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Mr. Jefferson's Draught.

Declaration as adopted. ers to encourage their migration hither; and raising the conditions of new appropria

tions of lands. he has syffered the administra- He has obstructed the admin

tion of justice totally to cease istration of justice, by refusing his in some of these states, refus- assent to laws for establishing juing his assent to laws for esta- diciary powers.

blishing judiciary powers. he has made our judges depen- He has made judges dependent

dent on his will alone, for the on his will alone, for the tenure tenure of their offices and the of their offices, and the amount amount and paiment of their and payment of their salaries.

salaries. he has erected a multitude of new He has erected a multitude of

offices by a self-assumed pow. new offices, and sent hither er, and sent hither swarms of swarms of officers to harass our officers to harrass our people, people, and eat out their sub

and to eat out their substance. stance. he has kept among us, in times He has kept among us, in times

of peace, standing armies and of peace, standing armies, withships of war, without the con- out the consent of our legislasent of our legislatures.

tures. he has affected to render the military independent of, and supe

Not altered. rior to the civil power. he has combined with others to He has combined with others, subject us to a jurisdiction for- to subject us to a jurisdiction for eign to our constitutions and eign to our constitution, and ununacknoleged by our laws; acknowledged by our laws; givgiving his assent to their acts ing his assent to their acts of pre

of pretended legislation tended legislation, for quartering large bodies of

armed troops among us; for protecting them by a mock

trial from punishment for any murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of

Not altered. these states; for cutting off our trade with all

parts of the world; for imposing taxes on us without

our consent ; for depriving us of the benefits of for depriving us, in many cases, trial by jury;

of the benefits of trial by jury; for transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended of

Not altered. fences; for abolishing the free system of for abolishing the free system

Mr. Jefferson's Draught.

Declaration as adopted. English laws in a neighbouring of English laws in a neighbouring province, establishing therein province, establishing therein an an arbitrary government, and arbitrary government, and enlargenlarging it's boundaries so as ing its boundaries, so as to render to render it at once an example it, at once, an example and fit inand fit instrument for introdu- strument for introducing the same cing the same absolute rule into absolute rule into these colonies;

these states ; for taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable

Not altered. laws, and altering fundamentally the forms of our govern

ments; for suspending our own legislatures, and declạring themselves

Not altered. invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever ;

He has abdicated government he has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his

here, withdrawing his gover- protection, and waging war anors, and declaring us out of gainst us.

his allegiance and protection. He has plundered our seas, rahe has plundered our seas, ravag- vaged our coasts, burnt our towns,

ed our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our and destroyed the lives of our people. people.

he is at this time He is, at this time, transporting transporting large armies of large armies of foreign mercenaforeign mercenaries, to com- ries to complete the works of pleat the works of death, de- death, desolation and tyranny, alsolation and tyranny, already ready begun with circumstances begun with circumstances of of cruelty and perfidy, scarcely cruelty and perfidy unworthy paralleled in the most barbarous the head of a civilized nation.

ages, and totally unworthy the he has endeavoured to bring on head of a civilized nation.

the inhabitants of our frontiers He has constrained our fellow the merciless Indian savages, citizens, taken captive on the whose known rule of warfare high seas, to bear arms against is an undistinguished destruc- their country, to become the extion of all ages, sexes, and con- ecutioners of their friends and ditions of existence.

brethren, or to fall themselves by he has incited treasonable insur- their hands.

rections of our fellow citizens, He has excited domestic insurwith the allurements of for- rections amongst us, and has enfeiture and confiscation of our deavoured to bring on the inhabitproperty.

ants of our frontiers, the mercihe has constrained others, taken less Indian sayages, whose known

captives' on the high seas, to rule of warfare is an undistinbear arms against their coun- guished destruction, of all ages, try, to become the execution- sexes, and conditions.

Mr. Jefferson's Draught.

Declaration as adopted. ers of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by

their hands. he has waged cruel war against

human nature itself, violating it's most sacred rights of life and liberty in the persons of a distant people, who never offended him, captivating and carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere, or to incur miserable death in their transportation thither. this piratical warfare, the opprobrium of infidel powers, is the warfare of a Christian king of Great Britain. determined to keep open a market where MEN should be bought and sold, he has prostituted his negative for suppressing every

Struck out. legislative attempt to prohibit or to restrain this execrable commerce. and that this -assemblage of horrors might want no fact of distinguished die, he is now exciting those vesy people to rise in arms among us, and to purchase that liberty of which he has deprived them, by murdering the people upon whom he also obtruded them: thus paying off former crimes committed against the liberties of one people, with crimes which he urges them to commit against the lives of

In every stage of these oppres- In every stage of these oppres-

sions, we have petitioned for re- sions, we have petitioned for re-
dress in the most humble terms; dress, in the most humble terms :
our repeated petitions have our repeated petitions have been
been answered only by repeat- answered only by repeated inju-
ed injury. a prince whose char- ry. A prince whose character is
acter is thus marked by every thus marked by every act which
act which may define a tyrant, may define a tyrant, is unfit to be
is unfit to be the ruler of a peo- the ruler of a free people.
ple who mean to be free. * fu-
ture ages will scarce believe

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Mr. Jefferson's Draught.

Declaration as adopted. that the hardiness of one man adventured, within the short com. pass of twelve years only, to build à foundation so broad and undisguised, for tyranny over a people fostered and fixed in principles of freedom.

Nor have we been wanting in Nor have we been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. attentions to our British brethren. we have warned them from time We have warned them, from time to time of attempts by their legis- to time, of attempts by their legislature to extend a jurisdiction lature, to extend an unwarrantaover these our states, we have ble jurisdiction over us. We reminded them of the circumstan- have reminded them of the circes of our emigration and settle- cumstances of our emigration and ment here, no one of which could settlement here.

We have apwarrant so strange a pretension : pealed to their native justice and that these were effected at the magnanimity, and we have conexpence of our own blood and jured them, by the ties of our treasure, unassisted by the wealth common kindred, to disavow or the strength of Great Britain : these usurpations, which would that in constituting indeed our inevitably interrupt our connexseveral forms of government, we ions and correspondence. They had adopted one common king, too, have been deaf to the voice of thereby laying a foundation for justice and of consanguinity. We perpetual league and amity with must, therefore, acquiesce in the them : but that submission to necessity, which denounces our their parliament was no part of separation, and hold them, as we our constitution, nor even in idea, hold the rest of mankind, eneif history may be credited : and mies in war, in


friends. we appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, as well as to the tyes of our common kindred, to disavow these usurpations, which were likely to interrupt our connection and correspondence. they too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity; and when occasions have been given them by the regular course of their laws, of removing from their councils the disturbers of our harmony, they have by their free election reestablished them in power. at this very time too, they are per mitting their chief magistrate to send over not only soldiers of our common blood, but Scotch and foreign mercenaries to invade and

Mr. Jefferson's Draught.

Declaration as adopted. destroy us. these facts have given the last stab to agonizing affection; and manly spirit bids us to renounce forever these unfeeling brethren. we must endea. vour to forget our former love for them, and to hold them as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends. we might have been a free and a great people together; but a communication of grandeur and of freedom, it seems is below their dignity. be it so, since they will have it. the road to happiness and to glory is open to us too; we will climb it apart from them, and acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our eternal separation !

We, therefore, the RepresenWe therefore the Representa- tatives of the UNITED STATES of tives of the United States of Ame- America, in GENERAL CONGRESS asrica, in General Congress assem- sembled, appealing to the subled, do, in the same, and by au- preme Judge of the world for thority of the good people of the rectitude of our intentions, these states, reject and renounce do, in the name, and by the auall allegiance and subjection to thority of the good people of the kings of Great Britain, and all these colonies, solemnly publish others who may hereafter claim and declare, That these United by, through, or under them; we Colonies are, and of right ought utterly dissolve all political con- to be, FREE and INDEPENDENT nection which may heretofore STATES ; that they are absolved have subsisted between us and from all allegiance to the British the parliament or people of Great Crown, and that all political conBritain ; and finally we do assert nexion between them and the these oolonies to be free and in- state of Great Britain is, and dependent states, and that as free ought to be, totally dissolved ; and independent states, they have and that, as FREE and INDEPENDENT full power to levy war, conclude STATES, they have full power to peace, contract alliances, estab- levy war, conclude peace, conlish commerce, and to do all other tract alliances, establish acts and things which independent merce, and to do all other acts states may of right do. and for and things which INDEPENDENT the support of this declaration, STATES may of right do. And, for we mutually pledge to each oth- the support of this declaration, er our lives, our fortunes, and with a firm reliance on the proour sacred honor.

tection of divINE PROVIDENCE, wę mutually pledge to each other, our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honour.


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