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On quitting this town, they travel a day and a night, and then sleep in a Negro village, called, in their idiom, 'Bakouknoki, and in that of the Tuarecks, Bakermi (Bagermi). This is not an independent town or chief place, but only like Ezwarrah (which depends on Tripoli) and other similar towns.
Water is taken here for two journies, and departing early in the morning they travel on till between sun-set and dark; they sleep at Sarreifeh, as they do at Djenzour.' This place is called in the Negro language, Schakniri, and in that of the Tuarecks, Wananan. They pass the night near these pits, and repose there 24 hours.
After a further journey of a day and a night, they stop at a town which the Negroes call Keekee, and the Tuarecks, Caouaz. It is not a chief place, but is like the mountain of Djebalis. They leave this place in the morning and travel till suu-set, and go to sleep at a town of Negroes, called by them, Canindi, and by the Tuarecks, Corrirah.
There, after passing the night, they depart in the morning, and at sun-set they reach a town, called by the Negroes, Wanonki, and by the Tuarecks, Caoucaou. There is no town greater
than this: the inhabitants swarm like locusts, they believe in God and in his prophet Muhamed: all kinds of goods and merchandise are found here; there is not to be found in Tripoli the fourth part of what is found here: here they sell for a hundred what is worth ten. They pass the night at the entrance of the town; in the morning, when the troops appear with their arrows, they open the bolts of the gates, and deliver an order of their prince for the
No one can enter the town 3 without an order from the El-Mai, that is to say, in Arabic, the Sultan.
After leaving this place they go and sleep at a town, called by the Negroes, Counzi, and by the Tuarecks, El-Birkak. The order of the El-Mai is read; the reader sits down with his legs under bim, extends his two bands, and shakes them, to testify his obe. dience to this letter of their El-Mai.
This night is passed amidst an abundance of every thing, and they depart in the morning, and after having travelled from the early morning till the middle of the afternoon, they enter a town, called by the Negroes, Birzizzi, and by the Tuarecks, Afnou. The caravan is received at this place by the people of the Viceroy, who
This is very ambiguous; perhaps the author means to say that Bakouknoki is as far from Sarreifeh as Djenzour is from Tripoli.
? That is to say, what cost ten dollars in Tripoli sells here for a hun. dred dollars. 3 These words are guessed at; the text is said to be unintelligible. VOL. XXIX. Cl. JI.
is obedient to the El-Mai. The order of the El-Mai is presented to the chief, who falls on his knees, extends both his hands, and agitates them.
The caravan again passes the night in abundance: they give them for supper, sugar-canes and dates; they reduce the dates into powder, so that they no longer form a body whose particles adhere to one another, they then bruise the cane till it has lost all its asperity, they then mix the whole with fresh milk : they are very expert in making this mixture with the hand. During the whole year they use no other food but sugar-canes, dates, and fresh milk.
After having passed the night in abundance they leave this town in the morning, and about the middle of the afternoon they arrive at a town, called by the Negroes, Sarki, and by the Tuarecks, Borcon. The troops of this town come before the travellers, take the order of the supreme chief, and do like those of whom we have already spoken.
The caravan passes the night in abundance; next morning they supply it with water for 3 days, because this town is the last of the towns of the prince of whóni we bave spoken. The čaravan departs early the next morning, and proceeding till sun-set, it sleeps in the forest of El-Degarfèh. The whole of the following day's journey is through the forest, and at sun-set they encamp at its extremity. The soil of this forest is a black clay.
They strike their tents at morning, and at sun-set they reach a town, called Tabaou, where there is water. This town and its population exceed those of Cairo.
The following morning they quit this town, and they come and lodge in a town, called by the Negroes, Zantou, and by the Tuarecks, Zancoulah, where they pass the night.
The next morning provision of water for 4 days is made, when, after travelling during 24 hours, they stop at a town, called by the Negroes, Tirri, and by the Tuarecks, Tirrin.
They pass the night there; the following morning, after a journey of 24 hours, they arrive at a town, called by the Negroes, Scholoki, and by the Tuarecks, Soudah.
[Note.--Soudah divides the Sahara from Sudan, and is about 150 miles eastward from Timbuctou, and about one third of the distance from Timbuctou to Housa. In Mr. Walckenaer's map there is in Lat. N. 19. Long. W. 4.30. Haoussa, and in Lat. N. 16. Long. Es 1.0. Housa. It is perhaps necessary to inform the African traveller as well as the African geographer, that these two places are one and the same. This confusion or ambiguity has crept into modern maps of Africa, from the situation of places in the interior, as given by one traveller, differing from that given by another; the same may be said of the orthography, each traveller spelling the name
, according to his own oral intelligence of the word; these are then
put down in other maps, as in this map of Mr. Walckender, variously spelt and variously situated'; a circumstancé which, it must be admitted, is calculated to confuse and bewilder African travellers, and which bri that account alone we think ought to be discontinued.]
Summary of a Journey from Tripoli to Timbuctou. From the gate of Tripoli called Menschièh, they travel westward till they arrive in the Tuareck country; there the road divides, and they then proceed southward; afterwards it divides a second time, and goes due west to Zantoa, which is one of the districts in the territory of the Sultan of Bornou.
[Note.--All this is very ambiguous, since Tareckna in the Tuareck country is south, not west, of Tripoli. Again, if the road went due west, after travelling many journies south of the Tuarecks, it would not go to the Bornou territory, which is unquestionably to the east. This circumstance alone would have prompted us to omit this part of the itinerary, giving that only which finishes at Sudah, and which bears the marks of authenticity; but as this summary forms a part of the itinerary entitled “Itinerary from Tripoli to Timbuctou, by Muhamed bén Foul, translated from the Arabic by M. le Baron Silvestre de Sacy,” we thought ourselves bound to give it entire, and here therefore follows the remainder of this itineráry.]
After having entered the territory of the Sowaden,' they take, before quitting the town of Sudah, water and provisions for 4 days; they then march on an entire day, and encamp in the territory of Sudan. It is a désert country, and is called Assudan, but not so called because its soil is black and like charcoal. There is here a forest, which is abandoned and desert.
The following day they proceed from the dawn of day till sunset, when they encamp in a place, called Gouth el Caraoudi, where the soil is gravel.
They sleep there, and departing in the morning, after having travelled till sun-set, they encamp in a place, called Gouth el Wanikdi, which has the same name in the Tuareck dialect.
Departing froni hence in the morning they travel till sun-set, and sleep in a town, called, in the language of the Timbuctou Negroes, Canikischi.
Leaving this town, they arrive at noon at Caoukisi.
Sowaden is the plural of Sudun; Sudan contains many kingdoms, Sowaden therefore designates the kingdoms of Sudan, as the kingdoms of Castile, Arragon, Mexico, &c. are designated by the Spains,
After sleeping there they depart in the morning, and about noon enter a town like ours (Tripoli); it is called Zanonzouki.
Here they rest and pass the night; the next morning they pass through many inhabited places, and about the middle of the afternoon (4 o'clock) they reach another town, called Caschikliki.
After having slept there they resume their journey next morning, and passing through a continuation of inhabited places they arrive at noon at the town of Tonsou-Anki, the town of Alkatatis d'Alzabd.
They then depart, and passing through inhabited places, which resemble Quakares, Djenzour, Al-Menschieh, &c. they arrive, at the end of 24 hours, about half an hour after sun-rise, at the town of Timbuctou, the greatest of towns that Allah has created, where strangers find all kinds of things; a town full of merchants.
Composed by me, Muhamed, the son of Aly, the son of Foul.
My father was a free citizen, my mother a black slave, my country is Terables (q. d. Tripoli) and Timbuctou.
NOTICE OF The GERMANY of C. CORNELIUS Tacitus,
Passow's Text; and the AGRICOLA, BRotier's Text : with Critical and Philological Remarks, partly original, and partly collected, by E. H. BARKER, Trin. Coll. Cambridge. Third Edition revised, for Schools and College-lectures. 12mo. Price 5s, 6d. boards.
The Germany and Agricola of 'Tacitus, if not among the most valuable remains of antiquity, are certainly, with very few exceptions, the most precious legacy which has descended to us from the later ages of Rome. Independently of their moral beauty and their literary merit (that of the Agricola especially), the interesting information which they communicate respecting the early manners of the two most illustrious nations of modern times, and the policy, opinions, and internal condition of Rome itself during the times they treat of; these, together with the beautiful portrait of individual virtue in the latter work, have rendered these two treatises the favorites of the modern reader; and these, combined with the important merit of brevity, have made
them a popular book for students. It is not therefore wonderful that numerous editions of them should have been undertaken with this particular object, more especially of late years, since the antiquities both of Germany and Britain have attracted more than former attention, and have received much valuable illustration from the labors of native scholars. Of these Mr. Barker's appears, from the number of impressions through which it has passed, to be among the most popular. We collect from the preface that it is only the beginning of a series of editions of the Roman classics, on the same plan.
" The Editor's attention will next be called to an Edition of Cicero's Catilinarian Orutions, which he will publish in the same form. He ventures to hope that the classical instructors of British youth will encouragę his efforts to reform the present system of our classical Schoolbooks, of which a great part, (though there are some splendid exceptions) is founded on old Editions, which are susceptible of infinite improvements from the labors of numerous Scholars, who have appeared in these latter times. A little industry, a little learning, and a little research alone are required to present the rising generation with the golden fruit of these labors; and if classical literature be an object of prime importance in the education of our youth, it is of the greatest consequence that every facility should be afforded for communicating a perfect acquaintance with the languages of Greece and Rome, because their utility to the student chiefly depends on the perfection with which they are taught by the instructor.”
This observation may be trile, but it is just; and they who are aware of the importayce of an accurate acquaintance with languages, and who have experienced in their own case, or witnessed in others, the bad effects in various ways of a superficial knowledge of them, will feel the cogency of its application, Mr. Barker's notes (with the exception of the quotations from former annotators, which we think should have been translated for conformity's sake) are in English; a mode of commenting to which Owen's Juvenal first gave us a partiality, and which, though with some hesitation, we are inclined to prefer to the more received fashion, which rests principally on prescription, The Germany is printed from the text of an edition published by Fr. Passow, in 1817 (several of whose notes are also inserted), and the Agricola from that of Brotier. We have not had leisure to peruse the whole, and therefore can only characterise it in general, as containing a great deal of useful as well as entertaining illustration, and as well adapted to the purpose for which it was undertaken. Some of the notes are however too long; a fault of which the Editor himself seems to be in some degree aware. It would bave been more for the convenience of the reader if cliese had been