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h. Abridgments (0) 304-305) p 1131

(1) General Rule ($ 304) p 1131

(2) What Constitutes Fair Abridgment (8 305) p 1132
i. Indexing (306) p 1133
j. Compilations (00 307-310) p 1133

(1) In General ( 307) p 1133
(2) Directories 10 308) p 1137
(3) Dictionaries ($ 309) p 1139

(4) Law Books ($ 310) p 1139
2. Maps and Charts [$ 311) p 1142
3. Lectures, Sermons, Addresses; Oral Delivery (8 312] p 1143
4. Dramatic Works (00 313-318] p 1143

a. Publication and Sale 10 313] p 1143
b. Performance and Performing Rights ( 314) p 1143
c. Place and Nature of Performance (0 315) p 1144
d. Scenery and Costumes (0 316) p 1144
e. Mechanical Devices; Moving Pictures (6 317) p 1144

f. Necessity and Sufficiency of Taking or Copying to Constitute Infringement ($ 318) p 1145 5. Musical Works (00 319–323] p 1147

a. Printing, Publishing, Copying, and Selling [ 319) p 1147
b. Sufficiency of Copying or Taking to Constitute Infringement ($ 320) p 1147
c. Performance and Performing Rights ( 321) p 1148
d. Mechanical Reproduction of Music (90 322-323] p 1150

(1) In General [ 322] p 1150

(2) Compulsory Licenses ( 323] p 1152
6. Art Works; Prints; Pictorial Illustrations, Etc. (8 324-327) p 1154

a. In General (324) p 1154
b. Sufficiency of Copying or Taking to Constitute Infringement ( 325) p 1154

c. Mode of Copying Immaterial (326) p 1455)

od. Indirect Copying [327] p 1156
7. Photographs [328] p 1158
8. Motion Pictures (329) p 1159

9. Labels and Prints [$ 330] p 1159 C. Persons Liable (0$ 331-335) p 1159

1. In General (0 331] p 1159
2. Printer, Publisher, and Seller [8 332] p 1160
3. Dramatic and Musical Performances ($ 333) p 1160
4. Corporate Officers (334) p 1161

5. Contributory Infringement ($ 335) p 1161
XI. REMEDIES AND PROCEDURE FOR INFRINGEMENT (09 336–438) p 1161
A. Enumeration of Remedies (0$ 336–338) p 1161

1. United States Statutes ($ 336] p 1161
2. English Statutes (337] p 1162

3. Canadian Statutes [ 338] p 1163
B. Exclusiveness of Statutory Remedies [$$ 339-340] p 1163

1. Rule Stated ($ 339) p 1163

2. Rule Applied [ 340] p 1164 C. Injunctions (00 341-352) p 1164

1. In General ($ 341] p 1164
2. Preliminary Injunctions (8 342) p 1165
3. Permanent Injunctions (00 343-348) p 1163

a. In General ($ 343] p 1168
b. Cessation of Infringement (344) p 1169
c. Damage to Plaintiff ($ 345) p 1169
d. Slight Infringement (346) p 1169
e. Determination of Right at Law (347) p 1170

f. Laches and Acquiescence [348] p 1170
4. Form and Extent of Injunction (00 349-351) p 1171

a. In General (0 349) p 1171
b. Where Pirated Parts Are Separable [ 350) p 1172

c. Where Pirated Parts Are Not Separable ($ 351) p 1172
5. Enforcement and Operation (352] p 1173
D. Accounting for Profits ( 353-355) p 1174

1. Right to Accounting ( 353] p 1174
2. Extent and Elements of Recovery ($ 354] p 1174

3. Reference ($ 355) p 1176
E. Discovery ( 356) p 1177
F. Damages (357-364) p 1177

1. In General ( 357] p 1177.

2. Under Act of 1909 as Amended (00 358–362) p 1178

a. In General (9 358) p 1178
b. Actual Damages [0 359) p 1179
c. In Lieu of Actual Damages (00 360-362) p 1179

(1) In General ($ 360) p 1179
(2) Amount ($ 361-362) p 1179

(a) In General (361) p 1179

(b) Limitations of Amount ( 362) p 1180 3. Under Prior Statutes [ 363) p 1181

4. Under English and Canadian Statutes ( 364) p 1182 G. Impounding Pendente Lite (00 365-366) p 1182

1. In General ( 365) p 1182

2. Procedure (366] p 1182
H. Forfeiture and Destruction of Infringing Copies and Devices (00 367-370) p 1184

1. Under Act of 1909 (8 367] p 1184
2. Under Prior Statutes (00 368–369) p 1184

a. Books (0 368) p 1184

b. Other Works (0 369) p 1184
3. Under English and Canadian Statutes 10 370) p 1184
I. Penalties (00 371-373] p 1185

1. Under United States Statutes (8 371) p 1185
2. Under English Statutes [ 372) p 1187

3. Under Canadian Statutes (6 373) p 1189
J. Mechanical Musical Devices (00 374–375) p 1189

1. Royalty under Compulsory License (9 374) p 1189

2. Infringing Devices (375) p 1189
K. Rules for Practice and Procedure ( 376) p 1190
L. Nature and Form of Action (00 377–379) p 1190

1. Under Act of 1909 ( 377) p 1190
2. Under Prior Statutes 100 378-379) p 1190

a. In General ($ 378] p 1190

b. For Forfeitures and Penalties (379) p 1190 M. Conditions Precedent (8 380) p 1191 N. Jurisdiction (0) 381-382) p 1192

1. Federal Courts (8 381) p 1192

2. State Courts ($ 382) p 1193 0. Venue ( 383) p 1193 P. Process and Writs (8 384] p 1194 Q. Parties (0) 385-387) p 1195 1. Plaintiffs 100 385–386) p 1195

a. In General (8 385) p 1195

b. Joinder (6 386) p 1196 2. Defendants (0 387) p 1196 R. Defenses (0) 388-392) p 1196

1. In General 10 388) p 1196
2. Custom to Copy [389] p 1196
3. Unclean Hands ( 390) p 1197
4. Former Adjudication ( 391) p 1197

5. Statute of Limitations (8 392) p 1198
8. Pleading (0393-410) p 1198
1. Bill, Declaration, Petition, or Complaint (00 393-407) p 1198

a. In General ( 393) p 1198
b. Averment of Copyright (00 394-399] p 1199

(1) In General (394) p 1199
(2) Citizenship or Residence ($ 395) p 1199
(3) Authorship and Originality [396) p 1200
(4) Deposit of Copies and Registration ( 397) p 1200
(5) Notice of Copyright [398] p 1201

(6) Domestic Manufacture ($ 399) p 1201
c. Averment of Ownership [6400) p 1201
d. Averment of Infringement [401] p 1201
e. Exhibits ( 402) p 1201
f. Multifariousness and Joinder [403] p 1203
g. Prayer for Relief (6 404) p 1203
h. Verification (405) p 1203
i. Supplemental Bills (406) p 1203

j. Penalties and Forfeitures (5 407) p 1203
2. Demurrer or Motion to Dismiss ( 408) p 1204
3. Answer or Plea (0$ 409-410] p 1204

a. In Equity 10 409) p 1204

b. At Law [410] p 1204 T. Issues, Proof, and Variance (411) p 1205 For later casos, developments and changes in the law see cumulative Annotations, same title, page and note number. U. Evidence (00 412-432] p 1205

1. In General (8 412] p 1205
2. Of Copyright (90 413-422) p 1205

a. Burden of Proof 1 413] p 1205
b. Admissibility, Weight, and Sufficiency [OD 414-422) p 1207

(1) In General (6 414) p 1207
(2) Certificate of Registration or Copy of Record [ 415) p 1207
(3) Catalogue of Copyright Entries (416) p 1208
(4) Citizenship and Domicile ($ 417] p 1208
(5) Authorship and Originality (6 418) p 1208
(6) Deposit of Title and Copies ( 419] p 1208
(7) Notice of Copyright [$ 420) p 1210
(8) Publication 1 421) p 1210

(9) Domestic Manufacture (422] p 1210
3. Of Ownership (423) p 1210
4. Of Infringement [424-430) p 1211

a. Burden of Proof ($ 424) p 1211
b. Admissibility, Weight, and Sufficiency (8 425-430) p 1212

(1) In General (6 425) p 1212
(2) Similarity of Works (00426-428) p 1213

(a) In General ( 426] p 1213
(b) Proof of Similarities (6 427] p 1214

(c) Common Errors [ 428) p 1215
(3) Animus Furandi [0 429) p 1216

(4) Other Matters (Ø 430) p 1217
5. Of Damages (431) p 1217

6. Of Profits 10 432) p 1218
V. Trial or Final Hearing ( 433-434) p 1219

1. In General (6 433) p 1219

2. Reference to Master [ 434] p 1219
W. Judgment or Decree 1 435) p 1220
X. Costs and Attorney's Fees ( 436-437) p 1220

1. Under United States Statutes (436) p 1220

2. Under English and Canadian Statutes [ 437] p 1221

Y. Appeal and Error [438) p 1221 XII. IMPORTATION (10 439–443) p 1222

A. Prohibition of Importation (10 439–442) p 1222

1. Piratical Copies (439) p 1222
2. False Notice of Copyright [ 440) p 1223
3. Domestic Manufacturing Requirements [$ 441-442] p 1223

a. General Rule 1 441) p 1223

b. Exceptions to Rule ($ 442) p 1224 B. Remedies for Unlawful Importation (6 443] p 1225 XIII. OFFENSES AND PROSECUTIONS (OD 444-452) p 1225

A. Infringement (8 444–446) p 1225

1. United States Statutes 1 444) p 1225
2. English Statutes (445) p 1226

3. Canadian Statutes (6 446) p 1226
B. Failure to Deposit Copies ( 447] p 1226
C. False Affidavit of American Manufacture (448] p 1226
D. False Notice of Copyright ($$ 449-451) p 1226

1. Under Present Law (449) p 1226
2. Under Former Law [450) p 1227

3. Under Canadian Statute (8 451) p 1228

E. Fraudulent Removal or Alteration of Notice of Copyright (452) p 1228
XIV. INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT (08453-456) p 1228

A. Generally [453] p 1228
B. International Relations of United States [ 454) p 1228
C. Conventions (0455-456] p 1230

1. Of Berne, Paris, and Berlin ( 455) p 1230
2. Of Montevideo, Mexico, Rio de Janeiro, and Beunos Aires (456) p 1233

CROSS REFERENCES

Design patents see Patents [30 Cyc 827].
Monastic orders, rights of members see Religious So-

cities (34 Cyc 1112].
Removal of causes to federal court see Removal of

Causes 134 Cyc 1244].
Trade-marks, trade-names, and unfair competition see
Trade-Marks, Trade-Names, and Unfair Competition
[38 Cyc 674).

V.

to

V.

I. DEFINITIONS AND DISTINCTIONS [01] A. Copyright. Copyright is usually de- chanically reproduced or performed, etc. Copyfined as the exclusive right of printing or otherwise right may be accurately defined, therefore, as the multiplying copies of an intellectual production, and right granted by statute to the proprietor of an of publishing and vending the same; the right of intellectual production to its exclusive use and enpreventing all others from doing so. As such rights ! joyment to the extent specified in the statute. The can be enjoyed in their entirety only by virtue of term will be used in this sense throughout this statutory provisions, the term is synonymous with treatise. statutory copyright. The later copyright statutes [02] B. Common-Law Copyright. The term grant much more extensive rights to the author or “copyright” is sometimes used to designate the proprietor of intellectual productions than the mere property in intellectual productions conferred by exclusive right to multiply and vend copies, such the common law as well as that conferred by statas the exclusive right to translate, or dramatize, or ute, the full phrase "common-law copyright" being to perform, represent, or deliver in public, or to sometimes used. The justification for this use of make records by which the composition may be me- the term at the present day is found only in the

1. American Tobacco Co. v. Werck- / work, not merely a right to do so in and that the label was protected meister, 207 U. S. 284, 290, 28 SCt common with others." Sims from infringement by the statute 72. 52 L. ed. 208, 12 AnnCas_595 [aff Marryat, 17 Q. B. 281, 291, 79 ECL regulating copyrights. Solis Cigar 146 Fed. 375. 76 CCA 647); Baker v. 281, 117 Reprint 1287.

Co. v. Pozo. 16 Colo. 388, 395, 26 P Selden, 101 U. S. 99, 25 L. ed. 841; [b] Lord Mansfield's definition.- 556. 25 AmSR 279. Perris v. Hexamer, 99 U. S. 674, 675, "I use the word 'copy' in the tech- Copyright exclusively statutory see 25 L. ed. 308; Stephens v. Cady, 14 nical sense in which that name or infra § 66. How. (U. S.) 528, 530, 14 L. ed. 528; term

has been used for ages,

4. See infra § 264. Bobbs-Merrill Co. v. Straus, 147 Fed. signify an incorporeal right to the [a] English statutes.-(1) Under 15, 18, 77 CCA 607, 15 LRANS 766 sole printing and publishing of some- the statute of Anne copyright meant (aft 139 Fed. 155, and aff210 U. S. what intellectual, communicated by the "sole right and liberty of print339, 28 SCt 722, 52 L. ed. 1086); Ken- / letters." Millar v. Taylor, 4 Burr. ing." (2) Later it was extended so nedy V. McTammany, 33 Fed. 584 2,303, 2,396, 98 Reprint 201 [quot dis. as to include copying by other means (app dism 145 U. S. 643 mem, 12 SCt op. Thompson, J., in Wheaton than the press. Copyright Act, 983 mem, 36 L. ed. 853 mem); Henry Peters, 8 Pet. (U. S.) 591, 673, 8 L. 1842 (5 & 6 Vict. c 45 $ 2). (3) Bill Pub. Co. v. Smythe, 27 Fed. 914, ed. 1055).

" 'Copyright,' for the purposes of 916; Mark Twain Case, 14 Fed. 728, (c) The United States statutes the Copyright Act, 1911 1 & 2 Geo. 5 729. 11 Biss. 459; Lawrence v. Dana, contain no specific definition of the C 46), means the sole right to pro15 F. Cas. No. 8,136, 4 Cliff. i, 64; term, but merely specify the rights duce or reproduce the work or any Stowe V. Thomas, 23 F. Cas. No. secured by compliance with the stat- substantial part thereof in any ma13.514. 2 Wall. Jr. 547; Ager v. Mur- utory requirements. See Act March terial form whatsoever

to ray 21 AmLRegNS 469, 470; Davis 4, 1909 (35 U. S. St, at L. 1075 C 320); perform, or in the case of a lecture v. Vories, 141 Mo. 234, 239, 42 SW U. S. Rev. St. § 4952. See also infra to deliver

the work or any 707; State v. State Journal Co., 77 $ 264.

substantial 'part' thereof in public; Nebr. 752, 761, 110 NW 763; Rider, (d) English statutes.-(1) St. 5 & if the work is unpublished, to Petitioner, 16 R. I. 271, 272, 15 A 72; 6 Víct. c 45 $ 2 defined “copyright" | publish the work or any subWalter v. Lane, (1900) A. C. 539, 541, to mean "the sole [right] and exclu- stantial part thereof, and includes 2 BRC 312; Macmillan V. Khán sive Liberty of printing or other- tho sole right (a) to produce, reBahadur Shamsul Ulama M. Zaka, wise multiplying Copies of any Sub-produce, perform publish any (1895) 19 Indian L. R.

(Bombay) ject to which the said Word is here- translation of the work; (b) in the 557, 567; Tuck v. Priester, 19 Q. B. in applied." J. L. Mott Iron Works case of a dramatic work, to convert D. 629, 640; Millar v. Taylor, 4 Burr. v. Clow, 82 Fed. 316, 320, 27 CCA 250. it into a novel, or other non2,303 2.311, 98 Reprint 201; Jefferys To same effect Ager v. Peninsular, dramatic work; (c) in the case of v. Boosey, 4 H. L. Cas. 815, 867, 10 etc., Steam Nav. Co., 26 Ch. D. 637; a novel or other non-dramatic work, Reprint 681;. Chappell v. Purday, 14 Maple v. Junior Army, etc., Stores, or of an artistic work, to convert it M. & W. 303, 316. 153 Reprint 491. 21 Ch. D. 369; Chappell v. Purday, into a dramatic work, by way of per

[a] Similar definitions.-(1) "The 14 M. & W. 303, 153 Reprint 491. formance, which includes any acouexclusive privilege. secured accord- | (2) 'Copyright,' as defined by the stic representation of a work and ing to certain legal forms, of print-Act, means the sole and exclusive any visual representation of any ing, or otherwise multiplying, pub- liberty of printing or otherwise mul- dramatic action in a work, including lishing and vending copies of certain tiplying copies of any subject to such a representation made by means literary or artistic productions." which the word is applied. The right of any mechanical instrument (CopyRep. Atty.-Gen., N. Y. (1906) pp 403, to the copies which may be asserted right Act, 1911 (1 & 2 Geo. 5, c 46),, 404. (2) "The right of an author or by an action of detinue or of trover 35 (1) ). in public or otherwise; proprietor of literary work to is a perfectly distinct right from the (d) in the

case of a literary, multiply copies of it to the exclusion right to multiply copies which may dramatic, or musical work, to make of others." Palmer V. De Witt, 47 be asserted by an action or by in- any record, perforated roll, cinemaN. Y. 532, 536, 7 AMR 480. (3) The junction.", Hole v. Bradbury, 12 Ch. tograph film, or other contrivance by sole and exclusive liberty of multiply- D. 886, 901. (3) The Copyright Act means of which the work may be ing copies of an original work of of 1911 defines copyright as the sole mechanically performed or delivered, composition." Bobbs-Merrill Co. v. right to do certain specified things and to authorise any of the said Straus, 147 Fed. 15, 19, 77 CCA 607, with respect to literary, dramatic, acts (ibid., s 1 (2))." Halsbury L. 15 LRANS 766 (aff 210 U. S. 339. 28 | musical, and artistic works. 1 & 2 Eng. Suppí. (1917) p 364. SCt 722. 52 L. ed. 1086 ). (4) “The Geo. V c 46 $ 1. See infra note 4 [a]. 5. See infra § 264. right of publication and reproduction (e) "The term "copy of a book' 6. Press Pub. Co. v. Monroe, 164 of works of art

literature.' has been used for ages in England U. S. 105, 108, 17_SCt 40, 41 L. ed. American Tobacco Co.

v. Werck

to signify the sole right of printing 367; Wheaton v. Peters, 8 Pet. (U. meister, 207 U. S. 284, 290, 28 SCt and selling a written composition." S.) 591, 8 L. ed. 1055; American Law 72, 52 L. ed. 208, 12 AnnCas 595. Curtis Copyright p. 27.

Book Co. v. Chamberlyne, 165_Fed. (5), "An incorporeal right to print 2. See infra § 41 et seq.

313, 91 CCA 281; Caliga v. Interand publish." Werckmeister v. 3. Carter v. Bailey, 64 Me. 458, Ocean Newspaper Co., 157 Fed. 186, American Lith. Co., 134 Fed. 321, 323, 18 AmR 273.

84 CCA 634 [aff 215 U. S. 182, 30 325, 69 CCA 553,_68 LRA 591 (rev 126 Fed. 244, 117 Fed. 360). To same

{a). As meaning statutory right:- SCt 38, 54 L. ed. 1501; Bobbs-Merrill

(1) A copyright is "the exclusive Co. v. Straus, 147 Fed. 15, 77 CCA effect Bobbs-Merrill Co. Straus, privilege, secured according to 607. 15 LRANS 766 (aff 139 Fed. 155, 147 Fed. 15, 77 CCA 607, 15 LRANS tain legal forms, of printing, and aff 210 U. S. 339, 28 SCt 722, 52 766 [aff 210 U. S. 339. 28 SCt 722, otherwise multiplying. publishing and L. ed. 1086); Werckmeister v. 52 L. ed. 1086). (6). "An exclusive vending copies of certain literary_or American Lith. Co., 142 Fed. 827; right of an author and his assigns to artistic productions." American To- Werckmeister V. American Lith. Co., print his literary composition, and bacco Co. v. Werckmeister, 207 U. S. 134 Fed. 321, 69 CCA 553, 68 LRA publish and republish it in print." | 284, 290, 28 SCt 72, 52 L. ed. 208, 12 591 (rev 126 Fed. 244); Press Pub. Keene V. Wheatley, 14 F. Cas. No. | AnnCas 595 [quot Bouvier L. D.). Co. V. Monroe, 73 Fed. 196, 19 CCA 7644. . (?) "The exclusive (right) of (2) "Copyright, which is the exclu- 429, 51 LRA 353 (app dism 164 U. S. multiplying copies after publication." sive privilege of multiplying copies 105. 17 SCt 40, 41 L. ed. 367]: State Werckmeister v. American Lith. Co.. after publication, is the creature of v. State Journal Co., 77 Nebr. 752, supra. (8) The exclusive right of statute.” Per Lord Watson in Caird 110 NW 763; Turner v. Robinson, 10 multiplying copies of a work already v. Şime, 12 App. Cas. 326, 343. (3) Ir. Ch. 510 (aff 10 Ir. Ch. 121); Life published, which is preserved by a The word “copyrighted," when Pub. Co. v. Rose Pub. Co., 12 Ont. compliance with the act of congress. printed on a trade label, is a word L. 386, 7 OntWR 337, 8 OntWR 28. State v. State Journal Co., 77 Nebr. | having a well defined meaning, to "Copyright is of two kinds. The 752, 761, 110 NW 763. (9) "The ex- wit, that the protection of the stat- first is the common law right of an clusive right to multiply copies of a ute of copyrights had been secured, author or proprietor of an unpub

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fact that the common law confers on the owner But statutory copyrights relate mainly to published of an intellectual production the exclusive right works, although not exclusively so.15 Again, to make first publication of it, that is, the right to common-law rights in unpublished works are of a copy it in the first instance. This right is some- wider and more exclusive nature than the rights times called “copyright before publication '18 as conferred by statutory copyright in published distinguished from "statutory copyright," or works. The common law prohibits any kind of copyright after publication.'' 9 Whether the com- unauthorized interference with, or use of, an unmon law ever conferred a copyright in the sense published work on the ground of an exclusive of an exclusive right of continued publication and property right,16 and the common-law right is persale has been a matter of doubt and dispute.10 But petual,17 existing until lost or terminated by the however this may be, the range of rights and lia- voluntary act of the owner.18 But a statutory copybilities existing at common law in respect to intel- right permits a “fair use" of the copyright publilectual productions11 is essentially and greatly dif- cation, without deeming it an infringement,19 and ferent from those existing under the copyright stat- is of limited duration 20 utes.12 Speaking generally, common-law rights are [] . limited to unpublished works, and all common-law is the exclusive right of the owner to possess, use, property rights therein are lost on publication.1 and dispose of intellectual productions. The word lished manuscript to the possession formed now for the first time, but Rights conferred by statute and control of his or her manuscript, after careful consideration of the infra § 264. and to direct and control the circula- subject, is, that the preamble of this 13. Caliga v. Inter-Ocean Newstion of the copies which he or she Act is correct, and that it was true paper Co., 215 U. S. 182. 30 SCt 38, may make or cause to be made for in 1862 that by law, as now estab- 54 L. ed. 150: Werckmeister his or her use, prior to the publica, lished, the authors of

paintings, American Lith. Co., 134 Fed. 321. 69 tion

thereof. It is the original drawings, and photographs have no CCA 553, 68 LRA 591 (rev 126 Fed. ownership of the manuscript, and of copyright in such their works.' I 244); State V. State Journal Co., 77 the copies which the author am quite aware of the ambiguity of Nebr. 752, 110 NW 763. proprietor has made for his or her the word 'copyright. But that which Effect of publication see infra 88 use, before it is given to the public. is called 'copyright' at common law 40-45. Statutory copyright is the exclusive has been shewn by the decision of

14. Caliga v. Inter-Ocean Newsright granted by statute to the the House of Lords in Jeffreys V. paper Co., 215 U. S. 182. 30 SCt 38, owner or proprietor of a printed book Boosey, 4 H. L. Cas. 815, 10 Reprint 54 L. ed. 150; Bobbs-Merrill Co. v. or other printed publication to pub- 681, to be an incident of property Straus, 210 U. S. 339, 28 SCt 722, 52 lish, print and sell copies of the and nothing more. 'Copyright' under L. ed. 1086; Werckmeister v. Ameribook or publication for a specific the Act is something far beyond can Lith. Co., 134 Fed. 321. 69 CCA period of time. IP the statutory that: it is the exclusive right of 553. 68 LRA' 591 (rev 126 Fed. 244); formalities have been complied with, multiplying copies of work al- State v. State Journal Co., 77 Nebr. the right becomes complete upon the ready published, and the preamble 752, 110 NW 763. See also infra 88 publication of the book.' Press Pub. appears to me to be quite accurate, 171-173, 209-211, 220, 224. Co. v. Monroe, supra.

if you understand the word 'copy- [a] Statutory copyright protects [al Illustration. A partial right' in that sense.' Tuck the owner in the unrestricted pubsignment of the author's interest in Priester, 19 Q. B. D. 629, 640.

ucation and sale of all copies during a poem, with a reservation by the Right to make first publication see

the term of the copyright and in author "subject to the concession infra § 6.

this respect is fundamentally difherein made of her "copyright" in 8. Palmer v. De Witt, 47 N. Y. ferent from the common-law right. the poem, imported a reservation of 532, 537, 7 AMR 480.

Bobbs-Merrill Co. v. Straus, 147 Fed. the common-law as well as of the [a] "Copyright before publica- 15, 77 CCA 607, 15 LRANS 766 (aff statutory copyright. Press Pub. Co. tion," or the common-law right of 210 U. S. 339, 28 SCt 722, 52 L. ed. v. Monroe, 73 Fed. 196, 198, 19 CCA first publication, is the exclusive | 1086]. 429, 51 LRA 353 (app dism 164 U. S. privilege of first publishing any 15. Copyright Act, July 1, 1909 105. 17 SCt 40, 41 L. ed. 367).

original material product of intel- (35 U. S. St. at L. 1075 C 320 $$ 1, [b] The copyright recognized by lectual labor. Palmer V. De Witt, 5, 11), providing for copyright in the act of congress as assignable, 47 N. Y. 532, 537, 7 AmR 480. unpublished works such as lectures, and intended to be protected by its 9. Palmer v. De Witt, 47 N. Y. sermons, addresses, dramatic and provisions, is presumed to be the 532, 537, 7 AmR 480.

musical compositions, photographs, common-law property of the author "Copyright, in the proper sense of etc. See also infra 88 181-186, 222. in his manuscript; and the first sec- the term,

the right which 16. MacGillivray Copyright p 221. tion of the act of 1790, which pro- after publication the producer re- See also infra § 6. vides that any author of any book, tains to multiply copies." Clerk & 17. See infra § 9. etc., already printed in the United L. Torts p 675.

18. See infra § 9. States, he being a citizen who has (a) "Copyright after publication" 19. See infra & 288. not transferred to any other person is the right secured by statute to 20. See infra 88 235-244. the copyright of such book, etc., multiply copies of a literary work,

21.

Goldmark v. Kreling. 25 Fed. shall have the sole right of printing, to the exclusion of others. Palmer 349; Keene v. Wheatley, 14 F Cas. etc.the same for fourteen years, v. De Witt, 47 N. Y. 532, 537, 7 AmR No. 7,644; Woolsey v. Judd, 11 N. Y. was intended to extend the same pro- 480.

Super. 379, 386, 11 How Pr 49; Drone tection to books published under 10. See infra $$ 40, 41.

Copyright p 97; Bouvier L. D. such circumstances. Wheaton V. 11. See infra &$ 5-8.

[a] Other definitions.-"The ordiPeters, 8 Pet. (U. S.) 591, 8 L. ed. 12. Bobbs-Merrill Co. v. Straus, nary definition of literary property, 1055.

210 U. S. 339, 28 SCt 722, 52 L. ed. as the exclusive right of the pro7. State v. State Journal Co., 77 | 1086; Frohman v. Ferris, 238 Ill. 430, prietor to multiply copies of the Nebr. 752, 110 NW 763. See infra 439, 87 NE 327, 128 AmSR 135, 43 composition, is, for general pur§ 6.

LRANS 639 [aff 223 U. S. 424, 32 poses, too narrow, because, where “We must bear in mind that this SCt 263, 56. L. ed. 492); Turner v. the proprietorship exists, the cirstaiute is one of a group of statutes Robinson, 10 Ir. Cr. 510 [aff 10 Ir. culation of copies is not the only relating to copyright. That group Ch. 121).

specific method in which the subconsists of. first, some statutes re- "Property in intellectual produc-ject may be properly used. The defilating to literary copyright; secondly, tion recognized and protected in nition is thus too narrow for the some statutes relating engrav- England and the United States both specific purposes of

the present ings; and, thirdly, the statutes now by the common law and by the stat- case, where the question to be dein question, which relates to copy- ute, but as the law is now expounded cided arises from the use of a literright in works of art. There is there are important differences be- ary composition in another mode, another group of statutes which is tween the statutory and the common that

theatrical representation. perhaps more akin to patent_law, I law right. The former exists only in Literary property may be described mean the Copyright of Designs works which have been published as the right which entitles an author Acts, which I will leave out of con- within the meaning of the statute, and his assigns to all the use and sideration, because the other group and the latter only in works which profit of his composition to which is the more material for the present have not been so published. In the no independent right is, through any purpose. If we look at the group as former case ownership is limited to act or omission on his or their part, a whole we shall find (subject to the a term of years; in the latter it is vested in another person.

This difficulty which arises on the con- perpetual. The two rights do not co- definition, or description cannot be struction of this particular Act) that exist in the same composition. When applied without a specification of the the Act in each case creates a right the statutory right begins the com- profitable uses of a literary -an exclusive right-to print, or re- mon law right ends. Both may be position. Their specification inprint, multiply copies or of the defeated by publication." Frohman cludes all such

of

methods comwork in which copyright is said to v. Ferris. supra (quot Drone Copy-municating a knowledge of the conexist. My impression, not right p 100].

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