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essential to seemly being. The fabric, moral, intellectual, æsthetic, of a traditional civilisation was, to him, one and indivisible, a princely possession to be guarded against crude violence and maintained with deliberate care. To the end of his life he showed the strength of one who was enough of a stranger, wherever he dwelt, to recognise, with a sense undulled, the gifts and the privileges which are mostly accepted without a thought by those who inherit them. Indeed, the more closely he was held by the claims and interests he found on this side of the Atlantic, the more intensely he became an American ; and the slightest sketch of him, if it is to be characteristic, should emphasise this suggestion. "The American Scene, of ten years ago, was entirely misleading if, by its longdrawn irony or its serenely indulgent accents, it seemed to show that Henry James felt himself severed in the end from the land of his birth. It was not as an alien that he spread over the land, from Massachusetts to Palm Beach, that wonderful web, woven without seam, of description and fancy, nor as a detached critic that he vocalised its life, whether in the architecture of Fifth Avenue or in the blessed mildness-'ever amiably, weak'-of the charm of Florida. It could not have engaged him through so many hundred pages except by virtue of a binding and unforgotten tie. And what the tie really was, in its abiding power, became clear, a few years later, in the two successive volumes which he devoted to his recollections of his own childhood. That atmosphere of desultory freedom, mental and spiritual, flashed through with high enthusiasm, that leisurely life, peopled by gay and easy youth, was all recalled in a golden light of truth and poetry, and given a lovingly perfected form, which told the whole tale of what he owed to those memorable times.

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Here these notes might have ended if they had fallen to be written two years ago; his work, it might have been thought, was achieved, his great gifts of heart and mind well known to the wide and still widening circle of those who honoured and loved him. It could, indeed, surprise none who knew him that he should have risen with a blaze of magnanimous passion to meet the issue which at last confronted his world. If any had thought of him

as removed, in his old age, above the struggle between the real life and the false, the creative impulse and the destructive, or as surveying the chances of men from an untroubled height, they much misunderstood the nature of his mellow wisdom. And yet even those who knew him best may hardly have been prepared for the unaging vigour and vehemence of his response to the challenge. Though at first almost physically suffocated, as it seemed, by the sudden horror of darkness, he showed neither bewilderment nor hesitation; he arose---it was impossible to miss the impression-like a prophet of old. All his love and admiration for France, which had been the country of his training and was endeared to him, first and last, by innumerable associations, was shed into his sympathy with the great vital insurgence of the French people. He taxed his strength, as he no longer could with impunity, to relieve where he might the distress of the refugees from Belgium--the smoke of their home so little below the sea-line of his own Rye. Of his feeling for England we may hardly speak; let us remember the phrase—this decent and dauntless people '—which he used a short while before he affirmed, by more than words, his sense that his lot was cast with ours. Many of his fellow-citizens, proud of the title, must have looked forward in the hope that he would be with us to celebrate, as only he could have celebrated, victory and peace. So much is denied us; but it is in the knowledge of his own confident expectation of the day that our valediction now goes out to him-rare artist, profound genius, great heart.

PERCY LUBBOCK.

Art. 5.-A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY IN NORTHERN

GERMANY.* -I.

(1) THE GERMAN ADMIRALTY. * We are not going to take any chances with our fleet.' How often I heard that statement during the months I spent in Germany in 1915! You may listen to all the eulogies, promises, prophecies about Unsere wunderbare Flotte,' but you had better refrain from asking any questions about it. It may cost you your liberty if you do. Suppose you ask a German an imprudent question about the Navy, if you are lucky he will refer you to the German Admiralty; if you are unlucky, you will probably be the guest of the Government the next day, if not sooner. If you take his advice and go to the Admiralty, they usually see you coming. Oh! the many, many hours I have spent trying to reach the vitals of that palatial edifice, so symbolic of the organisation it directs. It is spick and span and brand-new, no old ramshackle building, with partitioned rooms in all sorts of corners and corridors, such as I found in the War Office on the Leipziger Strasse. The German Admiralty is a model building. On entering, you find yourself in a square marble-columned atrium which reminds one of the drawings and paintings of the portals of the old Roman baths. There are a number of waiting-rooms on both sides; and that is as far as 99 out of 100 people ever get. To advance beyond the doors leading into the holy of holies' is a labour that takes time, influence, and brains.

I shall not describe the devious ways and means which have to be employed in order to obtain admission to the temple of the German would-be Neptune. Suffice it to say that, after having secured an introduction to Captain Löhlein, who at the time was--and I think still is-a high official at the Admiralty, being something like their Advertising Manager, I finally passed through the inner portals of the sacred edifice.

One of the most fascinating departments of the Marineamt' (Admiralty) in Berlin, is ‘Abteilung XVI, where maps, plans, sketches, etc., are collected and kept.

* This article was in type before the Battle of Jutland was fought on May 31.-{EDITOR.)

I spent an interesting morning there, in room 177, and feasted my eyes on many excellently drawn and photographed maps. It was there that I saw (for the first time) a six inch to the mile map of Rosyth Harbour; large-scale maps of Plymouth, Portsmouth, Dover, the mouth of the Thames, the entrance of the Mersey, the Liverpool Docks, the Portsmouth Dockyards, and various sea-ports; also a map of England, with the places marked where hostile landings had been made. I doubt whether there are many yards of Great Britain's coast that were not carefully mapped out there.

But it is not of the British maps I wish to tell you. I was far more interested in the minute drawings and maps of Wilhelmshaven, Kiel, the Kiel Canal, Heligoland, the North Sea coast and its defences, etc. I was naturally most anxious to borrow' them for a little while. But that was easier wished than executed. Maps from eight to ten feet long, fastened on rollers, are not quite the things to borrow' clandestinely. Nevertheless I succeeded in obtaining a number of copies, much smaller, it is true, but exact replicas all the same, of those interesting and instructive German drawings. The maps accompanying these articles, viz. the general map, including the Kiel Canal; those of the German coast defences on the North Sea and Heligoland ; the large-scale plan of Wilhelmshaven, and the map of Kiel Harbour and its anchorages, have all been drawn from those facsimiles. I doubt not that the German Admiralty would very much like to know how I obtained those copies. But I am not going to tell !

But to return to Captain Löhlein. He was a very pleasant suave gentleman, but unfortunately they were not doing any advertising just then in the Navy. In answer to my enquiries whether I might pay a visit to Kiel, Wilhelmshaven, the Canal, Emden, or Heligoland, I received a pointblank refusal. 'Impossible ; absolutely impossible,' was the answer. In short, to use the wellworn phrase, Es ist verboten.'

I knew then how British sailors must feel, when cruising and searching the North Sea, eager for a sight of the German pennant. So near and yet so far! Here I was in the heart of the enemy's country, and, what's more, at large, hardly the toss of a ship's biscuit from

those pioneers of Germany's future, and yet unable to feast my eyes on them. Saddened and disappointed, I turned my back on Berlin and the inhospitable officials of the Admiralty, and moved to the Free City of Hamburg on the Elbe. Here, after a while, fortune favoured me, and my career of crime' began. Through friends and acquaintances and other mediums, I had several chances of visiting the principal defences of Germany on the North Sea. Short clandestine trips to the coast ; interesting, if brief, voyages on all sorts of quaint old vessels ; railway and automobile journeys to various parts of the German North Sea coast-in short, a veritable banquet of German Navy delicacies, with, as pièce de resistance, a trip through the Kiel Canal. And this is what I have now to tell

you

about.

(2) GERMANY'S COAST DEFENCES.

From what I gathered during those trips, I believe there is not another defence system in the world that can be compared with Germany's 200-mile coast-line on the North Sea (see Map). In this I have marked the forts and batteries which I know are there; and I realise that I have by no means discovered them all. Germany possesses on her North Sea border the natural advantages of shallow waters and a sandy, flat coast, which in themselves afford a valuable safeguard against offensive operations. The tide rises about ten feet on the Elbe and from six to seven on the Frisian coast. In peace the various sandbanks and dangerous places are marked by beacons and lights, but of course, since the beginning of the war, everything that might facilitate navigation has been removed. The harbours are limited to those on the Elbe, the Weser, the Jade, and the Ems. They are approached by three narrow and tortuous channels, impossible to navigate without a pilot or expert knowledge of the charts. That is what Nature has done for Germany. Science and Art have done still more.

The German coast-defence system is divided into two parts, the North Sea and the Baltic Divisions, each under command of a Vice-Admiral, with head-quarters respectively at Wilhelmshaven and Kiel. It is generally understood that the entire system is controlled by the

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