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Georgia and Tennessee also show a decreased ratio. Virginia, Southern Florida and West Virginia hold their own. Good gains are made in Lexington, Florida, Kentucky and Southern Virginia; the greatest relative increase is that of South Carolina. If the Southeast does not quite maintain its record of last year, it must be remembered that the record in itself is good and that this section, now as before, leads the Church.
a fraction of a decimal below the general
West of the Mississippi, from the Missouri and Kansas line southward and westward to California there are fourteen
dioceses and districts, three of which,
Architecture and the Church.
The well-known architect, Mr. John M. Carrere, toward the close of a recent lecture at Christ church, New Brighton, on "The Building of Churches," in seeking to fix the relation of architecture to the Church, seemed to think it more pertinent to ask, not whether we should dispense with tradition or ignore the historic sequence of evolution in building our houses of worship, but whether we could do so. Is it possible, he asked, to express our religious life in any style that we may pre fer? Could we consistently reproduce the Gothic cathedrals of France and England? or the Renaissance buildings of Italy, Spain and Portugal? or a St. Paul's, or a Westminster Abbey, and claim that they expressed our life? They were buildings of another age, full of sentiment, replete with historical significance, a priceless inheritance; but our life, religious as well as social and political, was not the same as The Pacific Coast offers in some respects that of 300 years ago, still less like the life the most perplexing problem of our vital of the cathedral builders. Our life was, he statistics. It is in the main a young said, more spiritual and more enlightened, country, at least so far as Anglo-Saxons higher, better, purer. We could not hope are concerned; it is a rich country; the to express our life in their language or conditions of life are easy; and yet the to picture our life by their architecture, spiritual birth-rate, though it shows here, by handing down to posterity buildings as elsewhere, a slightly upward tendency, that roused no thought or emotion other is the lowest, and very much the lowest, than sentimental attachment or love of in all the United States. the beautiful as expressed in another age. How we should build was hard to say, but surely we were not building as we should, nor should we till we had achieved greater unity of religious thought and purpose. "When leading minds are agreed -and when a common ground has been found and adopted-then, and not till then, can we hope to grow, to develop and eventually to produce an art that will
THE PACIFIC COAST.
In these coast dioceses and districts (omitting Alaska) there were this year 1,407 marriages and 2,013 infant baptisms. Both totals are considerably in excess of those recorded last year, and the ratio, 1.4, is slightly greater. But it contrasts strongly with 2.2, the ratio for the Church as a whole, and this is the only section of the country that falls more than
be a true and lasting expression of our age, of our ideals, of our life and of our religion."
There is much that is true in what Mr. Carrere has to say. We regret he did not go further and make definite and constructive suggestions for immediate use. However true his ideal may be, that unity of purpose is necessary to an adequate expression of our life and of our religion, we must go on building churches and cannot sit idly waiting for unity to come for the convenience of a church architect. The architect has his mission in the unity of Christendom as well as the priest and the prophet. Because our life is differ
ent from that of centuries ago it does not follow that we must express it in a different kind of language or a different kind of architecture. As Mr. Carrere has said, we could not, even if we would, "dispense with tradition or ignore the historic sequence of evolution in building our houses of worship." There is evolution in language and in architecture as there is in life and in religion. Ours is not a different life in kind or a different religion in kind, but only a difference in degree. Church building, to follow the course of our religious development, must be true to its history. Only as it is true to its evolution can it hope to interpret the changes in our religious life. But if architects are to do this, the building of churches must be taken more seriously than we have been accustomed to take it; greater demands must be made on the architect. There must be something prophetic in our church buildings as well as in the sermons preached in them. Vestries must not expect designs to be manufactured in a moment, in a month, or even, for great buildings, in a year. Time and thought, devotion and sacrifice are essential to open the mind of the architect to creative inspiration. A great church or a cathedral cannot be built as an engineer would build a bridge. There are cases in which less time is given to an architect to create a sermon in stone than an engineer of genius would demand to make plans for a great bridge. Inevitably and naturally what is intended to be a sermon in stone becomes a mass of unrelated matter, without suggestion of aspiration or inspiration, and with no message to humanity.
A VERY SIGNIFICANT ARTICLE, PERHAPS the most significant comment on the recent Interchurch Conference, is made by Father Sheedy in The Catholic Mirror of Baltimore, a paper that has long been supposed to reflect the sentiments of Cardinal Gibbons. Father Sheedy believes and hopes that the present century "may witness the reunion of Christendom,” and says the Conference was "the most important and impressive religious gathering ever held among non-Catholics." Federation will, he says, add strength and influence to the various bodies concerned, and "ought to succeed in showing that there is a sound basis on which the different nonCatholic denominations of the country can stand." If ever Church unity is to be visibly attained, he says, "it will be brought
about under some such form as this great conference in New York has assumed." Proofs abound that we have entered upon an era of better feeling and a more tolerant and Christian spirit among Christians. Everywhere it is recognized that the chief obstacle to the progress of the Gospel and the conversion of the world is the existence of divisions among Christians. "The desire for a reunion of Christendom is a striking characteristic of our times. Separated bodies of Christians are being drawn closer together every day. They cease to think ill of each other and are uniting, wherever practicable, in charitable and other good works. This is the first step toward that final and perfect union for which Christ prayed. And should no further advance be made in our time, every one is thankful for this better and more Christian feeling. Let us be done, then, with the gospel of hate, the impugning of motives, the cruel annoyance and the relentless persecution of former days. From many quarters are heard sweet sounds to the music of heaven, that tell of this universal desire for unity and peace. That desire finds expression in the tone of the denominational press and pulpit; in the action of various church bodies looking to Christian union; in the earnest discussions of the subject carried on in conference and synods; in the co-operation of Catholics and non-Catholics in temperance, sound politics, and charitable work." This is a new and, auspicious note in Roman Catholic journalism.
Chronicle and Comment.
Dominican Affairs. is exemplified by an event which, rightly
velt's policy in Dominica wisdom of
interpreted, shows the necessity of such an
extension of the Monroe Doctrine all the more strongly. The agreement made last January with President Morales, and later embodied in the treaty now before the Senate, was one neither with an individual nor a particular public officer, but, like all such agreements and treaties, between Governments. It no more proposed to make Morales a permanent president than our treaty with Cuba does President Palma. What was proposed by the treaty was to prevent foreign interference by honestly collecting the revenue and suppressing smuggling. Thus Dominica could meet the interest on her foreign debt, and have a larger sum than ever available for government expenses. Incidentally the treaty freed trade in the ports from revolutionary exactions. Insurrection sprang up in the interior, which President Morales was unable to quell. His own cabinet was seamed with disaffection. He has fled. The Vice-President Carceres has succeeded-well-nigh the first time in Dominican history when a constitutional devolution of power has taken place. The revenue is still being peaceably collected. The ports are free from massacre and plunder. Trade is uninterrupted. For a century Dominica was a prey to savagery. Each "revolution" stood for brutal executions, rapine, plunder and exactions from planter and merchant, which prevented any material advance. He knew little of Dominica, who expected that a mere treaty pro
posed would check all revolution. What it has done is to make the first bloodless transition on legal lines. In time this policy will bring order and civilization. The control of revenue, for which each new "general" yearns, is enough to steady the excess of revolution and slowly introduce the habit of legal procedure.
The Treasury deficit has been reduced $3,500,000 in December, and the deficit for six months of the fiscal year is half that of a year ago. It was then about $20,000,000. It is now $9,000,000. It was at the end of the fiscal year, last June, $29,587,752. A still larger deficit was then predicted at the end of the current fiscal year. Representative Livingston, of the Committee, Appropriation predicted $93,000,000. The increase in customs and internal revenue renders it probable that the deficit will be small, and it may disappear altogether.
A Disappearing Deficit.
The Isthmian Canal
Commission, in its report for the year ending Dec. 1, 1905, emphasizes at the outset and throughout its belief in the old proverb that more haste means less speed and that it is useless to expect satisfactory results in excavation unless there has been thorough preparation for housing, food supply and sanitation. The isthmus must be made fit to live in. That General Gorgas has done. The problem of sanitation, the Commission says, is no longer a formidable obstacle. For housing the Commission inherited 2,175 buildings, all in bad condition. It has destroyed 22, repaired 649, built 58, and has 67 more in the course of construction. It has organized its commissary department so that employees of every grade get good food at reasonable prices. But it still finds the question of labor perplexing. There is a superfluity of the inefficient. Tropical laborers can be had for from 80 cents to $1.04 a day. These men will do from a quarter to a third of what is expected of workmen in the United States, at least as long as the Commission has to apply to them the eight-hour law, of whose existence four-fifths know nothing till they arrive at the isthmus. The Commission thinks that the application of this law will add many millions unnecessarily to the cost of the canal, thereby increasing taxation at home and benefiting a very small number of American laborers. It strongly recommends that "labor on the isthmus be excluded from the application of the eight-hour law, the contract labor law, the Chinese Exclusion Act, and any other law passed or to be passed by Congress for the benefit of American labor at home." Though all the excavation thus far done would be applicable to any type of canal, the Commission thinks it of the utmost importance
that the question of level should be decided with the least possible delay.
of Franklin's death were $32,140; last year they were $167,399,169. Then the postal service employed about 500 persons; now 280,000. It will be seen that there was last year a deficit of $14,572,584. "I am less concerned about the deficit," says Mr. Cortelyou, "than I am about efficiency of administration." The increased cost is due largely to the extension of rural delivery, in which the number of persons employed has increased from 24,566 to 32,055, with a corresponding increase in the number of delivery routes. Attention should be called to the section of the report that deals with railway transportation and indicates, contrary to the general impression, that the compensation paid to railroads for carrying mail is not excessive, though the method of determining rates nounced "not altogether satisfactory." The suggestion is made that some kinds of second-class matter might be sent, not by fast mail, but by "fast freight." Those who have travelled abroad will be interested to learn that agents are being sent to study foreign postal systems, from
which we have much to learn. mended for ocean mail-carrying steamers, generous subsidies are especially those to South America. Of
The PostmasterGeneral's Report.
more universal interest is the discussion of a domestic parcel post. The Postmaster-General doubts if this could be successfully organized to compete with the express companies, unless the rates were made to increase with the distance. He does not think it desirable to ask authority to establish such a system at present. The four obstacles mentioned by Postmaster-General Wanamaker are perhaps still insuperable. But Mr. Cortelyou does earnestly recommend that fourthclass matter be merged hereafter in third-class; that is, that there be no further distinction attempted between printed matter and merchandise. This would "afford a great opportunity for distributing light packages to a multitude of places not reached by express companies, and at a charge sufficient to reimburse the Government." It is earnestly to be hoped that Congress may act on this
recommendation. The cost to the Gov
ernment of the franking privilege enjoyed by Congressmen and the departments is estimated at $19,822,000, or $5,000,000 more than the entire postal deficit. Mr. Cortelyou finds "sound administrative reasons why it would be better business policy for each department to pay postage upon its mail matter according to its class." We should then be able, among other things, to know what it costs the tax-payers to circulate campaign literature and to further the publishing activities of the Reform Bureau conducted by Dr. Crafts. Certainly, as the PostmasterGeneral says, by such a change "the tendency to use the mails for matter that
ought to be otherwise transported would be restrained."
In taxing the importaThe bi-centennial of the tion of works of art this birth of our first Postcountry stands on a bad master-General, Benja- eminence and alone among civilized namin Franklin, who had tions. We noticed some time ago the orbeen connected with the ganized effort of American artists to free colonial postal service since 1737, before themselves from this humiliating "protecone of the first acts of the Continental tion"; we have to chronicle now the inCongress placed him at the head of the troduction by the Hon. Wm. C. Lovering, Post-Office Department in 1775, makes it of a bill into the House of Representainteresting and timely to contrast, as tives to place works of art on the free Postmaster-General Cortelyou does in his list. The history of this tax affords a report, the service of his day and of ours. curious commentary on the wisdom of When Franklin died there were in this legislators, and from the very smallness country seventy-five post-offices. Now and insignificance of the field, economicalthere are 68,131. Then the receipts were ly, gives us, as it were, a microcosmic $37,925; now they are $152,826,585. The view of the most important part of our expenses of the postal service in the year fiscal system. This duty is as old as the
The Tax on Art.
Civil War. For many years it was 10
We do not yet know just what will be the value of imports and exports for 1905, but we know that they will be the greatest in our history, for the total for the last eleven months is more than that for any other twelve. Imports for the second time in our history have passed the billion dollar mark, exports for the first time have exceeded $1,500,000,000. Part of this gain is due to increase in price; a larger part to increase in quantity. Unless there has been an unexpected falling off in December, the exports of the year will total $1,600,000,000; the imports, $1,200,000,000. Our factories have demanded more raw materials than ever before; our wealth has admitted the purchase of more luxuries. It is only when we pass from the consideration of the aggregate to the question of its distribution, that there can be any question as to the character of our prosperity. Undoubtedly there is more wealth; but whose wealth? That is the vital question. The treasures of Mexico and Peru enriched Spaniards beyond the dreams of avarice. They impoverished Spain. Never is there more need than in times of exceptional prosperity to insist upon what the President has called a square
holders. It is now proposed to issue
The Vatican White Book on the separation of Church and State, as summarized in cable dispatches of Dec. 27, seeks to place on successive French administrations the entire burden of the abrogation of the Concordat, alleging that the policy of the French Government has been distinctively "anti-religious," and denying that the attitude of the Church invited, much less made inevitable, any
change in the old order. Year.
The document by French ministers to throw the burden goes on to suggest that the effort made the people of France do not desire separaupon the Curia is due to a conviction that tion and that they, as politicians, wish to disastrous consequences. That the Church disclaim responsibility for its probably has ever acted in opposition to the public welfare is strenuously denied. Finally, with regard to the French Protectorate in the Far East the claim is advanced that although it is founded on international treaties its continuance will depend entirely on the will of the Vatican.
On Dec. 23 it was A Public nounced for the holiday Service Trust. reflection of New Yorkers that all the traction systems of Manhattan had been merged under the control of Mr. August Belmont. Mr. Thomas F. Ryan is the second party to the transaction. The result of this sale is to create a monopoly in New York by the side of which the Consolidated Gas Company is dwarfed into insignificance. The mere report of it enhanced the values of all the stocks concerned by many millions. By leases and re-leases this capitalization had gradually been increased to $147,000,000 for 535 miles of track. To reproduce the entire equipment of these companies would, competent men estimate, cost less than $90,000,000. Interest on this at five per cent. would be $4,500,000. The net earnings of the companies last year was $19,000,000; the difference, $14,500,000, represents the city's annual gift to the share
A treaty was signed on
bin. Thus the original contention of our
seems no rea
means all who live in a separate lodging held direct from a landlord) and all "officials" in Russia, including railroad, telegraph and city employees, have a vote under the new law; but they vote by "classes." For instance, in "St. Petersburg"-including not only the city but province the peasants will send 14 representatives to the electoral college; rural landlords or "nobles," 18; city realty owners, 15, and "workmen," which includes all below the large land-holders in cities, 18. This plan, as in Germany, counterbalances the numbers of the wage-earning and lower middle class with the large proportional representation of property and income. The new law confers suffrage in this modified form on the only class at first excluded for which it could be wisely claimed. The leading Russian papers approve the scheme as prudently and conservatively liberal. Elections will be ordered and when half the National Assembly is elected, it will be convened.
Bishop Funsten, of Boisé, Memorial to has had the gracious Bishop Tuttle thought to give friends in Idaho. and admirers of Bishop Tuttle and those interested in missions
throughout the country an opportunity to join in erecting a building in the city of Boisé to commemorate the great influence for good exercised by Bishop Tuttle in Idaho. Forty years ago he travelled its plains, braving the dangers of the frontier and savage, doing missionary work, in a literal sense by stages, among the miners and frontiersmen. All the vast field of his
missionary bishopric was then undeveloped, but Idaho was the wildest part. When he came the only church was a little frame building in Boisé; even when he left the district to become Bishop of Missouri church buildings were few, but a sure foundation had been laid, and the remembrance of him was a strong influence for good through all Idaho. The best way to preserve the memory of this service for a coming generation is, Bishop Funsten believes, a memorial building at the State capital, and as he whom the building is to commemorate is now Presiding Bishop, it seems fitting that the contributions should
come from every part of the country. Bishop Tuttle has expressed himself as "gratified and grateful" at the suggestion. Bishop Funsten guarantees that Idaho will contribute at least $1,000, and will welcome offerings, however small, that spring from real affection and respect. Certainly, as Bishop Tuttle himself has said, "a building to be used to help men and women, and make them better and happier, however modest, is a far nobler monument than the most costly mausoleum."
Presbyterians, Methodists and Congregationalists of Canada, through a joint committee of those bodies, have agreed to become "The United Church of Canada." A confession of faith
has been adopted following the general lines of the revised American Presbyterian Confession. The government is to be through a general conference on the Methodist plan, with a president as chief officer. Below the conference there will be a council formed on the Congregational scheme, which is to have a chairman for its head, and below this there will be presbyteries with moderators. Thus some
thing of the characteristics of each party to the union is preserved. The plan is not yet an accomplished fact, for it must be submitted to the several Churches of Canada for approval, which is, however, confidently anticipated. There will be no final action before 1908. The official report of the conference declares that throughout the session the utmost harmony and brotherly feeling prevailed. The confession formulates doctrines common to the three Churches, and suggests arrangements for pastoral services and training of the ministry. The candidate for ordination "must believe himself a child of God, truly called to the ministry, must hold the Holy Scriptures as containing sufficiently all doctrines necessary to salvation, and be resolved to teach nothing not in conformity with them. He must believe the doctrine of the United Church, as he understands it, to be agreeable to the teaching of the Holy Scriptures, his own personal faith being in essential agreement with it, and his adherence being pledged to it." The Church is described by the conference as "a visible and sacred brotherhood consisting of those who profess faith in Jesus Christ and obedience to Him, with their children." The Ten Commandments and the words of Christ are said to reveal the law of God. Baptism, which may be by sprinkling or immersion, and the Lord's Supper, are recognized as sacraments. Significant of past controversies is the declaration that "the Church should not contain unworthy members."
The Jews are essentially idealists, said Bishop Lawrence, speaking at Faneuil Hall, Boston, on the 250th anniversary of the landing of Jews in America. Men of faith, he went on to say, are men of ideals, and it is of the utmost importance that our leaders should be idealists in this age of struggle with material obstacles and increase of material wealth. This thought led him to express the hope that the great inflow of Jews to America might reinforce "that idealism which was planted here by the Puritans, who founded their faith, traditions, law and government so closely along the lines of the old dispensation." The need in the Christian Church to-day was, he said, for a deeper faith in a righteous God; for an interpretation of religion which is ethical, and for that we turn to the ancient Scriptures of Judaism,
Bishop Lawon the Jews.
though in the Christian faith we had a far deeper and broader foundation for character and the development of an ethical temper. In the coming of the Jews there had come to this land a great contribution to religion. "Throughout its history the character of this nation is to be based upon a faith which, deep and spiritual, is therefore ethical, and intimately connected with the affairs, business, politics and the social life of men." Especially to be emphasized was the integrity of the family, for which the Jews had always stood, a tradition of the deepest value in this day and nation.
Archdeacon In the course of a personal letter to a friend in Stuck's New York Archdeacon Journey. Stuck writes, Nov. 9, 1905: "My projected journey this winter is
a much more ambitious one than last
year's. Practically, my starting place will be at Bettles, which was my objective point last winter. I hope to spend Christmas there on the Koyukuk River. The ladies at the hospital sent a large box of Christmas things by steamboat to Bettles this summer, and arrangements have been made to gather all the natives together,
for the first Christmas celebration they have ever had. I hope to leave Bettles by Jan. 1, striking west for the Kobuk River, and following that river to its mouth in Kotzebue Sound. At the mouth of this
river is a mission of the Society of Friends, which I am very anxious to visit, being favorably impressed last year by the natives I met from that post. At Kotzebue Sound I shall turn north along the coast for Point Hope, which is my objective this winter. Returning, I shall retrace my steps as far as the mouth of the Kobuk, but shall then continue south, crossing the Seward Peninsula from Can dle City to Council City-both of them considerable mining settlements-and following around Norton Sound and across Norton Bay to Unalaklik, where I shall visit the Swedish Evangelical Mission. From this place there is a portage of only eighty miles to the Yukon River, and once on the Yukon I shall of course follow that stream up to the mouth of the Tanana, and then up the Tanana home.
"The trip will take all the winter; indeed, my chief anxiety-once I am across the comparatively unknown country from Bettles to Kotzebue Sound-will be to get back before the trail breaks up. I believe that, given favorable weather conditions, the overland trip to Point Hope can be made. I have most carefully studied out the route on the map, and have reckoned and calculated, and I think it can be done. Anyway, we are going to try it. I cannot tell exactly how many miles the trip will cover, because the maps are so vague, but judge it to be between 2,500 and 3,000 miles. And there are my friends of last year on the Koyukuk to visit, and their annual divine service to hold; there are the neglected Koyukuk natives to be given a Christmas, there are scattered natives and prospectors all along the Kobuk River, and all through the Seward Peninsula, and the working of the native missions of two other religious bodies to study, besides the pleasure of a visit to our own most northerly mission; there are all these things to occupy and interest. I shall have occasional opportunities of sending a letter, but none of receiving any. Nor shall I get any news. The fate of the Russian Empire, now trembling in the balance, I shall not know till next April, and if the whole United States were swallowed up in an earthquake, I would not know it till next April. The news I carry with me will be the news to every
body I meet, certainly until I reach Kotzebue Sound."
Among the achievements of American education, all of it more or less missionary in spirit, the Protestant College at Beirut, Syria, is unique, and in some respects it is the most remarkable. Founded thirty-nine years ago by Dr. Bliss, with three rooms and ten students, its founder, though no longer its president, has lived to see it expand till it counts 736 students, representing twelve distinct Churches, among which all Protestant bodies are counted as having already achieved federation, and thirteen rationalities, all working together harmoniously; their babel reduced to a common tongue; their race prejudices laid aside; their religious animosities calmed, not so much by the inculcation of Christian doctrine as by the example of a Christian spirit. Like Robert College, the college at Beirut is incorporated under the laws of the State of New York and is independent of the missionary organization of any Church, being one of the leaders in practical federation, welcoming and finding the co-operation of all. In a preparatory department those who do not know English learn it, for in the college, in the schools of commerce, medicine, Biblical archæology and philology, English alone is used as a medium of instruction, though Arabic, Turkish, French and German are taught. There are daily prayers, Bible lessons and sermons on Sundays. Some of these exercises every student must attend, though he need take no part in them, and it is most interesting to find this worship conducted in so catholic a spirit that Greek Orthodox, Uniat, Roman Catholic, Armenian Catholic, Maronite, Armenian Orthodox, Copt, Syrian Orthodox, Moslem,
Druze and Jew can all unite with Protestant Christians without offence in these services. The larger part of the students are enrolled, according to their language, in one or another of the branches of the Y. M. C. A. About seven-tenths of the cost of conducting this college is paid by the students in fees. "They are not sent," said President Bliss, the founder's son, in talking to us, "they come," eager to be taught and willing to pay to the extent of their ability. Every year inspectors are sent by the Sultan from Constantinople, and these have frequently expressed their hearty good-will. The authorities are sometimes vexatiously
dilatory, but never antagonistic. The site of the college is magnificent, overlooking the Mediterranean and with the hills of Lebanon for a background. The buildings are numerous and spacious. They represent, with the land, an investment of probably half a million dollars, and could not be reproduced in this country for twice that sum. The only danger that threatens the college is from its remarkable success. It is overwhelmed with students; it must have funds sufficient to maintain its standards for an increasing number; buildings, especially isolation hospitals. funds for more land, books, apparatus,
The Syrian College at Beirut.
The tuition of an American college student does not pay his way; it is hardly fair to expect that that of a Syrian should. This is a work of shrewd Christian statesmanship, as well as of high philanthropy. The value of such an institution, direct and indirect, to Syria and all the surrounding country is hardly calculable. Its value for us is that it shows what Christianity might do and ought to be doing everywhere; what it will do when federation becomes a reality among the Christian Churches, transcending barriers of sect, race and language in a common zeal for the redemption of humanity.
The secretaries of the Pan-Anglican Congress Committee issued on Dec. 15 a statement regarding answers to questions submitted to all dioceses of the Anglican Communion. For the future, it said, the answers were to be based on the PanAnglican Pamphlet, published by the S. P. C. K., containing an account of the first answers received. The first set of new answers came from St. Albans. "Norwich," continues the statement, "has taken notable action in connection with its own revised answers. It has deputed two experts to prepare a memorandum on two subjects to be brought before its diocesan committee in two months' time. The diocese proposes to continue this process for twelve months, sitting six times and considering on each occasion two subjects, which have been carefully prepared beforehand by experts. A report of all that has been done in connection with the Congress is to be presented to the United Boards of Missions on Jan. 30, at the Church House; and at the next meeting of the Congress committee the question of time and place and expenses in connection with the Congress itself is to be discussed."
Pan-Anglican Congress of 1908.
The Record finds no appointment in the Liberal cabinet significant to Churchmen than that of Mr. Birrell to the Education Office. Mr. Birrell, the son of a Nonconformist minister, has, it says, since his entry into politics, shown all the violent hostility to the Church and all the zest in vehement denunciation of its clergy which mark the itinerant Liberationist lecturer. It is true that most people have never taken his political endeavors quite seriously, and that his exercises in invective have been observed with more amusement than anger. But now that he comes into office he may begin to practise in the spirit of his preaching. His choice bodes ill for the dreams of those who think that some comfortable compromise between the Church and the school of Dr. Clifford can readily be arrived at. Yet elsewhere The Record expressed its sympathy with "the desire of all devout persons" that there should be in the ensuing election "as little as possible of bitterness and malice" and it notes as especial instances of this, on the part of Nonconformists, the printing of a list of persons who refused to pay rates to support former Church schools under the title "The Bishops' Prisoners." It objects also to the Liberationist name for this tax, "The New Church Rate," language for which it says "there can be no excuse and no defence." "A cause which descends so low must," it says, "be in a very bad way."
The Record and Mr. Birrell.
any man can induce Dissenters to be roa-
The Church Times, on The Church the other hand, thinks Times on the Mr. Birrell,, though withSchool Question. out practical experience, possesses many of the right qualifications for the office, and has shown he knows there are two sides to the question. "The one thing of others to be avoided at the Board of Education is a doctrinaire; and Mr. Birrell has too much humor to be that. He has the great advantage, from one point of view, of being a Dissenter by parentage and training. He has the much greater advantage of being no mere Dissent by thought and surroundings. If
New Regulations for LayReaders.
The archbishops and bishops of Australia published a pastoral last November significant for the slight mention that it made of ecclesiastical or doctrinal matters, and for the
Lay-readers are now being appointed under the new regulations drawn up by the archbishops and bishops fixing the conditions of nomination, examination, admittance and privThomas Hammerken, or Hammerchen, ilege. Four classes are recognized; pa- of Kempen, was well fitted by nature and rochial readers, diocesan readers, cate- place for writing such a work. The counchists, evangelists. The diocesan reader is try from Düsseldorf south up the Rhine something like the Limitour of Chaucer's is to this day devoutly Catholic. more In the day, he may range all over the diocese. country where we find still revered the The parochial reader can serve only his shrine of the Three Kings, where Bonn incumbent. The catechist may, in addi- Münster honors Helena, the mother of tion to the privileges of a parochial reader, Rhenic Christianity, where at Kreuzberg instruct classes in consecrated buildings. the Franciscan brothers maintain the The evangelist, who must have had a reg- original simplicity, there, even at the time ular training, has the status of a parochiai when Chaucer was singing his songs, and reader and the right to expound the Gos- Huss was setting Europe in flame, the pel. The general duties of lay-readers "little, fresh colored man, with soft brown are officially stated to be any or all of eyes," was in an atmosphere fitted to prothese: "(1) To visit the sick, to read and duce the "Imitation." pray with them, to take classes in Sundayschool and elsewhere, and generally to give such assistance to the incumbent as he may lawfully direct. (2) In unconsecrated buildings used for public worship: (a) To read such services as may be approved by the bishop; (b) to expound the Scriptures and give addresses. (3) In consecrated buildings when he is licensed to officiate in them: (a) To read such portions of the order of Morning or Evening Prayer and Litany as may be specified in his license; (b) to read selected and approved homilies or sermons; (c) to cate chise children outside the appointed services of the Church." His proper place is defined to be "the reading desk, prayer desk, litany desk or lecturn. He should not be admitted to the pulpit." The parts of Matins or Evensong that he may read are specified on the license. Special modifications of the regulations may be made by any Ordinary, and the Bishop of Worcester has in fact modified them. The Record thinks them somewhat too stringent, and that "care will need to be taken lest godly men, of real spiritual capacity, are debarred from work they have done, and could still do, with real advantage to the Church. There should be a place for all such, and the more of their help the Church enjoys the better for it."
stress that it laid on social problems and moral questions. Betting, gambling and reckless financial speculation are especially deplored; strenuous application of the law urged, and also that this should be supplemented by the individual exertions of Christians. Intemperance and class autagonism were also discussed, and there is a strongly worded paragraph on the declining birthrate. It is inspiriting to find the Australian hierarchy so quick to see the duty of the Church to lead public sentiment in these matters, and so ready to accept the social responsibilities of their office.
New Translation of the "Imitation."
In this critically literary age any new revision of a standard work commands attention. Shakespearian and other variations are continually under discussion. We may be pardoned then for reviewing a new translation of the book which has been done into more languages than any save the Bible, especially since this revision by Sir Francis R. Cruise is thoroughly radical in conception and detail. It puts a new book into the hands of the Christian reading public.
Curiously, the "Imitation" was originally entitled De Musica Ecclesiastica. One is tempted to wonder if the author were not transmuting into its deepest Christian meaning the Greek words in their original sense, and indicating that this book was to be the full harmony of all the Christian graces. But the old Belgian Chronique de Jean Brandon says that Thomas wrote the Qui sequitur me in metre, and Carl Hirsche has proved conclusively that the "Imitation" was written and pointed for chanting. It is a charming thought that the hours may have been told in that German monastery by the singing of these matchless sentences, as a song of the Beloved.
Sir Francis Cruise has rendered an inestimable service by making his translation, recently issued at Dublin under the auspices of the Catholic Truth Society, direct from the original manuscript. It is probably the only such English translation that we have. Elliot Stock, of London, published in 1879 a photographic facsimile of the author's autograph manuscript of 1441, now in the Burgundian Library at Brussels. The translator has closely followed this manuscript, striving to reproduce the rugged, epigrammatic style of a Kempis's Rhenish Latin. How well he has succeeded, the reader may judge by comparing, in order, the original, the current translation, and his own version of these lines of the first chapter:
"Doctrina Christi omnes doctrinas Sanctorum praecellit; et qui spiritum haberet, absconditum ibi manna inveniret.
"Sed contingit, quod multi ex frequenti