious and imperfect account of the bloodveffels. A clear and correct fyftem of anatomy, in which the modern improvements of that fcience thould be inferted, was a work much wanted in this country. Such a fyftem was published in France by M. Sabatier, of whose work we have frequently wished to fee a tranflation. We flatter ourselves, however, that, when the present work fhall be completed, it will be fuperior to any other production of the kind: but

there yet remains much to be done; and we earnestly advise the author to exert himfelf in the execution of his task, that, through his means, ftudents may become better anatomists, and confequently better practitioners of medicine.

Botanical Dialogues, between Hortenfia and her Four Children, Charles, Harriet, Juliette, and Henry. Defigned for the Ufe of Schools. By a Lady. 8vo. 75. 6d. Boards. Johnfon.

1797,

BOTANY is a fcience fo comprehenfive in its nature, and fo pleafing by its variety, that we might have expected it to have been moie generally cultivated. The difficulty of its language, and the great expenfe of the works in which it has been ufually taught, have unquestionably retarded its progrefs. Thefe obftacles, however, are in a great meafure removed by the industry of the more modern botanils; and the prefent attempt will be ufeful in the fame way. By the familiarity of the writer's manner, and the clearness of her defcriptions, the labour of the ftudent is confiderably alleviated; and the fci ence affumes a more inviting afpeA.

The work confifts of two parts. The firft divifion explains. the different parts of fructification; the various modes of inflorefcence, and other elementary particulars. The fecond part contains an explanation of the genera of plants, and of the proper mode of arranging them in the families to which they refpectively belong.

Having thus mentioned the author's plan, we will introduce two extracts, in order to exhibit the eafe and accuracy of the manner in which the work is written.

The following paffage has fome pertinent obfervations on the language of botany.

Hortenfia. Having found the advantage and pleafure, which "may be derived from an induftrious performance of your duties, I am perfuaded, that you will not again relapfe into thofe indolent and defultory manners, which have given me so much uneafinefs. I am not ambitious of making you fhining characters; but I am anxious to prevent your establishing fuch habits, as would render -you trifling ones. There can be nothing learnt; there can be no ftrength, no dignity of character attained, where the habits are idle. I apprize you that you will not find the first part of the ftudy of botany particularly entertaining.

Harriet. That we expect I did not like learning my French grammar; but when I could read French, I was glad that I had : learnt it.

Hortenfia. So you will find it with every thing; if we do not

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