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both houses may pass a concurrent resolution expressing merely their views on some subject, without submitting the same to the President. Other orders and resolutions must be passed in the same way as bills, and then they have the same legal effect.

Questions on the Section.—Where must revenue bills originate? What power has the Senate on them? To which house must the President return a vetoed bill? What must accompany the veto of a bill? What is done with his objections? How is a bill passed over the President's veto? Why require the yeas and nays? How may a bill become a law without the President's signature? How may it fail without his veto? What kind of resolutions, etc., need not be signed by the President?

SECTION 8.—THE POWERS OF CONGRESS The Congress shall have power

CLAUSE 1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

Cl. 2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States;

Cl. 3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes;

Cl. 4. To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States;

Cl. 5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures;

Cl. 6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States;

Cl. 7. To establish post offices and post roads;

Cl. 8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries;

Cl. 9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;

Cl. 10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations;

Cl. 11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water;

Cl. 12. To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years;

Cl. 13. To provide and maintain a navy;

Cl. 14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces;

Cl. 15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions;

Cl. 16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

Cl. 17. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular States and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings;-and

Cl. 18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.

43. Taxes. The term “taxes" here means direct taxes (see p. 44). There are two reasons why the United States does not often resort to direct taxation. One is that the wealth of a State and its population are not always proportionate. A State with the same population as another may have twice as much wealth as the first. Yet, if a direct tax is laid, the two must pay the same share of it (see p. 41). The other reason is that the States and their local governments employ direct taxation; and if the United States did likewise too much of the burden of taxation would be on real and personal property.

44. Indirect Taxes.-A direct tax, in the broad sense of

the word, is laid directly on the person who must finally pay it, as a house tax, income tax, dog tax, poll tax, etc. An indirect tax is laid on commodities. It is paid first by the manufacturer, producer, or merchant, but finally by the consumer, as a part of the price. The indirect tax is more easily borne, because people pay it without knowing that they are taxed. Indirect taxes consist of duties, imposts, and excises.

45. Duties and Imposts.—Duties include taxes on imports and exports; imposts mean taxes on imports only. The United States is not permitted to tax exports; hence duties and imposts mean the same thing in this connection. A schedule of rates is called a tariff. The object of a revenue tariff is to produce revenue only. A protective tariff is to check imports and encourage the domestic production of such articles. A prohibitive tariff is intended to prevent importation altogether. . The revenue collected at the custom houses of the United States, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, amounted to nearly $262,000,000, in a total revenue of $697,000,000 from all sources.

Duties are of two kinds—ad valorem and specific. An ad valorem duty is a certain per cent. of the value of the goods as stated in the invoice; for example, twenty-five per cent. on the cost of a shawl. A specific duty is a fixed sum levied on a certain quantity, as a bushel or a pound; for example, two cents on a yard of calico.

46. Excises.-Excises are taxes on the manufacture and sale of commodities. This being a tax on domestic articles, it is called the “internal revenue.” The chief objects so taxed are alcoholic liquors and tobacco. The internal revenue for 1905 amounted to about $234,000,000.

47. Borrowing Money.-If a sudden necessity for more money than it is prudent to raise by taxation arises, as in time of war, Congress borrows money. The debt so incurred is guaranteed by the power of taxation. Borrowing money is a device for distributing an extraordinary expense among more than one generation. A government usually borrows money by the sale of bonds, payable at a certain time, with interest. At the close of the Civil War our debt was nearly $3,000,000,000.

48. Important Commercial Laws. The most important laws of Congress, passed by virtue of its power over commerce, are those which

(a) Protect shipping by means of lighthouses, buoys, and life-saving stations.

(6) Regulate navigation by establishing ports of entry and clearing, by registering vessels under the United States flag, by excluding foreign vessels from the coast trade, and by levying tonnage duties.

(c) Control immigration by exclusion acts and test acts.

(d) Regulate interstate commerce through the Interstate Commerce Commission.

(e) Control trusts.
(f) Establish Indian agencies and reservations.

49. Naturalization.—To become a citizen an alien must declare, upon oath, before a United States court or a State court having common-law jurisdiction, at least two years before his naturalization, that he intends to become a citizen and to renounce his allegiance to his own country, and to any title of nobility, should he have one. If he has complied with this requirement and has been a resident within the United States for at least five years,

and one year within the State or Territory in which he applies for citizenship, he receives his naturalization papers, provided he has been a person of good moral character while in this country and loyal to the Constitution. A minor who has resided in the United States three years immediately before becoming of age may, after arriving at his majority and after having been a resident five years, including the three years of his minority, become a citizen, if he makes oath that it has been his intention for two years to become a citizen. The children of persons who have been duly naturalized, being under the age of twenty-one years at the time of the naturalization of their parents, shall, if dwelling in the United States, be considered as citizens thereof. The children of persons who are or have been citizens of the United States, are, though born out of the limits and jurisdiction of the United States, considered as citizens thereof. Honorably discharged soldiers and seamen, being foreigners and having served under the United States flag, may become citizens without complying with all the conditions imposed upon other foreigners.

Only white persons and persons of African descent can be naturalized by present laws. The naturalization of Chinamen is expressly prohibited by a law of 1882; and it has been refused to Japanese; but a child born in the United States of such parents is a citizen. Sometimes whole communities have been naturalized by a treaty or law of Congress, as in the case of the people of Louisiana and Texas, when they were annexed to the United States.

50. Bankruptcy.—A bankrupt law is one by which

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