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Page

41. Death and Character of Queen Elizabeth, Hume,......

183

42. A Sabbath in the Country, ..... ..MRS. SIGOURNEY,.....

188

43. Sacrifice of a Hindoo Widow,

a

..Mrs. Postan,...

191

44. Felix Neff to his Alpine Flock, Anonymous,

193

45. The Three Homes,

. Anonymous,

195

46. Thought and Deed, a.

. Kennedy, .

196

47. Night,

.J. Montgomery,

........ 197

48. A Sketch of the Universe,

Goldsmith,.

199

49. Fishes,

. Altered from Turner,.. 203

50. Quadrupeds,

207

51. Oviparous and Amphibious Quadrupeds, Idem. .

212

52. Insects,

..Idem.

217

53. Birds,

.NUTTALL,

221

54. The Same, continued,.

..IDEM.

226

55. The Same, continued,.

IDEM.

231

56. The Same, concluded,.

.IDEM,

235

57. Picture of a Blind Man,.

.John Wilson,

238

58. Excelsior,

.LONGFELLOW,

241

59. Perseverance,

. ANONYMOUS,

243

60. All's for the Best,

Tupper,

244

61. Maternal Hope,

Campbell,

245

62. Spectral Illusions,

Chambers's Miscellany, 246

63. Dreams,

..Idem.

250

64. Illusions of the Imagination,........... Idem.

253

65. Illusions from Derangement of the Eyes, Idem.

256

66. Illusions from Artifice,.

..Idem.

259

67. The Butterfly's Birthday,

.Roscoe,

263

68. To the Comet of 1811,

.. Hogg,

69. A Parental Ode to my Son, aged Three

Years and Five Months,

.Hood,

268

70. Domestic Love, .......

Campbell,

270

71. The Neighbor in Law,

.....MRS. CHILD,.

272

72. The Same, continued,

IDEM.

275

73. The Same, concluded,.

IDEM. ......

280

74. The Misses,

. Mrs. Barvauld,

283

75. Extract from Belshazzar,

Milman,

287

76. The Same, concluded,..

Idem.

290

77. The Fern and the Moss,.

... Eliza Cook,

294

78. Elliott, Byron, and Wordsworth,. Henry Giles,

295

79. Extract from an Essay on Crabbe, ..Idem.

299

80. The Same, concluded,..

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.Idem.

302

81. Flowers for the Heart,....

Elliott,

305

82. The First Mild Day of Spring,.

Wordsworth,

306

. Byron,

308

83. Evening in Italy,

309

84. Approach of Age,..

Crabbe,

.....

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Lesson

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85. The Influence of Woman,..............

DANIEL WEBSTER, .. 310

86. Three Pictures of Boston,...

EDWARD EVERETT,.....

312

87. Green Mount Cemetery, at Baltimore, ..J. P. KENNEDY, 315

88. Consistency of Character,

.MRS. TUTHILL..........

316

89. Value of Time,..

Dr. Johnson,..

319

90. Never be idle,

. ANONYMOUS,

323

91. Summer,

.BRYANT,

326

92: Christmas,...

Coleridge,

328

93. Scene from the Hunchback,

.Knowles,

330

94. The Great Dismal Swamp,

Lyell,

334

95. The Rising of the Waters,

.John Galt,.....

338

96. Scene with a Panther, ·

CHARLES B. BROWN,.. 342

97. The Sense of Beauty,.

. WM. E. CHANNING,

346

98. Advertisement of a Lost Day,

.MRS. SIGOURNEY,..... 348

99. Hymn on the Seasons,

. Thomson,

349

100. The Voice of Spring,

WM. J. PABODIE,

353

101. Speak Gently,

.DAVID BATES,

354

102. Kindness,

. Sergeant Talfourd, 355

103. Descent of the Ohio in 1809,

.JOHN J. AUDUBON,....

356

104. Alexander Wilson,....

. Chambers's Miscellany, 358

105. The Seen and the Unseen,

.EPHRAIM PEABODY,

106. The Crusader's Return,

Mrs. Hemans,

368

107. The Last Man,

Campbell,.....

370

108. The Boon of Memory,.

Mrs. Hemans,

373

109. To my Mother, ...

Eliza Cook,

375

110. Fireside Education,

Chambers's Miscellany,. 377

111. The Same, continued,.

..Idem.

381

112. The Same, concluded,

..Idem.

384

113. White Mountain Scenery,

TIMOTHY DWIGHT,

388

114. The Garden of Eden,

. Milton,

390

115. The Sage,

Beattie,

392

116. True Happiness,

Pope,

395

117. The Virtuous Man,..

. Young,

397

118. The Holy Scriptures,

Dryden,

399

119. The Arrival of the Mayflower, . EDWARD EVERETT,

120. Mount Vesuvius,

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Chambers's Miscellany, 403

121. Pompeii,

.Idem.

409

122. Last Days of Herculaneum,.

Atherstone,

413

123. Description of Pompeii,

Dr. W. Beattie,

418

124. The Holy Land,

.F. W. P. GREENWOOD, 420

125. Columbus at Barcelona,

WASHINGTON IRVING, 426

......

1

THE

PRINCIPLES OF

OF ELOCUTION.

THE VOICE. ALL that articulate language and tones can effect to influence the understanding, is dependent upon the power of the voice addressed to the ear. A just and graceful management of it is, therefore, of the highest importance to the reader.

ARTICULATION. An accurate and distinct articulation forms the basis of good reading. It consists in giving every letter in a syllable its due proportion of sound, according to the most approved custom of pronouncing it. Words should be “ delivered out from the lips, as beautiful coins newly issued from the mint, deeply and accurately impressed, perfectly finished, neatly struck by the proper organs, distinct, sharp, in due succession, and of due weight.”

To accomplish this, the voice should be frequently exercised upon the elementary sounds of the language, both simple and combined; and classes of words, containing sounds liable to be perverted or suppressed in utterance, should be forcibly and accurately pronounced.

The elementary sound or power of a vowel may be ascer

*

* Austin's Chironomia.

manner.

tained by pronouncing a word containing it in a slow, drawling

Notice the sound of the vowel as it issues from the mouth, and then utter it by itself with great suddenness and force.

The following table is designed as an exercise upon the vowel elements. The word is placed opposite the letters merely to indicate its sound.

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One of the principal difficulties in articulation arises from a tendency of the voice to slide over unaccented vowels, either perverting or suppressing their sounds; and the difficulty is increased by the hurried manner in which most persons are accustomed to speak or read. Thus we hear reb’l for rebel; pashunt for patient; prcede for precede; ev'ry for every ; cuncern for concern; advucate for advocate ; folluh for follow ; pop'lar for popular; awfle for awful ; nachur for nature, &c. This improper pronunciation is heard not only in the schoolroom, but in the pulpit, at the bar, and in our legislative halls; and so general is the fault, that the ear is accustomed to the improper sounds from infancy : hence arises the difficulty in remedying the defect; for the habit of indistinct utterance is thus early acquired and firmly established.

The best method to be adopted for avoiding or correcting these errors, is to exercise the voice upon the correct sounds of the language. The sounds of the voice are wholly dependent upon muscular action. The organs of speech are, therefore, as susceptible of improvement, and as much strengthened by proper exercise, as the limbs of the body,

Gymnastic exercises are conducive to an erect form and a grcefulness of motion. The organs of speech are governed by the same law; and if we would secure a perfect enunciation, they must be exercised in the same manner. If the learner habitually mispronounce words in reading, if important sounds be perverted or suppressed, -as prudunt for prudent, fawm for form, boundin for bounding, &c., - his attention should be directed to a list of words containing sounds similar to those mispronounced, and the voice should be exercised upon them until the defect is remedied, and the habit of cor. rect utterance is established.

The following words are designed as an exercise upon unaccented vowels. It should be remembered that if children are required to utter correct sounds at an age when the organs of speech are most flexible, the habit of uttering words distinctly, and pronouncing them correctly, will soon be formed. The vowel liable to be perverted or suppressed in utterance is printed in Italics.

WORDS CONTAINING UNACCENTED VOWELS.

Abjure, (not ubjure,) accept, account, admit, address, affect, affix, allay, allure, annex, apply, appear, arrive, assail, attempt, attune, attend.

Husband, (not husbund,) combat, dormant, infant, adjutant, consonant, defiance, temperance, countenance, continuance, continual, verbal, musical, gradual, special, beneficial, credential, prudential, instantly, penalty, valiantly.

Belief, (not b'lief,) believe, become, delight, deny, desire, precede, precise, predict, prefer, prefix, preface, pretend, geog. raphy, geology, geometry.

Rebel, (not reb'l,) travel, chapel, gravel, parcel, counsel, novel, model, vessel, jewel, marvel, sudden, kitchen, chicken, aspen, hyphen, sloven. Goodness, (not goodniss,) boundless, endless, matchless,

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