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Hector is represented in the same manner under the image of a torrent from the mountains.-Canto ix. S. 47. The same warrior attacks the enemy precisely as Agamemnon is described, II. X'. 265.
Con la spada e con gli urti apre e dissolve
"Εγχεί τ', αορί τε, μεγάλοισί τε χερμαδίοισιν. S. 74. The simile of the horse is very like that of Virgil, Geor. III. when he describes that animal as leaving his stable and galloping over the plains.--S. 79. The scene between Argillano and Ariadino is the same as that between Hector and Patroclus, Il. r'. 852.
Pari destin t' aspetta, e da più forte
αλλά του ήδη
Χερσί δαμέντ' Αχιλήoς. The expression “or tu qui mori intanto, d'augei pasto e di cani”—is the same as the imprecation of Achilles, when he threatens to resign the corpse of Hector to be torn by dogs and birds of prey; and the latter part of the stanza—“indi lui
preme col piede”—is nearly a version of the 862d verse, where Hector is described as drawing his spear out of the body of Patroclus, after pressing it with his foot.-S. 92. Here we have a version of the 489th v. of the 2d book of the Iliad, almost terbatim
Non io, se cento bocche e lingue cento
Avessi, &c. Canto x. S. 2. The Soldan is compared to a wolf driven from a sheep-fold, and obliged to retire, persecuted by the shepherds' darts, as in the Iliad.-S. 14. The chariot-horses are described in the same manner as we find them by Homer.
Canto xii. The first stanza “ Era la notte” is strictly Homeric. The story of Clorinda, from stanza 23 to 35, is similar to that of Camilla and Metabus in Virgil.-S. 42 and 43. Clorinda and another warrior go by night to set fire to the enemy's machines, in the same manner as Diomed and Ulysses in the Iliad, and Nisus and 'Euryalus in the Æneid, leave their intrenchments in the night for warlike purposes.-S. 70. Tancredi having mortally wounded Clorinda, he, recognising her, breaks out into lamentations, as Achilles is said to have done, at the death of Penthesilea, Dictys Cret.
Canto xiv. S. 2. The Divine Spirit watches over the fates of Godfrey of Bouillon, like Jupiter over those of Achilles ; and
; both send dreams to the respective chiefs Agamemnon and
Godfrey. The sentences of this stanza remind the reader very forcibly of the beginning of the second Iliad~"21201 név pa Θεοί τε και ανέρες...Εύδον παννύχιοι-“essi ogni pensier che conduce, Tuffato aveano in dolce obblio profondo."--Warriors are represented going to the Infernal regions, that is, into the subterraneous parts of the earth, led by an enchanter or magician, as Ulysses at the instigation of Circe, or Æneas conducted by the Cumæan Sibyl.
Canto xv. Carlo and Ubaldo take a voyage in the enchanted bark, and view the shores of many renowned places, as Ulysses is described in the Odyssey. As Tiresias, in the Infernal shades, foretels what is to happen to Ulysses ; and Æneas in the Æneid is informed of the conduct and fate of his posterity in like manner; so also Tasso represents a nymph foretelling what progress Europeans should make in the western world-after a native of Liguria should have dared to sail beyond the columns of Hercules, In Seneca there is some prophecy of the same kind, and it is foretold that Thule shall not be the “ne plus ultra” of navigators. Conjectures of this sort appear to have been conmon amongst the ancients, if we may judge from what Plato says in his Timæus about the isle Atalantis, probably Hispaniola, beyond which was a vast continent, extending to the ocean; and which appears to be confirmed by Diodorus, who speaks concerning an island beyond the pillars of Hercules ; which had been discovered by some mariners, probably driven there by a tempest; for Aristotle himself says, that a Carthaginian vessel, which had been apparently blown out of its course by a strong westerly wind, had discovered shores hitherto unknown. In Amm. Marcellinus, we have an account of a rast island, probably the same as that which Plato mentions, which the historian says had disappeared under an inundation of the ocean; but it is easy to perceive that this was a ready method of cloaking bis ignorance of a country then nearly unknown, and which few persons dared to visit, from the dread of exposing themselves to the perils of the vast Atlantic.
Canto xvi, Armida is an enchantress like Circe in Homer's Odyssey; and the knights behold emblematical figures in her portico, as Æneas does in that of Dido. Her gardens resemble those of Alcinous, in the island of Phæacia, by whom it is generally supposed Homer intended to personify Solomon. Her parrot is taught to sing verses on the shortness of human life, Comparing men to leaves of trees, as we find them described, Jl. 3'.. Οΐη περ φύλλων γενεή, κ.τ.λ. Rinaldo is represented inveigled
in love by Armida, as Ulysses by Calypso; and two warriors re
; cover him from enchantment, as that hero in the Odyssey disenchants bis companions, when he requires of Circe to restore them to their primitive forms.
Canto xvii. A catalogue is given of the Indian warriors, to whom are given the epithets of “espugnator delle citta” (ttoaiTop8os) and “ domator de' cavalli” (intodapos), with others of the same import as those applied by Homer to his heroes. A youth is represented voyaging and watching the polar star, and other constellations, as Ulysses does when he sails from Calypso's island; though it must be allowed he appears in a less perilous state than that of the hero. Rinaldo receives a shield on which are displayed the valorous deeds of his ancestors--- in which respect the poet evidently appears to have imitated Homer, Hesiod, and Virgil.
Canto xvill. Rinaldo is warned to beware of the dangers of the enchanted grove; and desired to shun the sweet voices or songs of any persons that should accost him, as Ulysses is by Circe to beware of the Sirens.
Hę draws his sword to destroy the enchantress, as Ulysses does to prevent being transformed by the spells of Circe. The scalade of Jerusalem resembles in many respects the assault of the Greeks on Troy, in the Æneid. The effects of the battering ram are compared to a rock descending from a mountain and overwhelming every thing in its progress ; and a simile of the same description is found in the Iliad. St. Michael appears to Godfrey, as Venus to Æneas, when Troy was taken. Like Neptune, Ugone undermines the walls, and Dudone, like Juno, administers arms to the combatants. Rinaldo breaks open the door of the temple (with a beam), as Hector does the gate of the Grecian camp.
The simile of the shepherd driving his flock to shelter is nearly the same as that of Homer, when he describes him foreseeing the coming of a storm and committing his fleecy charge to the covert of a rock.
The magician Ismeno in the 2d Canto of the poem certainly partakes of the qualities of Meris, in the 8th Eclogue of Virgil.
Che trar di sotto ai chiusi marmi
Puo corpo estinto
Sæpe animas imis excire sepulcris. I cannot help considering the flight of Erminia, in the beginning of the 7th Canto, as bearing a vivid resemblance to the
flight of Pompey the Great, after the battle of Pharsalia, as described by the masterly pen of Lucan.
It is perhaps to be lamented that both Tasso and Dante should have selected subjects of so bizarre a nature, for the display of so much grandeur of invention ; but their choice must be excused when it is considered, that they were in perfect character with the age of comparative barbarism in which they lived.
W.T. P. S.
NOTICE OF THE ODES OF ANACREON OF TEOS,
translated into English reasure by E. H. THURLOW, LORD THURLOW.
We cannot say much in praise of this performance; but the example of a man of rank engaging in literary pursuits is in itself so satisfactory, that we ought not to criticise too severely. The attempt is sufficiently creditable, and therefore we are no more disposed to quarrel with Lord Thurlow for having given us an indifferent translation of Anacreon, than with the Hon. George Lamb for having given us an indifferent translation of Catullus, or with Lord Leveson Gower for having made an unsuccessful attempt to render the most untranslatable of all poems. One merit, indeed, this version possesses, unknown
, to former ones; a freedom from meretricious additions. The error of interpolating thoughts and images of the translator's own, and of making a writer speak as if he belonged to a different age, is one in which the translators of the Elizabethan age, and those of the school of Dryden and Pope, however widely differing in other respects, equally agree. Our style of translation is infinitely improved since the downfall of the Frenchi school ; we are, however, in some danger of falling into an opposite error, that of marring the beauty and ease of our versions by a too rigid adherence to the words of the original. Of the first-mentioned extreme, Cowley and T. Moore, in their translations of Anacreon, are flagrant instances; of the latter we know no example more striking than Lord Thurlow himself.
It is impossible to give the meaning of a poet without giving a little more than his words; Lord Thurlow, bowever, has not only not done this, but has retained in a great measure the Greek idioms; thus purchasing conciseness and partial fidelity at the expense of frequent obscurity and almost uniform harshness. For instance, in Ode xix., of which he has given two different versions :
The dark Earth drinks, and then the trees
That I myself delight to drink. His study of obsolete words sometimes betrays him into uncouthness; as in Ode xxxix.
with odorous oil Myself I bathe, the Syrian spoil;
Withhold a girl, too, in my arms.The two best rendered are the twenty-eighth and the fiftyfirst ode; we shall extract the former, adding, however, that we had rather meet his Lordship as an original writer than as a translator, in spite of the underciful treatment which his politics procured for his poetry in the Edinburgh Review. Best of Painters, hear my prayer,
At once like arm’d Minerva's grey, Best of Painters, now prepare, Shedding feminine dismay, Master of the Rhodian art,
And wet, like beauty's queen above, To paint the mistress of
heart: And trembling with inconstant Tho' she be absent, yet attend,
love. And paint from me my lovely Paint me the cheeks and arched friend.
nose, Paint me the hair in tender state, Let milk be mingled with the rose; The hair both black and delicate; Paint me the lip, persuasion's And, if art so far can dare,
throne, Breathing odours thro' the air; And pouting to be kiss'd anon. And paint me from the perfect Paint me the delicate chin below, brow
And let the neck like marble glow, The pure and ivory forehead now, Lately, and fair as nascent day, Only more holy, chaste, and fair, And every charm around it play. O'ershaded by the violet hair. And, painter, what may yet reFor me the eyebrow neither part, main, Nor wholly mingle by thy art;
Stole her in robe of purple grain, But like herself ihe brows design, Through which some part of her Undiscernibly to join; The circling eyelids black as night of all, that's lovely and divine ! Make for my divine delight; Enough-her very self I see;' And make the eye of living fire, Picture, perhaps, thou'lt speak to The soul and fountain of desire, ' Sic corrige, nostro periculo: libri impressi" her see,” pessundat