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I

INTRODUCTORY

The difficulties involved in building the Federal Re-
public—Danger of immediate Dissolution-Sectional
Jealousy-Factional Hostilities.

APPENDIX TO CHAPTER 1.-(1) Note written by
Thomas Jefferson. (2) Instructions for the Deputies
appointed by Virginia in 1774 to meet in General Con-
gress. (3) Bill of Rights passed by the Continental
Congress, Oct. 14, 1774. (4) Articles of Association
passed by the Continental Congress, Oct. 20, 1774.
(5) Jefferson's Original Draft of the Declaration of
Independence, reported July 4, 1776. (6) Digest of
the Articles of Confederation passed by the Conti-
nental Congress, July 9, 1778. (7) Hamilton's Plan of
Government, laid before the Constitutional Conven-
tion of 1787.

CHAPTER II.

50

THE NULLIFICATION RESOLUTIONS OF 1798

The Federal Party in power—The people strongly
sympathetic with France—The leaders, especially in
New England, devoted to England—The Jay Treaty
with Great Britain-Hamilton clashes with President
Adams-Passage of partisan measures by Federals in

PAGE

Congress—The new Naturalization law–The Alien
and Sedition Acts—Their tyrannous character—Their
nullification by the Legislatures of Virginia and
Kentucky-Two questions involved : First, who were
the contracting parties to the formation of the United
States; Second, who should decide whether Congres-
sional enactments were Constitutional—The people the
final arbiter-Conflicts with the Supreme Court-
Plots of Hamilton with Great Britain to attack
Spanish possessions-Adams opposes and establishes
a treaty with France—The Federal party rent into
fragments.

APPENDIX TO CHAPTER II.-(1) The Alien Act,
June 25, 1798. (2) The Sedition Act, July 14, 1798.
(3) The Virginia Resolutions, December 24, 1798.
(4) Mr. Madison's report on these Resolutions, 1799.

CHAPTER III.

PLOT FOR A NORTHERN CONFEDERACY IN 1803-4.

105

Jefferson elected, and Federalists out of power in 1800
-Effort to prevent the Presidency from being given
to Jefferson—The Federal party consists of Hamilton-
ians ; friends of Adams; and the Essex Junto; all
believers in the rule of the Best—The third section
plots for the withdrawal of New England from the
Union--A Union is formed with Burr in New York-
Hamilton opposes Burr-The latter being defeated
challenges Hamilton and shoots him-Burr fees to
the South-He carries the pialedictions of the Federals
and contempt of the Republicans.

APPENDIX TO CHAPTER III.-(1) The Tory Ref-
ugees in New York. (2) Letter of Hamilton to Jay.
(3) Letter of Burr just before the Duel. (4) Letter
of Hamilton just before the Duel. (5) Note of Har-
riet Martineau on Duelling.

CHAPTER IV.

PAGE

153

BURR'S ATTEMPT AT CLEAVING THE UNION IN THE

SOUTHWEST

The Union vastly enlarged by the Louisiana Pur-
chase-Burr in desperation turns to the Southwest-
He forms alliance with General Wilkinson ; is be-
friended by Jackson-He aims at a great Mississippi
Valley Confederation–The people true to the Union-
Wilkinson deserts Burr-Burr plots in all directions ;
starts to New Orleans with a flotilla; is arrested -
Burr's trial at Richmond a fiasco-Burr goes to Eng-
land; is ordered out of the country; goes to France ;
is kept under surveillance-Released, he hurries to
America–His later history one of wretchedness—Is
buried as a pauper.

APPENDIX TO CHAPTER IV.-(1) Burr's Valedic-
tory to the United States Senate. (2) President Jef-
ferson's Message on the Burr Conspiracy. (3) Burr
at his Trial. (4) Testimony of William Eaton. (5)
Burr and Seward.

CHAPTER V.

200

NEW ENGLAND NULLIFICATION IN 1812–14

Interference with Neutral Rights by England-The
Berlin and Milan Decrees of Napoleon-Congress
declares war against Great Britain-New England
protests-Efforts to thwart our enlistments—Disaster
on land, but success on the ocean—Treaty negotia-
tions-England's demands ;-New England Federals
urge their acceptance—The Hartford Convention-
Resolutions looking towards separation—The triumph
of American diplomacy at Ghent, and of American
arms at New Orleans.

APPENDIX TO CHAPTER V.-(1) Report of the
Hartford Convention. (2) Resolutions of the Hart-
ford Convention. (3) Action of Towns.

CHAPTER VI.

PAGE

241

SOUTH CAROLINA NULLIFICATION IN 1832

The origin of the Canuing-Monroe Doctrine of 1823
-The Missouri Compromise of 1820-A geographical
line established between free and slave labor-Growth
of the protective tariff principle-Agricultural States
protest—South Carolina votes to nullify the tariff
action of 1832—Jackson proposes force--Clay brings in
a Compromise Bill, reducing the tariff to its old basis-
South Carolina accepts—Character of Calhoun-Char-
acteristics of Massachusetts and of South Carolina.

APPENDIX TO CHAPTER VI.-(1) Jefferson on the
Proposal of Canning. (2) President Monroe's Mes-
sage. (3) Nullification Ordinance of South Carolina.
(4) Digest of the Address of the South Carolina Con-
vention. (5) Digest of Appeal to the People of the
United States. (6) Jackson's Proclamation.
Livingston's Views. (8) Webster's Four Propositions.

CHAPTER VII.

328

SECESSION IN 1861.

Sectionalism fully developed—The struggle of free
labor with slave labor inevitable—The question one
both of economics and morals-Disunion threatened
-Compromise efforts of 1850—Freedom declared na-
tional-Slavery declared national-Abolition of Com-
promises in 1854-Election of Lincoln-Secession
War–Free Labor triumphs-Slavery as a Social prin-
ciple abrogated by civilization—The Indissolubility of
the Union, except by revolution, established.

APPENDIX TO CHAPTER VII.1) Compromise of
1820. (2) Compromise of 1850. (3) Digest of the
Ostend Manifesto. (4) Abolition of the Compromise
of 1820. (5) South Carolina's Ordinance of Secession.
(6) Greeley on the Rights of Secession. (7) Procla-
mation of Emancipation. (8) Amendments to the
Constitution following Emancipation. (9) The Pro-
posed XIIIth Amendment.

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