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millions who were stripped of their fortunes': among the millions who were reduced to slavery. REMARKS.—Partial close is a fall of the voice which prepares the way for, i. e. leads us to expect, perfect close. The voice falls from a higher point, and does not fall quite so low as in perfect close. To deliver a sentence having one or more parts ending with partial close, correctly, the second part should be read or spoken in a slightly lower tone of voice than the first; and the third in a lower than the second; and the fourth in a lower than the third; and so on to the end; so that there shall be a gradual descent from the beginning to the end: a succession of steps, as it were, to perfect close. (See Elements of Reading and Oratory, Ch. VI., Rule IX.).

To read the parts successively in a higher tone of voice, would injure the sense: to read them all in the same tone of voice would produce an extremely unpleasant monotony, when the very soul of good reading is variety.

Sometimes, however, when the sentence has many parts, and is a very long sentence, it may be necessary to read some of the middle parts in the game tone, because there is not compass enough in all voices to keep on descending uninterruptedly to the end.


1. UPWARD SLIDE. (See “ Course of Reading,” pp. 39, 44, and “Elements of Reading and Oratory," Ch.

III. ii. 3.) 1 Can


read ? 2 Will they go home then ? 3 Did you see him there at that time ? . 4 Can a hair of my head fall to the ground without permission from my heavenly Father ? Am I my brother's keeper? said the unhappy man.

A succession of Upward Slides. 6 Will the Lord cast off forever? and will he be favorable no

more? 7 Doth his promise fail forevermore? hath God forgotten to be gracious ? hath he in



his tender mercies? 8 Have ye not known ? have ye not heard ? hath it not been

told you from the beginning ? have ye not understood from the foundation of the world ? REMARKS.-1. The first four of these sentences will be well read, when the voice is made to ascend gradually until the end is reached. All questions of the same kind, and not longer than these, should be read in the same manner: when they are very long, the middle portion may be read in a level tone of voice. Care, however, should be taken never to let the voice sink below the beginning. (See Elements of Reading and Oratory, Ch. VI., Rule II.)

2. The fifth example is one of a numerous class. When the question is thus followed by a clause or circumstance, the slide of the question is continued to the end of the clause; i. e. the clause is read as if it formed a part of the question. (See ibid.)

8. When two or more questions of this kind are united in one sentence, as in examples 6, 7, 8, each of them should be separately read with the upWard slide; but each slide in succession should

begin slightly higher and end slightly higher than the one preceding. (See Elements of Reading und Oratory, Ch. VI., Rule XII.)


2. THE DOWNWARD SLIDE. (See “Course of Reading,” pp. 39, 47, and “Elements of Reading and Oratory," Ch. III.

ii. 3, 2.) 1 Why ? 2 Where then ? 3 How is this 4 Who told you that 5 In what can I serve you { 6 How long will they remain in Boston ? 7 Whence can a man satisfy these men with bread here in

the wilderness 8 By whom was this done { said John to himself, when he

entered the room.

A series of Downward Slides. 9 By what authority doest thou these things and who gave thee this authority ?

What fellowship has righteousness with unrighteousness ? 10 and what communion has light with darkness ? and what

concord has Christ with Belial ? or what part has he that believes with an infidel ? and what agreement has the temple of God with idols ? REMARKS.-1. The delivery of this kind of question is very much affected by emphasis. (See Exercise on Emphasis.). Apart from emphasis, however, or with emphasis on the first word, the voice gradually descends to the end of the sentence, if not a very long sentence : if long, the middle of it may be delivered in a level tonë. (See Course of Reading, p. 47.-Elements of Reading and Oratory, Ch. VI., Rule III.)

2. The circumstance at the end of the question in example 8th, should be delivered with a continuation of the downward slide. So in all similar cases.

8. When two or more questions of this kind are united in the same sentence, as in examples 9, 10, each after the first should begin lower and descend lower than the one preceding. (See Elements of Reading and Oratory, Ch. VI., Rule XV.)


(See “ Course," p. 40, and “ Elements,” Ch. III. il. 3, 3.) 1 He 2 They went ? 3 So she came ? 4 The company saw it ? 5 You take a little pudding then ? 6 You will not think of giving me any thing in return ? 7 Let me stay at home with you to-day, my dear mother ? 8 Surely thou wilt not slay the righteous with the wicked ?

exclaimed this wise and good man.

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A succession of Waving Slides. 9 But surely he must know your principles ? he must have read your works ?

He seems to be so amiable a man that surely I should think 10 it would not be difficult to convince him of his error ? and

surely, therefore, it is your duty to call on him, state our real situation, and our reasons for it, and endeavor to convince him

that we mean no harm | REMARKS.-1. This slide is formed wholly by emphasis. (See Exercise on Emphasis.) The voice first ascends to the emphatic word, then descends on the emphatic word, and again ascends. The movement is pretty accurately described on page 40 of the “Course.” (See “ Elements,'* Chap. VI., Rulo IV.) The pupil should be exercised on this slide, until he obtains perfect command of it.

2. The circumstance at the end of example 8th is delivered with a continuation of the slide. So always.

3. When two or more questions of this kind are united in the same sentence, as in examples 9, 10, each of them should be read with a waving slide, as if it were independent. This, however, is only true, generally, Sometimes the last,

and possibly all but the first question of the series should be read with perfect close. (Šee “ Elements,". Ch. VI., Rule XVI.) In the examples given, (9, 10,) each question is delivered with the waving slide.

4. THE DOUBLE SLIDE. 1 Was it Charles or James : 2 Will you ride, or will you walk to school this morning 8 3 Art thou he that should come, or do we look for another

who shall be the Saviour of the world ! 4 Is it best to be stingy and have all despise you, to be proud

and have all hate you ? or to be generous and have all admire you: humble and have all love you $ REMARKS.—1. The first part of this question to or, is delivered with the upward slide, and the second part, including or, with the downward slide. (See " Elements of Reading and Oratory,” Rule XVII.)

2. Should a circumstance follow either part, it must be delivered with a continuation of the slide of that part.

8. Should there be a succession of questions in either part, those in the first should be delivered with a succession of upward slides, (see 1, upward slide,) and those in the second with a succession of downward slides, (seo 2, downward slide.)


And some of the Pharisees who were with him', heard these words', and said unto him', Are we blind also ?

Then the Chief Captain took him by the hand', and went with him aside privately and said', What is that which thou hast to tell me ?



Then Peter said unto him', Lord', speakest thou this parable to us, or to all 8

Knowing this first': that there shall come in the last days scoffers, walking after their own lusts, and saying', Where is the promise of his coming ?

No'; she is wiser'; wiser did I say ?

Then said Jesus unto them', I will also ask you one thing': Is it lawful on the Sabbath-day to do good, or to do evil & to save life, or to destroy it!

The baptism of John': was it from heaven, or of men$



Compellatives are the names of persons, or things, used in addressing them. (See Course of Reading, pp. 58–61, and El. of Read. and Or., Ch. IV. $ 1. class 111. 3, Rule V. 8.)

These compellatives usually, or rather nearly always, end with the bend ; that is, with a slight turn upward of the voice. (See Exercises on the Bend.) Hence, when they occur at the end of some sentences, they modify the proper delivery. I subjoin a series of examples for illustration and practice. 1 You are wrong', Harry'. 2 Are


sick, Hubert? 3 When did you go there, John S 4 You went there, John ? 5 He went there in one hour', William’; and having done

the errand, he returned. 6 Get thee behind me, Satan'. 7 Why tempt ye me, ye hypocrites ! 8 What is the matter, William { said John, looking earnestly

at him. REMARKS.—In example first, perfect close is just as much at wrong, as if Harry was at the beginning of the sentence.

In examples second and fourth, they coincide with the rising and waving slides ; that is, they produce no material effect, but are delivered just as any other word would be in their places.

In example fifth, at the end of a part of a sentence, the effect is the same as in example first; i. e. partial close is made at hour, just as if William were at the beginning of the sentence.

In examples sixth and seventh, which are very emphatic sentences, the compellatives make no difference in the delivery. The emphasis carries every thing before it: yet if these sentences should be delivered without emphasis, or with common emphasis, the voice would turn up at the end as usual.

In example eighth, we see the effect which a compellative may produce on a circumstance or clause following it. If William is delivered with the bend, said John, &c., will be delivered with the rising slide. If delivered with the slide of the question before, as in No. 6 and 7, said John, &c., will be delivered with a continuation of the same slide.




(See “ Course," pp. 40-42, and “Elements,” Ch. V. § 11. pp. 94-100.)

Exercise 1st. 1 A good man loves himself too well to lose an estate by

gaming', and his neighbor too well, to win one. 2 I do not rise to say all that can be said about this matter',

but to give my opinion on one point. 3 One of the little boys on his way home from school', fell

through the ice. 4 Though he will not rise and give him because he is his friend, yet because of his importunity, he will rise and give

him as many as he needeth. 5 Riches, my little friends', make very few people happy. 6 Children should obey their parents; and parents should

love their children. 7 Nor is he willing to stop there. 8 And now abideth faith, hope, charity': these three'; but

the greatest of these is charity. 9 In this respect, sir, I have a great advantage over the

honorable gentleman. 10 It is not true that he played the traitor to his country in

the hour of her peril. 11 I

say it was John who threw the ball against the window and broke the glass. REMARKS.-These examples are arranged in the order of the rules of emphasis in the “Course of Reading," and the “Elements of Reading and Oratory.'

1. Examples 1st and 2d are illustrations of the “Course," p. 40, 1. : of the “Elements,” Ch. V. & II. I.

2. Examples 3d and 4th are illustrations of the “Course," p. 40, III. 1, 2: of the “Eléments," Ch. V. $ II. II.

8. Example 5th' is an illustration of the “Course," p. 40, III. 2, note : of the " Elements," Ch. V. § II. 11., exception.

4. Example 6th is an illustration of the “Course," p. 40, III. 8: of the “Elements,” Ch. V. $ II. III.

5. Examples 7th and 8th are illustrations of the "Course," p. 41, IV., and of the “Elements,” Ch. V. § II. iv.

6. Examples 9th, 10th, and 11th, are illustrations of the “Course," p. 41, V.: of the Elements," Ch. V. & II. v. VI.

After the class shall have been exercised sufficiently on those examples to express accurately the emphasis as it is marked, the teacher may advantageously shift the emphasis to different parts of the sentences, and show how these changes modify its effects. This is a very important exercise, and should be repeated, even after it is mastered, at least once a week.

1 2 3

Exercise 2d.
Is he the man?
Is it indeed so?
Were there not ten cleansed ?

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