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εναντίον δε' τη λύπη, κακό όντι, ηδονή. αγαθόν άρα, κακό γαρ ου μόνον το αγαθόν εναντίον, αλλά και το κακόν. ως τη θρασύτητι ου μόνον η ανδρεία [εναντίον, αγαθόν ούσα], αλλά και κακόν, η δειλία. διόπερ ως εναντία του λύσαντος αυτά είναι ορθώς θείς, μη μόνον αγαθόν είναι το κακό εναντίον, αλλά και κακόν, είτα προσέλαβε την ηδονήν μή είναι κακόν, εξ ών ευλόγως συλλογίζεται την ηδονήν αγαθόν είναι. ο δε επί πάσιν είρηκεν. ου γαρ αν φαίη τις είναι την ηδονήν το λόγο αυτην συναπτέον 3 εν ώ είληπται. ουκ έστι δε κακόν η ηδονής τούτο γαρ συνεχές + .... αν.. φαίη. το μη κακόν είναι ηδονήν. «ο δε μετά ταύ

4 τα λόγος” έoικε λέγεσθαι προς τους μη φάσκοντας τέλος είναι την ηδονήν μηδε το άριστον. διότι εισί τινες ηδοναι φαύλαι, οίον αι των ακολάστων. όσον γαρ επί τούτω τώ λόγω εστί τιναι ηδονήν .... ηγείται .... το8 άριστον και τουτόν τη ευδαιμονία, αλλά προς τους ούτω δεικνύντας ενίστανται 9 τί γαρ κωλύει1° φαυλών ηδονών ούσων, είναι τινα ηδονήν το άριστον των ανθρωπίνων αγαθών. ώσπερ και επιστήμη τις έστι η αρίστη των όντων, οίον η σοφία. καίτοι πολλών τέχνών 12 φαύλων ούσων, οίον των βαναυσων, φαύλων δε ουχ ως κακών ακουστέον, αλλ' ως ατελών 13 και 14 μηδεμίας σπουδής αξίων. α δε εξής επιφέρει!5 αυτά16 δόξειεν εν αληθεί αποφαινόμενα το μέγιστον και άριστον την ηδονήν. λέγει γαρ ίσως δε 18 και αναγκαίως 19 αιρετώτατον είναι, δηλονότιο την ηδονήν. το δε αιρετώτατόν τι επί τέλει 21 έστι του λόγου, και συνηγορείται 13 τω λόγω, πάντων αιρετώτατον 23 είναι την 14 ηδονήν λεγόντων 25 ει γαρ εκάστης έξεώς εισί τινες ενέργειαι ανεμπόδιστοι, οίον αι των αρίστων όταν έν προηγουμένους και αιρετούς γίνωνται, μηδενός εμποδίζονται. και έστιν η ευδαιμονία ή πάσων των έξεων, τουτέστι των αρετών, ενέργεια ή τινος αυτών ανεμπόδιστος, οίον

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V. b. sine δε, την λύπη κακών όντι, sic. 2 Uncis inclusa soli V. b. et FI, b. 3 In Cod. Fl. a. et in P. a. per compendium sic scriptum 70% + VR. b. in marg. ή δε βιβλ. δοκεί ουδενά έχεϊν έλλειψιν. Nulla desunt in FΙ. b.

τούτω λέγω FI. a. 6 Lacuna in omn. Codd. 7 Lacuna iterum. το sine accentu FI, a.

9 ενίσταται P. a. et P. b. 10 τι και κολύει V. b. λύει, η βιβλ, in marg.

" Addunt “ PP. 12 P. a. -χρων et prima syllaba deficiente. Fl. a. et VR. b. αισχρών in textu, notante altero in margine, τεχνών και βιβλ. 13 P. a., VR. b. et FΙ. 6. ευτελών.

14 και om. PP. 15 Αddunt τάχα post επιφέρει VR. b., V. b., FI. a. 16 PP... τω, VR. b. αντω sine accentu; V. b. αν τώ δόξει εν αληθεί. 17 Om. και PP.

18 Om. δε Ρ, a. et VR. 6. 19 αναγκαίον P. a.

20 Om. δηλονότι P. a. et textus VR. b. 2" Sic VR. b. in marg. Textus omn. librorum επιτελεί.

συνηγορεί τι Fl. a. et VR. b. Ρ. 4, τε.

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23 Fl. b. sic algotu

24 Om. Thy P. a. et textus VR. b.

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25 Néyox addunt V. b. et Fl. a. et Fl. b.

16 ενέργειας

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της σοφίας. ταυτόν δε τούτω και ή' ηδονή. ενέργεια γαρ αποδέδοται και της κατά φύσιν έξεως, ανεμπόδιστος, φανερόν ώς αν είη τις ηδονή το άριστον και τελειότατον των αγαθών. ει ούτως έτυχε φαύλων ούσων ηδονών.3 έστι δε ώς φησι τα εξής της φράσεως ίσως και αναγκαίον αίρετωτάτης είναι την ηδονήν, είπερ εκάστης έξεως και και τα εξής. διά μέν ούν τούτων δοκεί ταυτόν αποφαίνεσθαι τάγαθόν και την ηδονήν. ου μήν ούτως έχει αλλά προς τους λέγοντας γένεσιν είναι και φαύλας τινας των αγαθών, ας και δι' αυτό το μη είναι το αγαθόν επιγίνεται και επιχειρεί ενδόξως, ως ενών αυτήν το άριστον λέγειν. επει έν γε τοϊς Νικομάχείοις ένθεν διείλεκται και περί ήδονας 'Αριστοτέλης σαφώς είρηκεν, αυτην 1μη είναι ταυτόν" τη ευδαιμονία, αλλά παρακολουθείν ώσπερ τοϊς ακμαίοις την ώραν. σημειωτέον δε του μη είναι τούτ'12 'Αριστοτέλους, αλλΕυδήμου, ο13 εν τω

14 λέγει 15 περί ηδονής 16 ως ουδέπω περί της 17 αυτής διειλελεγμένου.18 πλην είτε Ευδήμου ταύτά έστιν, είτε 'Αριστοτέλους ενδόξως είρηται. VR. b. desinit in Comm. I. vii., onisso octavi libri Com.

. , mentario, fol. 79. (V. b. 377 a.)

'Η19 ηδονή μάλλον εν ηρεμία .... ανδρία εστίν ή εν κινησει. ή γαρ ήστη 10 και αληθεστάτη ηδονή τω ωσαύτως έχοντι και αιει περί την των καλλίστων 21 θεωρίαν ενεργούντι, ο δε λέγουσι τινες, μεταβολήν πάντων, γλυκύ, περί της πονηρίας και ευμεταβολης 23 φύσει 24 λέγουσι. τοιαύτη δε η φθάρτη.

Cod. FI. a. habet 'Ασπασίου εις το και των 'Αριστ. 'Ηθικών Νικομαχείων (FI. b. 399 b.)

Incipit: Μετα 25 δε ταύτα δε περί φιλίας: έως του λανθάνοντας ως έχoυσιν αυτοίς.

Desinit: το επαρκείς και οι σπουδαστών και περί μεν τούτων, τάδε μοι είρηται : f. 40i a.

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1 Car, η V. b, et FΙ. b.

2 αποδίδεται PP. 3. Quanquam pravæ sunt voluptates Felic.

4 Αddunt δε VR. b., V. b. et Florentini, 5 Om. και Fl. a.

6 τας VR. b.

7 το ταγαθόν ΡΡ. 8 P. b. εν.

9 P. b. ένθα V. 6. εν 10 P. a., Fl. a. et VR. b. αυτών.

μή ταυτόν VR. D., Fl. a. 12 πόντ’ PP.

13 το Ρ. b., V. b., Fl. a. et Fl, b. 14 Indicant lacunam soli P. b. et Fl. b. 15 λέγειν VR. b., V. b. et Fl. 6. 16 ηδονάς και βιβλ. in marg. VR. b.

17 Addit solus Fl. a. 18 διειλεγμένου Ρ. b., V. b. et Florr.

19 Addit V. b. διό και η ηδ. 20 Omissum in Cod. VR. b., nullo spatio relicto; in marg. asń.

καλλίστην VR. b. in marg. καλλία
12 VR. b. μεταβολήν. V. b. et P. a. μεταβολή.

13 Textus VR. b. ευμεταβόλου. V. b. ευμεταβολίας. 24 VR. b. φύ και βιβλ. και ίσως γέγραπται φύσεως, αλλά μη, φύσει. 15 FI, a. μετέχει..

16 FI, D. εαυτοίς.

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Sequitur in F1, b. f. 370 a., post Commentarium l. It. Aspasio tributum--qui desinit verbis : di dèy our TOÚTo Paivetas Tò oxusuna uérov ti. Deinde Michaelis Ephesii Scholia leguntur, in . Etbicor.

NOTICE OF PEINTURES ANTIQUES ET INEDITES

DE VASES GRECS, tirées de diverses collections, avec des explications, par J. V. MILLINGEN. Folio. Rome. Pr. 71. 7s.

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ACCORDING to our intention declared in the account of Mr. Millingen's English work, (see Classical Journal, No. Ly. p. 144.), we shall here describe that splendid French volume which the same learned author published at Rome under the title above inentioned; a folio of considerable size, beautifully printed, and illustrated with sixty-three plates. Sixty of these exhibit the paintings found on various Greek, or, as they are often improperly called, Etruscan, vases; and three plates represent the different forms of those vases. All the paintings have hitherto been unedited, with the exception of two ; which were so inaccurately copied in former engravings, that their subjects could not be ascertained. Notwithstanding the great variety of designs comprehended in so many plates, and the impossibility of remarking, within our limits, the very minute details, we shall endeavor to gratify antiquarian and classical readers by indicating, though briefly, the principal subject of each painting.

But we must previously notice the Introduction (occupying thirteen pages), in which Mr. Millingen most ingeniously traces the history of earthen vases. He observes that they were in general use among the Greeks until Alexander's time, when, luxury having been introduced, silver, gold, and even more precious materials superseded clay in the formation of vases. He describes the various purposes, civil and religious, to which the ancients applied their earthen vases : these, originally, were not colored; they were painted black, and subsequently, as the arts improved, were ornamented with figures. That monuments of brass or of marble should have disappeared, while vases of so frail a substance as clay should be found at the present day in considerable numbers, our learned author ascribes to the custom of placing these with the dead, whose tombs were preserved from violation by a feeling of religious respect. He divides the vases into seven grand classes, according to the subject of their paintings : 1. Those relating to the divinities; their wars with the giants, their amours, the sacrifices offered to thein, &c. 2. Those relative to the heroic ages; the most numerous as well as the most interesting, for they comprehend all the inythological facts from the arrival of Cadmus till the return of Ulysses to Ithaca; the Heracleïd, the Theseïd, the two wars of Thebes, the wars of the Amazons, the Argonautic expedition, and the war of Troy. 3. Dionysiac subjects : Bacchus, Satyrs, Silenus, Nymphs, dances, festivals, processions, &c. 4. Subjects of civil life : marriages, amorous scenes, feasts, hunting-parties, warriors, theatrical representations, &c. 5. Those relating to funeral ceremonies, a very numerous class. 6. Those relative to gymnastic exercises; and 7. Those alluding to the inysteries and preparatory ceremonies of initiation.

Most vases, says Mr. M., exhibit pictures on both sides, though one has seldom any relation to the other; that which is painted with the most care, may be considered as the principal face; on the reverse is generally found some gymnastic or Dionysiac subject. Vases abound in most parts of Greece, in the kingdom of Naples, and in Sicily; the finest have been discovered at Nola, Locri, and Agrigentum. As the potter's wheel, the art of modelling in clay, and even painting, are said to have been invented at CoFinth, we may suppose this place the first in which painted vases were made ; probably about seven hundred years before the commencement of our era. But we must pass over without notice a multiplicity of curious and interesting remarks in the Introduction, and proceed to our author's explanation of the plates. (Plate i.) represents that memorable punishment inflicted by

) Bacchus on Lycurgus, king of Thrace; a subject not yet discovered on any other monument of ancient art, though the story has been related by Homer, Hyginus, Apollodorus, &c.; inspired with madness by the offended deity, Lycurgus is seen killing his own wife and son, whilst be fancies that he is de stroying the vines of Bacchus. The vase which exhibits this painting once belonged to Mr. Millingen, and is now in the Royal Museum degli Studj at Naples: the subject was probably copied, says our author, from some ancient and celebrated pic ture : according to Pausanias (Attic. c. xx.), the punishment of

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Lycurgus was represented in the temple of Bacchus at Athens
(Plate ii.) shows the reverse or opposite side of this vase,
figure of Bacchus caressing a young panther that sits upon his
knees; a person standing before the god pours out a libation,
and behind him are a Menade and two Satyrs.-(Plate ii.) In
this we see Perseus holding up the formidable head of Medusa,
which turns into stone two Satyrs preparing to attack him.-
(Pl. iv.) illustrates

the story of Peleus, who, having pursued the beautiful Nereid Thetis through various transformations, surprises her at last, and she consents to become his wife. - The same vase exhibits another composition, (Pl. v.) presenting two different subjects; one consists of seven figures, a warrior attacked by Menades or Bacchants; the other, a combat in which five warriors are engaged, and this, Mr. Millingen thinks, may represent some circumstances of the Trojan war, or perhaps a military dance, such as Xenophon denominates of otosta (Cyrop. vi, vii.)- In (Pl. vi.) Medea appears sitting at the foot of a tree round which is twined a dragon or serpent; to this she offers a soporific potion, while Jason approaching with a sword, prepares to kill the inonster, that he may seize the golden fleece preserved under its guardianship. Venus is seen on one side, encouraging the lovers in their enterprise ; and on the other side is a winged youth, whom Mr. M. regards as Alastor, 'Aráo tup, the evil genius of Medea, often mentioned by the tragic authors: thus Euripides in Medea, v. 1333.)

... τον σον δ' 'Αλάστορ' εις έμ' έσκηψαν θεοί..(Pl. vii.) represents Æetes, king of Colchos, to whom Phryxus brings the golden fleece. Most of the circumstances in this composition might be supposed to indicate Jason; but Mr. M. considers the presence of Mercury as a decisive proof that Phryxus .was the hero intended.-(Pl. viii.) This subject, from a vase in the author's collection, alludes to the story of Cæneus, whom two centaurs attack, and overwhelm with branches of trees.---In (Pls. ix. and x.) we discover Theseus preparing to destroy Procrustes by means of the bed whereon this famous robber had tortured so many travellers.--(Pl. xi.) Hercules, or rather Theseus, as Mr. M. conjectures, overcomes the Marathonian bull, in presence of Minerva.-(Pl. xii.) represents Theseus offering a sacrifice to Neptune, and soliciting from this god the destruction of his son Hippolytus, whom Phædra had unjustly accused.--(Pl. xiii.) exhibits the unfortunate youth, with his stepmother Phædra, and the nurse, who appears from other monuments to bave acted a conspicuous part in this tragical adventure.

The story of Orestes furnishes an interesting subject for (Pls.

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