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GENERAL INDEX TO THE QUARTERLY REVIEW.

No. 401, forming Volume CCI., and containing a General Index to the volumes from CLXXXII. to CC. of the QUARTERLY REVIEW, is available (Price 6)- net), and a new Index, forming Volume CCXXII., comprising the volumes from CCII. to CCXXI., has been published, and is obtainable through any bookseller.

The QUARTERLY REVIEW is published on or about the 15th of

January, April, July, and October.
Price Twenty-four Shillings per Annum, post free.

Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, Limited,

London and Beccles, England.

CONTENTS

OF

No. 448.-JULY, 1916.

PAGE

1

ART. 1.-THE TROJAN WAR
1. Troy, a Study in Homeric Geography. By Walter

Leaf. Macmillan, 1912.
2. Homer and History. By Walter Leaf. Macmillan,

1915.

ART. 2.-EAST AND WEST

21

40

ART. 3.—THE LAST DAYS OF POMPEIUS
1. The Tragedy of Pompey the Great. By John Mase-

field. Sidgwick and Jackson, 1910.
2. Les Sources de Lucain. By René Pichon. Paris :

Leroux, 1912. 3. Lucanus de Bello Civili; Tertium edidit C. Hosius.

Leipzig: Teubner, 1913. ART. 4.-HENRY JAMES

60

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ART. 6.-INDIA UNDER LORD HARDINGE

99 ART. 7.-A NEW LIFE OF WORDSWORTH

116 1. William Wordsworth. His Life, Works and

Influence. By Prof. G. M. Harper. Two vols.

Murray, 1916.
2. The Early Life of William Wordsworth, 1770-1798.

By Emile Legouis. Translated by J. W. Matthews.
Dent, 1897.
And other works.

PAGE

ART. 8.-SOLDIERS AND SAILORS ON THE LAND

135 1. Part I of the Final Report of the Departmental

Committee to consider the Settlement or Employ-
ment on the Land in England and Wales of
Discharged Soldiers and Sailors. [Cd. 8182.]

Wyman, 1916.
2. Agriculture after the War. By A. D. Hall. Murray,

1916.

ART. 9.-FOUR YEARS OF THE CHINESE REPUBLIC · 152 1. Constitution-building in China. By Prof. L. R. O.

Bevan. 'North China Daily News and Herald, 1910.
2. The Japanese Empire and its Economic Conditions.
By Joseph Dautremer Fisher Unwin, 1910.
And other works.

ART. 10.—THE POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY OF TREITSCHKE - 176 1. The Political Thought of Heinrich von Treitschke.

By H. W. C. Davis. London: Constable, 1914.
2. Politik. By Heinrich von Treitschke. Translated

by Blanche Dugdale and Torben de Bille. Two vols.
London: Constable, 1915.

ART. 11.–CONGRESS AND THE WAR

- 196 Congressional Record. Sixty-Fourth Congress, First Session. Vol. LIII, Nos 1 to 86. Government Printing Bureau, Washington, D. C., 1916.

ART. 12.—THE SOUND OF BIG GUNS

- 216

ART. 13.—THE COURSE OF THE WAR ON LAND

228

ART. 14.–THE IRISH REBELLION

244

ART. 15.—THE ORGANISATION OF THE EMPIRE

· 266 1. The Problem of the Commonwealth. Preface by L.

Curtis. Macmillan, 1916. 2. The Empire on the Anvil : being suggestions and

data for the future government of the British

Empire. By W. Basil Worsfold. Smith, Elder, 1916. 3. Imperial Unity and the Dominions. By Arthur B.

Keith. Clarendon Press, 1916.

ART. 16.—THE BATTLE OF JUTLAND

. 283

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1. Troy, a Study in Homeric Geography. By Walter

Leaf. Macmillan, 1912. 2. Homer and History. By Walter Leaf. Macmillan,

1915.

Those who first read their Homer and learned Greek history more than forty years ago will remember how exclusively literary and philological the questions connected with Homer then appeared to be. The Trojan War was regarded as much on the same footing as the legends of Heracles and the Argonauts. Agamemnon and Achilles were at best as real as Lear and Cymbeline; at worst they were degraded deities. Homer's picture of political and social life possessed indeed historical value, but it was supposed to reflect the conditions of his own time, not earlier than the ninth or possibly the tenth century B.C. But the purely philological phase of Homeric criticism, which was inaugurated by Wolf's memorable • Prolegomena 'in 1795 and lasted for about eighty years, came to an end when archæology at last appeared on the scene of debate.

The excavations of Dr Schliemann opened a new period in the investigation of the Homeric poems and prehistoric Greece. The new facts which he revealed in swift succession at Troy, Mycenæ, Orchomenus, and Tiryns placed Homer in a new light and raised unexpected problems. It was established that a prehistoric civilisation existed on the Greek mainland which corresponded in general to the Homeric background. But there were certain differences; and the question which immediately

Vol. 226.—No. 448.

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attracted most attention was the exact relation between the Mycenaean and the Homeric civilisations. It may be said that, so far as the background was concerned, Homer's truth received a remarkable confirmation ; but the results of Schliemann's excavations at Troy itself were calculated to encourage the scepticism which had generally prevailed as to the reality of the Trojan War. He discovered an important brick fortress at Hissarlik, the traditional site of Troy, with unmistakable marks that it had been destroyed by fire; but it belonged to a period long previous to the Mycenæan. Above its ruins he found the traces of four prehistoric settlements, but all, so far as his excavations told him, quite insignificant. It seemed that there was no Homeric Troy, and therefore there could have been no Trojan War, unless indeed tradition were wholly wrong, and the city of Priam was to be sought at some other place, at Bally Dagh, for instance, as some held. But Schliemann was not long in his grave when new excavations at Hissarlik, carried out by Dr Dörpfeld, justified his faith by revealing that the latest of the prehistoric settlements (the sixth in order) was a great castle with a larger circuit than any of its predecessors, and with walls architecturally superior to those of Tiryns and Mycenæ but belonging to the same age. Little was found in it; it had been thoroughly ransacked by those who razed it to the ground; but its massive circuit of fortifications attested the might and wealth of its lords. Here at last was Homeric Troy. Tradition had so far been vindicated; and the Trojan War was well within the realm of probability. For it was reasonable to argue thus: the destruction of the mighty fortress is an archæological fact for which we have to account; and the only evidence bearing on the matter is the Homeric epic and the consistent tradition of the Greeks that Troy was destroyed by an expedition from the Greek mainland. Accept the main fact of the Trojan War, and it explains both the archæological problem and the origin of the Homeric tale.

The existence of Homeric Troy and its bearings had not been fully digested when, at the close of the last century, the sensational discoveries of Sir Arthur Evans at Cnossus diverted attention to larger issues. The wonderful remains uncovered in Crete widened the

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