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and Parliament placed King Charles II, son of Charles I, upon the throne.

This fierce political quarrel in England extended, of course, to her colonies. The most influential of the Virginians favored the Cavaliers. The Roundheads were unpopular; and when the tyrannical Sir William Berkeley became governor (1642), he ordered them to leave for either Maryland or New England, where they were gladly welcomed. Under the Commonwealth, Berkeley was removed from office, but many Cavaliers emigrated from England to Virginia, where they were cordially received. Thus between 1650 and 1670 the population of the colony grew from fifteen thousand to forty thousand.

67. Bacon's Rebellion. When Charles II became king, he reappointed Governor Berkeley, and then fresh troubles began. The colonists grew very angry over the many attempts of the King and the Governor to interfere with their liberties as Englishmen, and they were quite ready for an outbreak when they could find any excuse for it.

The occasion soon arrived. The savages had commenced to massacre the settlers, who demanded that the Governor send troops against the tribesmen. This Berkeley would not do, for he was privately making a great deal of money by trading with the Indians for furs. Nathaniel Bacon, an honest and courageous young member of the House of Burgesses, and but recently arrived from England, was the leader of those who objected to the Governor's conduct; and in 1676 he raised an independent company of armed colonists to go out and attack the Indians. Berkeley called him a “rebel” for doing this, and ordered that he and his men at once lay down their weapons. Instead of doing that, they first went out and defeated the savages and then marched back to Jamestown, where the Governor and the regular militia were waiting for them behind breastworks.

1 Some of the most prominent men in the history of Virginia were descendants of these Cavaliers. General Lee was of this class, and it is thought that Washington was also; but there is still some doubt about the English ancestry of the latter.

After a sharp fight Bacon's party won the battle, and burned the village. It should be said, however, that Jamestown, having been found unhealthy, had little by little lost its population, so that by this time there were hardly more than forty houses in the place. 2

Not long after this, Bacon died; and there now being no one left to lead the people Berkeley revenged himself on the rebels by hanging twenty-three of them and taking the property of the others. When the King heard of this, he was very indignant and ordered the Governor to give up his office and come back to England, saying: “ That old fool has hanged more men in that naked country than I have done for the murder of my father.”3 If we had let him alone,” said

GOVERNOR BERKELEY

CALLS BACON A REBEL one of the leading settlers," he would have hanged half the country." Berkeley died the next year “of a broken heart," so his friends declared; he thought he had merely done his duty and had been wrongfully punished.4

1 The rebels compelled some of the Governor's women friends to stand in front of them while the garrison were firing their cannons. This piece of strategy won the day. It was much laughed at, and Bacon was complimented on his “White apron brigade.”

2 The town was rebuilt a few years later; but toward the end of the seventeenth century it was accidentally burned down, and this time left in ruins. To-day nothing remains at old Jamestown save a crumbling church tower, a few tombstones, the foundations of three of the five churches, and several monuments and tablets erected in 1907 to Captain John Smith, Pocahontas, the House of Burgesses, etc. These relics are cared for by the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities. This marshy island would long ago have been swept away by the tides but for the protecting sea wall erected by the Federal Government in 1901-05.

3 Charles I, who had been beheaded.

4 The Governor once wrote: “I thank God there are no free schools nor printing in Virginia, and I hope we shall not have, these hundred years." This was very short-sighted in him, yet he subscribed toward founding a school which in later years became the College of William and Mary.

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68. Progress of the colony. There were many dark years for the colonists - as governors came and went, each of them quarreling with the House of Burgesses; as kings sought to extort money from them or to curb their liberties; as Indian and negro uprisings had to be met and overcome; and as bad seasons now and then brought disaster to the tobacco crop. But it must not be understood that, because these occasional events brought gloom, the life of the colonists was without joy; we shall see that there really was, all this while, much prosperity, contentment, and steady growth.

69. College of William and Mary. One strong evidence of progress was the founding (1693) of the College of William and Mary at Williamsburg, the new capital of the colony, five miles from Jamestown. This, the second college in the United States,' became a famous school; within its walls were trained some of the Revolutionary leaders who, many years later, were to free the colonies from the growing burden of English rule.

QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 1. What discovery was the foundation of the King's right to make grants

to the London and Plymouth Companies? Show on the map how

these grants conflicted with what, later, were the claims of France. 2. Sketch a map of eastern North America, showing the territory granted

to the London and Plymouth Companies. Indicate on the map the

overlapping territory. 3. Why is individual ownership of land to be preferred to community

ownership? In your neighborhood what things are ordinarily owned

by individuals? By the community? 4. Describe the kind of man who would probably have made a success

of the Jamestown settlement from the first, if the plan of community

ownership of land had not been in operation. 5. Name four things that in later years largely contributed to the prosper

ity of the Virginia colony. 6. Relate the services of John Smith to Virginia. What is meant by his

being a man of “public spirit”?

1 Harvard College had been founded in Massachusetts in 1636 (p. 84). The first university to be founded in the New World was established at Lima, Peru, in 1551.

7. Show why conditions made slavery profitable in Virginia and in the

other Southern colonies. 8. What events happened in England that induced a worthy class of

people to locate in Virginia? 9. Who was the nearer right in Bacon's Rebellion, Berkeley or Bacon?

Why? 10. Relate how the people of Virginia secured and maintained in a measure

self-government.
11. Why did the Virginians not live in towns?
12. Important dates:

1607 — Founding of Jamestown.
1619 — Beginning of representative government.

First importation of slaves.

COMPOSITION SUBJECTS 1. “As our worshipful governor, Captain John Smith, whom the ne'er

do-wells of our company affect to despise as willing to work with his hands and therefore no true gentleman, was proceeding forth to deal with the painted savages for corn, he came upon a group of our fine gentlemen who -" Complete this passage from an imaginary diary. This

may be dramatized. 2. Imagine yourself an industrious Jamestown settler. Write a letter to

a brother in England in which you tell of the discouragements of the

community plan of ownership. 3. Imagine that you live in Jamestown and sympathize with Bacon in

his rebellion. Write a letter to a friend in London, explaining your reasons for this sympathy.

CHAPTER OUTLINE 1. Merchants organize colonies for profit. 2. Character of first settlers. 3. The place chosen for settlement. 4. John Smith. 5. Early difficulties and discouragements. 6. Dale's reforms. 7. Growth of tobacco. 8. Beginning of slavery. 9. Beginning of self-government. 10. Influence of events in England upon the colony. 11. Bacon and Berkeley. 12. Beginnings of education,

CHAPTER VIII

OTHER SOUTHERN COLONIES

70. Maryland. George Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore, a Roman Catholic noted for his wisdom, his liberal views, and his interest in colonization, obtained from King Charles I the promise of the country lying north of the Potomac River and south of the Plymouth Company's boundary. This territory he called Maryland, in honor of the Queen. But Baltimore died before the signing of the charter; and his son, Cecil Calvert, the second Lord Baltimore, received the grant. This gave him almost royal power in Maryland

he could declare war, make peace, appoint all officers, pardon criminals, and do many other things pretty much as he pleased. But in making laws and levying taxes, he must consult the assembly, whose acts did not have to be confirmed by the King. In short, it was left for the proprietor and his colonists to decide among themselves how Maryland should be governed.

In 1633 Lord Baltimore sent out his brother, Leonard Calvert, in charge of two hundred colonists, and the next spring they founded St. Mary's." An Indian chief lived on the site, and allowed his wigwam to be used as a chapel. This was the first Roman Catholic church established by the English in America. 2

At that time Catholics were being very harshly treated in England.3 The Baltimore family had founded this colony

1 Annapolis was founded in 1683, and Baltimore in 1729.

2 The settlers of New France were nearly all Roman Catholics, and had many churches and priests.

3 Any one refusing to attend the services of the Church of England was liable to be fined each month a sum equal to $700 or $800 in our money. In many parts of England Catholics were frequently thrown into foul prisons, and their property taken from them; anybody might insult them without fear of punishment. For many years their life was full of misery.

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