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departures from this have been in the treatment of the Composite State, where the importance and complexity of the subject seemed to demand a somewhat particular description, and in the last chapter, where have been considered some of the political tendencies and problems apparent in modern life. With the Art of Government, or Politics properly so called, there has likewise been no concern.

It may be proper to add that this work is based upon a course of lectures given at the Leland Stanford Junior University, and later at the Johns Hopkins University.

W. W. W. WASHINGTON, D.C.,

January, 1896.

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THE NATURE OF THE STATE

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTORY : SCOPE OF THE WORK

The term “sociology” in its broadest meaning embraces the systematic treatment of all those interests that arise from the life of men in social aggregates. So considered, it includes within its general scope such particular branches of inquiry as Economics, Law, Politics, and the like. In these special departments of knowledge, the facts dealt with are largely the same, the differences consisting in the standpoints from which they are viewed. · Thus, for example, the subject of crime is of particular interest to the economist as regards its cost to society, the extent to which it is due to economic conditions, and the manner in which it enters as a disturbing element into economic life by rendering insecure the possession of property. To the lawyer, the subject is one of importance as a violation of law, and as necessitating legal action for its punishment or prevention. To the student of Political Science, finally, it is of interest as being a revolt against the constituted authorities of the land, as an anarchistic element in the body politic, and, if widespread and continued, endangering the very existence of the State itself.

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