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τω του ουρανου νωτώ ; ου γαρ δη ανελθουσαι εκει αρχαι γεγόνασιν. But here for agxas it is manifest that it is necessary to read αργάι. For Hermeas in this place inquires why Plato says that souls, when they arrive at the summit of heaven, stand on its back? For when they are there they do not become indolent. And this is evident from what he immediately after adds, οσο γαρ ανιασι, τοσουτο ρωμαλεώτεραι και δραστηριοι γινονται. Ρ. 140, 1. 28. Τα δε αλλως τε και περι αληθειας λεγοντα, πάνυ απορgήτως και θεολογικως ειρηται την γαρ αληθειαν την των νυκτων πασαν ταξιν φησι, και το πεδιον αληθειας εξης εαν λέγη, ταυτας αινίττεται» και ιδιώς δε αλήθειαν οι θεολογοι εκει ιδρυουσιν. Ο γαρ τοι Ορφεύς περι της Νυκτος λεγων, θεων γαρ εχει, φησι και

Μαντοσύνην δε σε δωκεν εχειν αψευδεα παντη. The plain of Truth, says Hermeas, which is here celebrated by Plato, obscurely signifies that divine order which Orpheus and other theologists denominate Night. In this passage therefore, immediately after θεων γαρ έχει, it is necessary to add αληθειαν. For Night, according to Orpheus, contains the truth of the gods.

Again, p. 141, 1. 4. Hermeas on the words of Plato, η γαρ άχρωματος τε και ασχηματιστος, observes, αχρωματος πως λεγει και άρα ως λεγομεν και την φύσιν αχρωματος και την ψυχην και και τι θαυμαστον εστι τούτο; και του και εξαιρετoν επι του υπερουράνιου τόπου, όπου γε και

φυσις και η ψυχη έχει αυτο. Here in the last part of this passage, και τοι τι εξαιρετoν κ. τ.λ., for και τοι, it is necessary to read Xai Ti, and to make the whole of this part interros gative, viz., και τι και εξαιρετoν επί του υπερουράνιου τόπου, όπου γε και η φυσις και η ψυχη εχει αυτο; And then what Hermeas says, will be, in English, “What is the meaning of Plato' when he šays, that the supercelestial place is without color! Is it in the same way, as we assert of nature and soul, that they are colorless ? But if this be the case, what will there be peculiarly excellent in the supercelestial place, since the uncolored is possessed both by nature and soul ?" That this is the true read ing, will be at once evident, from considering that according to Plato, the supercelestial place indicates one of the highest orders of the gods. In the same page, I. 17. Hermeas having

, observed that heaven is the first that is illuminated by the divine light of Phanes, adds that according to Orpheus Night is united to him; in confirmation of which he quotes the following Or

1; phic lines :

Πρωτογονον γε μεν ουτίς εσεδρακεν οφθαλμοισιν,
Ει μη Νυξ ιερη μουνη” οι δ' αλλοι απαντες
θαυμαζον καθορωντες εν αιθερι φεγγος αελπτον:
Τοιον απεστραπτε χρόος

αθανατοιo Φανητος.


On these lines the Professor observes, “ Inter fragmenta Orphica leguntur hi_versus, sed pluribus in locis corrupti. Posteriorem versum Bentleius Epist. ad Jo. Millium p. 455, Opusc. philol. e Proclo sic exhibet:

Τοιον απεστιλβε χρoος αθανατοιo Φανητος.” This last line is in Proclus in Tim. lib. 11. p. 132. as follows:

Το ον απεστιλβε χρους αθανατοιo Φανητος, . In which line To oy is evidently erroneous, and therefore Bentley has substituted for it Tosoy. But the true reading for Toox is, I conceive, that of Eschenbach in his Epigenes De Poësi

Ι Orphica p. 78., which he derived from a manuscript of the above

. work of Proclus, not having, as he informs us, the printed copy of it to consult; and this reading is, Tu Mev. In p. 141,

; 1. 29. Hermeas speaking of the order of the Cyclops says, ey γαρ πρωτοις τουτοις το σχημα εκφαινεσθαι η θεολογια φησι, και πρωτας αρχας και αιτιας των πανταχου σχηματων τουτους ειναι τους θεους Κυκλωπας» διο και Τεκτονοχειρας αυτους η θεολογια φησιν: αυτη γαρ τριας εστι τελεσιουργικη των σχηματων- -και εν Παρμενιδη δε, εαν λεγη ο Πλατων ευθυ και περιφερες, ταυτην την ταξια αινιττεται. According to the Grecian theology, the order of the Cyclops consists of Brontes, Steropes, and Arges, and is therefore, as Hermeas says, triadic. And this order is occultly indicated by Plato in his Parmenides by the terms ευθυ, περιφερες, και μικτον; i. e. by the straight, the circular, and that which is mixed from both. Hence in the above passage, immediately after the words ευθυ και περιφερες, it is necessary to add και μικτον. In the last line of the same page Hermeas observes, ο δε Πλατων, όπερ μεν ευρε καταφατικως υπο του θεολογου ρηθεν, τουτο αυτος αποφατικως προηνεγκατο. ο γαρ εκείνος νυκτα ειπεν, ουτος τουτο αχρωματον· ο δε εκεινος αποφατικως αψευδεα



Μαντοσυνης δε οι δωκεν εχειν αψευδεα παντων τουτο ουτος καταφατικως ειπε" περι ην το της αληθους επιστημης γενος, ουσια οντως ουσα τρια αποφατικα προενεγκαμενος τρια καταφαπαλιν επάγει, από του οντος τρια προενεγκων.

Hermeas is here speaking of that divine order which is called by the Chaldean theologists vontos xal voepos, intelligible and at the same time intellectual, as being mingled from both, and which is unfolded by Plato in the Phædrus. Hermeas, therefore, in the above passage observes, that the part of this order which is celebrated by the theologist Orpheus affirmatively, is unfolded by Plato negatively; and that what the theologist speaks of negatively, is enunciated by Plato affirmatively. Hence, immediately after the words ο δε Πλατων οπερ μεν ευρε καταφατικως υπο του θεολογου ρηθεν, τουτο αυτος αποφατικως προηνεγκατo, it appears to me requisite to add, οπερ δε ευρε αποφατιπως τουτο αυτος καταφατικος αποφαινει.

Ρ. 143, 1. 4. το γαρ εν τη ψυχή τους ακροις νοητοις εννοεισθαι δυναται. Here for τη ψυχη, it is necessary to read της ψυχης. For the meaning of Hermeas is, that the one of the soul which is a participation of the to fy the one itself, is capable of being united to the highest intelligibles. This is evident from what immediately follows: ει γαρ και ο ενεργεια νους ο υπεριδρυμενος αυτης αει θεαται τα οντα, αλλ' ουδεν τουτο προς την ημων ψυχην ημων γαρ εστι, οταν προς αυτον στραφωμεν· η δε υπαρξις της ψυχης, ο εστι το εν αυτης, κυριως τοτε ενθουσια, όταν το της αληθειας ιδη πεδιον. The plain of Truth belongs to the highest order of intelligibles; and this is only to be seen according to Plato by the hyparxis, which is the summit, flower, and the one of the soul, energizing enthusiastically, or with a divinely-inspired energy. P. 143, I. 15. εκαστος δη τουτων τους υπερ αυτον φως ελλαμπει, τουτέστι, αληθειαν, Here for τους υπερ αυτον, it is necessary to read τους υπο αυτον, as will be immediately evident from a perusal of the whole passage. And in the same page, 1. 19. in the words η

δε αρχη και τους νοητους θεους και παντα του απ' αυτων θειου πληροι φωτος, for απ' αυτων it is necessary to read απ' αυτου. what Hermeas says is this, " that the principle of all things fills the intelligible gods, and all the natures that proceed from him, with divine light.” Ρ. 144, 1. 17. η μεν γαρ εν ταις ιδεαις δικαιοσυνη παντα νοερως περιεχει, ει δε εν τοις θεοις, θειως. In this passage, for ει δε it is requisite to read η δε. Ρ. 145, 1. 9. Αλλα το

η λεγομενον τοιουτον εστιν πλειους εχουσι δυναμεις αι θειαι ψυχαι, τας μεν υπερτερας, τας δε καταδεεστερας. Here, immediately after τας μεν υπερτερας, it is necessary to add τας δε μεσαιτερας. This is evident from the remaining part of the sentence, viz. ταις μεν ουν πρωτισταις των δυναμεων αει τους πρωτιστοις των νοητων επιβαλλουσι και το υπερουρανιο τοπω, ταις δε μεσαις τους εντος ουρανου, ταις δε εσχαταις κατα του ψυχικον μαλιστα ιδιωμα. Here Hermeas clearly says, that divine souls have middle, as well as first and



last powers,


SOME OBSERVATIONS Caused by the recent introduction by Mr. Bullock into

England of various rare and curious specimens of Mexican Antiquity ; intended shortly to be submitted by him to the inspection of the public.

IT may truly be said of scientific inquiry, as of the politics of different periods, that to each particular age some prevailing taste may be allotted. The man of science feels that to him the consideration of what during past ages it has been the aim of human intelligence to know, is an inquiry no less interesting, than to the historian is the investigation of what the political temper of any given time has been: he, like the latter, can cast his eyes over distant

ages, and can mark the different roads which human wit has variously pursued, sometimes proceeding along the straight road of investigation terminating at the temple of knowlege, at other times deviating into the by-paths of delusion leading to error; he will however have the satisfaction of perceiving that every succeeding century has become more enlightened than the foregoing, till time in its progress arriving at the present age, the sun of science with continually increasing light seems to beam on us; in fact at the present time, throughout Europe, with the exception of one or two countries, every branch of science seems to be particularly cultivated. Never did the stream of knowlege burst forth in a purer and more sparkling tide-one study does not now alone engross, as heretofore, its undue share of attention, but all may boast that portion of esteem to which their respective merits and utility seven rally iotitle them. It was the custom, at some former periods of time, to be very indifferent to investigations into the monuments of antiquity still existing of celebrated ancient nations: to this indifference may be imputed the loss of many such precious remains, the erroneous accounts in books respecting others, and the confused and wrong ideas formerly entertained generally, on the subject of the antiquities of nations. Against the present time, however, this complaint cannot be urged. limits seem to be set to learned research? The pyramids themselves, whose dusky shadows the Nile has so long beheld reflected on her waves, an individual now compels reluctantly to disclose the awful tombs in which the Pharaohs vainly expected to find repose ! But lest Thebes should exult over Memphis,



fier royal sepulcres have been equally violated; and over the ruins of that city,—the greatest and fairest which the sun shone on in its wide career, whose hundred brazen gates, from each of which could issue ten thousand chariots of war, steroly and gloriously dictated peace to nations-over these splendid ruins the footstep of the traveller now wanders! Her prostrate porphyry pillars afford a seat to the weary pilgrim. From the banks of the Nile, which sadly contemplates the loss of former pride, still exhale the fresh breezes which once spread delicious fragrance through her artificial terraces; but those who breathed them, vital air nourishes no more.-But though her mortal population Thebes can no longer boast, her gods still have been faithful to her ruins; there in numbers they yet dwell, and undoubtedly on the stone tablets covered with hieroglyphics the religious rites sacred to them are yet recorded. Of all places of antiquarian research the ruins of Thebes seem most worthy to be explored; they deserve, and they have obtained the most curious attention. The antiquities of Egypt it must be admitted, if for a long space of time they have been unheeded, have of late years created their full share of interest: if any complaint on the subject of them can be alleged, it is that Egyptian antiquities seem too exclusively to have been the subjects of collection and research, whilst the antiquities of some other nations, as of China, of Assyria, and India, were no less worthy of attention, but have been much less successful in obtaining it. As for the antiquities of Egypt, what can exceed the respect with which, when discovered, the bust or statue of any Egyptian god is treated. The Ibis and the Crocodile, though lesser deities, are conducted from their mouldering retreats, whenever inquiry is blessed with such a discovery, with infinite veneration to national galleries and the museums of the learned. Isis propitiously smiles on her votaries, when she perceives her mutilated bust an object of regard; and Osiris might fain imagine his old worship about to be renewed!

The complaint, however, that might fairly have been alleged, that the antiquities of Egypt were too exclusively the objects of attention, seems likely soon to lose all foundation ; for being with justice advanced; already a certain direction has been given to the public taste towards the antiquities of other parts of the earth. The attention of celebrated men of learning in Paris has been of late much employed on the antiquities of Asia generally. These enlightened individuals are an honor to their country, and to men like them France owes, though envy and national jealousy may vainly deny it, and ignorantly dispute

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