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The fourth bell at St. John's, Coventry, declares:
"I ring at six to let men know
When to and from their work to go."
At All Saints', Northampton, the treble bell boasts: "I mean it to be understood,
That though I'm little, yet I'm good."
A Knaresborough bell (1777) is self-confident:
"If you have a judicious ear,
You'll own my note is sweet and clear."
Many of them perpetuate the generosity of their donors. Bently on one is recorded:
"John Eyer gave twenty pound,
To mech mee of losty sound."
But it is almost inexcusable that recent times could not produce better inscriptions than these:
"I call the living, mourne the dead,
I tell when year and day are fled;
For grief and joy, for prayer and praise,
and at Ficton, the fame of one of the leading bell-founders in England, Taylor, of Loughborough, is perpetuated in this doggerel:
"Re-cast by John Taylor and Son,
Who the best prize for Church bells won,
At the great EX-I-BI-TION
In LONDON. 1, 8, 5 & 1."
The casting of a musical bell is one of the most delicate and scientific of mechanical undertakings. Only long and capable experience can assure that the bell shall have one main note which is supported by only such other notes as shall be in harmony with it; this alone can produce a musical bell, and whenever there are notes present which have no harmonic relation to the main note, an inharmonious sound is the natural result. Anybody can cast bells, but it is only a few adepts who can produce with certainty bells of a musical character. Locomotive bells, for example, are used with the intention of frightening people, and they are effective.
The note of a bell is determined, of course, by its size and quantity of metal, and the contour of the bell decides the quality of the note. If the bell be rapped at its top bend, it ought to give the octave above the chief or "consonant" note. Now a chord of perfect harmony-a "common chord"-is composed of the third, fifth and octave sounding together with the dominant note. If a bell is properly cast, on striking it at a place an eighth of its height from its brim, the third note, or tierce,
ought to be heard, and when struck at three-quarters of its height from its brim, that is a quarter of its height from the shoulder or its uppermost bend, the quint, or fifth note, should be apparent. If either of these intervening notes are too sharp or too flat, the bell is a bad bell; and when such a bell comes from the casting, the founders attempt to tune it by clipping or filing away the metal from that part of the bell which gives off these notes to flatten them, and reducing the rim of the bell has the effect of sharpening the note. It is hardly necessary to say that a bell so treated can never have the satisfactory sound which it would have had if it had left the mould in tune.
It is so seldom that a peal of bells is a "virgin" peal, that is, that every member of the peal is a "maiden," so perfectly in tune from the mould that it needs no tuning, that one of the bell authorities in England, in his correspondence with me, said that if the German makers succeeded in producing fifteen bells of this nature, they ought to have a world-wide reputation. We rejoice to say that our fifteen bells are as they left their moulds, and are the admiration of all metal men; not an unevenness or flaw appears on any of their surface, and they are in tune.
The series of photographs of the founding of our bells will explain very clearly the methods used. An examination of these pictures shows that the work is conducted in a pit, which, when the moulds are ready, is filled up to its top with sand, and the visitor, walking on an apparently sandy floor, would little suspect that beneath his feet there was a series of bell moulds ready to receive the molten metal. Figure I. shows the first stage of the process, which is the rough shape of the bell built up with brick; this "core" is hollow. Into it, through the hole visible near its bottom will, at a certain stage of the process, be introduced sticks of wood, which will be set on fire so as to heat the whole mould. A sloping profile of wood is fastened to the iron axis which occupies the central line of the mould. This wooden profile has a loose piece which can be seen in Figure III. hanging detached, and is marked 1; this represents a section of the metal of the bell, so that the profile, when 1 is attached, will, as it revolves upon the axis, shape the sand of the mould so as to form the interior contour of the bell, and upon its removal, by a similar revolution, the exterior surface of the mould would be defined.
Sand finely ground and of a loamy nature is now applied to this brick foundation, and by causing the profile to pass round and round, Figure II. is produced. This shows the interior surface of our tenor bell which speaks the German note B, which is our note B flat, and weighs 4,009 kilogrammes, which is about 8,819 pounds, or nearly four and one-half tons.
The next question is to build up on this mould sufficient material to оссиру the space into which the metal will be run to form the bell. This is managed as is shown in Figure III.: the axis and the profile have been removed and a quantity of sand is laid on by hand and held in its place by the winding string. When almost a sufficient thickness has been applied, a final layer of fine sand, which can be accurately shaped by the profile, is added. The loose piece of the profile,
1 is now removed, the axis restored to its place, and the profile caused to revolve until a perfectly smooth surface is secured. Now the delicate ornamentations and inscriptions in wax are placed in position, so that all the parts in relief on Figure IV., the ornamentations, the lettering and the bands are of wax. Thus we have the bell, as it is to be in metal, modelled exactly in sand. When all this is dry and hard, four siftings of different finenesses of sand cover the whole surface, upon which is then built up an exterior envelope of sand, the "cope" or "mantle," whose consistency is greatly increased by the addition of lime and by certain other devices. A fire of wood is now built in the interior of the core, through the opening the at the bottom of mould exhibited in Figure I.; by this heat the wax of the lettering, etc., is melted, and is absorbed by the surrounding sand, and a perfect impression of the surface of the bell is left on the interior of the external couche, the cope. This exterior shell of the mould of the bell is made so hard and strong that by means of chains and pulleys, as is exhibited in Figure V., it can be lifted off, leaving the interior part of the mould standing, as it was in Figure II. The second layer the figure shows is being stripped off and the marks of the bands where the wax was are clearly visible. The uppermost part of the mould is now lowered to its place and firmly strapped together by iron hoops, as is shown in Figure VI. The metal loops, called the "canon," by which the bell will finally be fixed to its beam, are also made in
wax and are adjusted to the
the picture. In the crucible of the furnace is now fluxed the bell metal, which is an alloy of seventy-eight parts copper, and twenty-two of tin, with a certain quantity of manganese and phosphates which insure the amalgamation of the metals and bring to the surface any accidental impurities. The workmen are here standing ready to tap the furnace. The founder, in the centre of the picture, determines the moment when the metal shall be discharged from the orifice immediately behind
him near his left foot; by the
In mediæval times bell founders seemed to move about from place to place and execute their orders in the neighborhood of the church they were employed to provide with bells. Probably this was due to the difficulty of transporting such heavy weights along country roads. Many of the cathedral records England have entrics noting the expenses of the casting of their bells.
It appears that the first peal sent to England was presented by Pope Calixtus in 1546, to King's College, Cambridge; this was the largest set of bells in England for 300 years. In the eighteenth century, bell ringing became more the fashion, and the demand increased the supply. The greatest bell in the world is at Moscow, Tsar Kolokol; it was cast in. 1733; it is nineteen feet high and weighs
top of the mould just underneath the figure 5, which is 440,000 pounds; it has never been rung because it came from marked upon the beam directly over the mould.
When as many moulds have been thus prepared as is intended shall be cast at one time, the whole pit is filled with sand. Figure VII. shows how the top of the bells, which of course cannot enjoy the pressure that the sand, filling the pit, supplies to the sides of the mould, are weighted with heavy iron weights and ingots of metal, as is seen in the foreground of
the mould cracked. It is mounted on a scaffold in the Cathedral Square and is now used as a chapel.
"Great Paul," the London bell, was cast under the direction of Sir John Stainer, by Taylor & Son in 1881; it cost $15,000 all told and weighs sixteen tons and a half. It is said to be the largest bell in the world which is rung swinging, which is not correct, as the Cologne bell, which weighs eighteen tons,
is thus rung. Lord Grimthorpe, a lawyer of no mean quality, seemed to have had evidence which satisfied him, that the sound of the London bell had been heard at Windsor, twenty miles away, but it is as yet one of those unexplained phenomenon, why a bell can be heard for many is hardly miles, when wind, which sensible, is moving in that direction, when it cannot be heard for half a mile in the opposite way. The whole subject of bell sounds is as yet in a crude condition.
In my father's church, in Yorkshire, there was a celebrated peal of eight bells. Change ringing in England is a favorite pastime. By following certain rules, the bells can be rung in a different position each time round. It would take ninetyone years to ring all the changes possible on twelve bells, at two strokes a second. In most belfries there are records kept of the ringers having accomplished some ringing feat, in which 5,000 or 6,000 "changes" were rung without an intermission in five or six hours; and it is a matter of no small emulation with sets of country ringers, who can ring the greatest number of "changes" in the most perfect manner. The more bells, of course, the greater the number of "changes" possible. In order, therefore, to increase the possibilities of their art, the Otley ringers begged the people of the town to add two bells to their peal of eight. These two large bells were cast by Mears of Whitechapel, and in due time were placed in the steeple. The grand opening day was attended by the ringers from far and near; and although these two bells were of excellent tone when rung by themselves, to the perplexity of everybody, when rung with the peal they could not be heard. They were taken down and sent back to
Calendar for January.
are just our ordinary blue sky and green grass seen with a new sight.
To begin the day with a page of a great book opens the eyes of the soul. They used to read the Bible before breakfast.
The First Sunday after the Epiphany. That habit is not so common now, I sup
pose, as once it was; but it is an excellent
Sunday after the habit, proceeding from good sense as weli
The Conversion of St. Paul. Friday-Fast.
as from piety, and worth reviving and maintaining. To begin the crowded day
The Third Sunday after the Epiph- with a moment of sweet peace, attending
to the message of the still, small voice, which speaks in those sacred pages as it has spoken now to more than thirty rest
The Fourth Sunday after the Epiph- less centuries, is to enter upon the round
The Pursuit of Happiness.
BY DEAN HODGES.
The fourth corner on the Highway of Happiness is the gift of Vision.
Vision means imagination, rescued from the service of the devil and become the handmaid of felicity. She leads us, like Ariadne in the old story, out of the labyrinth of our perplexity. We escape for the moment from adverse conditions into other and happier surroundings. In the "Arabian Nights" this journey was assisted by a magic carpet, on which one stepped, declared at what pleasant haven he desired to be, and immediately was there. To-day this is effected by a book.
The opening of the pages of a good book London as useless, and the subscription world, into the gardens of delight. There is like the opening of gates into another was expended in the expense of the tranfor the time we live, and if we have any sit. A somewhat similar phenomenon is misery and sorrow, exhibited in organs; if you put into an we forget them. Happy are they who have entered into the organ two open diapasons of the same mystical free-masonry of letters, whose scale, you do not, as you might well sup- initiation is the learning of the alphabet, pose, double the effect of one; the sound whose novitiate is spent in schoolrooms, of the second stop in some way or other to whose meetings the members are bidis absorbed and rendered impotent. We have much yet to learn in the field of lishers, and whose colors are the black den by the advertisements of the pubpractical acoustics.
The financial history of these bells contains some very striking passages.
A protective tariff, which is in vogue in this country, is supposed to enable a manufacturer to compete with firms in the old world. Uncle Sam, with this in view, taxes stained glass windows and bells 45 per cent. of their cost, and although the States refrain from taxing Church property, the Federal Government has no such wisdom. But there are certain things of art which cannot be produced with perfection unless in a sympathetic atmosphere, which time and circumstances alone can produce. The practical and the artistic are not in the same category.
We paid Uncle Sam $3,703.50 duty, and the freight from Hamburg to Denver was $607, and yet the total cost of the chime, with all the apparatus necessary for ring. ing, only comes to 32 cents a pound of the weight of the metal in the bells; which is less than half of the cost of home-made bells.
The freight, too, has its lesson. We purchased an organ in Philadelphia-its weight was 13,000 pounds, the cost of transit was $670; whereas these bells were brought from Hamburg to Denver, and insured, for $607, and they weighed 41,000. pounds.
These startling inequalities ought to make some people think.
and white of print and paper.
Thoughtful people have always refused to be contented with the world as it is. Though the heaven be never so high, and the horizon never so far, they have felt themselves confined and imprisoned. That which satisfies and exceeds the body cramps the soul.
This world is not enough; there must be another, into whose lofty mansions the human spirit may escape out of these narrow ways and from under these low ceilings. And into this other world, accordingly, the soul has made its journey, sometimes guided by the priest, sometimes by the poet, sometimes by the teller of tales, always aided by imagination, and often finding the open door between the covers of a book.
When Thoreau said that to improve the quality of the day is the first of arts, this
was what he meant. He had in mind that dignifying of the day which is achieved when the common life is held in relation with all the environment of mystery, the seen with the unseen, the temporary with the eternal, earth with heaven. The quality of the day determines the joy of the day. It is the same commonplace day that it was yesterday, and may be to-morrow, and to your neighbor it begins and ends in dulness; but this is all upon the surface. They who have the gift of vision look beneath this wrapping, and behold, the day shines like a star. Then we understand that the new heaven and the new earth which are promised to the faithful,
of duty with a benediction. Professor Shaler says that when his work took him into a mine, he used to stand for a few minutes at the top of the shaft and look at the sky and the sun, and breathe the breath of the fresh morning. Then he went down into the dark and the bad air, in the cheer and the strength of that vision of the good world. Our days, I hope, are not to be likened to the black corridors of a mine, but that draught of light, that swift comprehensive circumspection of the world, ought to be a fair symbol of our morning prayer and of the page of the book. And if the day is dark, and the contrary winds buffet us about, and we feel as if the pit had indeed shut her mouth upon us, then we may remember, like a miner, that nevertheless the sun is shining; we saw it in its splendor early in the morning.
The Bible will give us that enduring vision, and so will all the other bibles. I. mean the books which speak straight to our souls; the poems which we have put to the test of experience, the great sentences in which in truth the Holy Spirit our spirit; the volumes whose worn covers, as they lie on our table, rest little tongues of pentecostal flame.
Books, however, are not enough. The book is closed, and we go out into the world. What we need is the transformation of the world. That, too, comes by vision. For vision means interpretation. Imagination implies an element of unreality, but interpretation is understanding. We see not only another world, but this present planet with the sun and the stars shining upon it. The prophet and his servant stand in the midst of ene mies. Whichever way they look, nothing is seen but the advancing lances of the besiegers. And the servant is terrified exceedingly. Then the prophet prays that the young man's eyes may be opened, and the surrounding hills behold, all crowded, rank upon rank, with the embattled hosts of heaven. That is what I mean. It is by vision that the whole world is glorified, and we perceive that our life is lived in the midst of an environment which is the appropriate setting of the jewel of great joy.
The gift of vision helps us to be happy because it enables us to look through the visible into the invisible.
It brings us into the society of the mystics, whose poet is Wordsworth, and whose apostle is St. John, who see that this world of brown and green and blue, embroidered with flowers and painted with sunsets is of a truth the garment of God. Then we go about our daily business conscious of God, abiding in His presence, and thereafter the divine is natural and the natural is divine, and we know what he meant who said: "In Him we live and move and have our being." And the familiar experiences of the comnon day are touched with beauty, so that it is like taking a post of oak with the bark on, and smoothing and shaping it, and carving it from top to bottom with the story of a saint.
The report of the treasurer showed a balance on hand of $585.
Vision helps us to be happy because it maintenance. also enables us to look through the present into the future.
It blesses the scholar, who labors day by day at tasks which his neighbors neither appreciate nor understand, because he sees away off down this road the vision of the truth. It blesses the reformer, who endures contradiction and braves disappointment, and, apparently accomplishing nothing, is nevertheless confident and full of courage, because he is engaged in the service of his ideal; every sordid detail is illuminated by the shining of that sun.
Thus it is also with us, who are neither scholars nor reformers, but plain citizens and neighbors. We have stood with Christian and Hopeful on the heights of the Delectable Mountains, and have seen in the dim distance the gates of the Celestial City. Now all the weariness of the way is lightened by that sight. Christian and Hopeful had but a faint vision of the future. When they looked through the
perspective glass, their hands shook so
It comes out at last, all this difficult way of life, into the blessed light. They who have the gift of vision see that, and are certain that the journey is worth while.
"The Modern Man and the Church"
plexity of present-day life and its inev-
at least, modern men had not changed-
ary. Jesus Christ never changes, yet
Gifts and Memorials.
A granite ledge has been placed in Christ churchyard, Manhansett, L. I., as a memorial of two early physicians of Queens county, Dr. Charles Peters and his son of the same name. Dr. Charles Peters, the English surgeon, and Mary Hewlett Peters, his wife, were the ancestors of the Peters family of Long Island. He died, 1773, at Hempstead. The Rev. C. L. Newbold is rector of
Meetings of Convocations and Arch- Christ church. deaconries.
The annual meeting of the archdeaconry of New York was held at St. Thomas's church on Tuesday evening, Dec. 19, Bishop Greer presiding. The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: Secretary, Frederick
A private Communion set has been presented to the Church of the Good Shepherd, Clinton (Western Massachusetts), in memory of Mrs. Charles G. Stevens, whose husband was one of the founders and long a warden of the parish.
The proposed memorial tablet to the late Rev. Leverett Bradley has been completed and affixed to one of the walls of the Church of St. Luke and the Epiphany, Philadelphia, Penn., ' of which he was so long rector. It was unveiled, on Sunday morning, Dec. 31, the third anniversary of Mr. Bradley's death.
Van D. Goodwin; treasurer, Richard M.
Memorial windows have been recently placed in old St. John's church, Richmond, Va. That on the east side is a memorial to Mrs. A. Y. Stokes, and is presented by her children and grandchildren. Another, which is in the chancel, is to Mrs. Susan Reed, presented by her nephews, and by Mrs. Seay. A beautifully designed cross of silver was placed in the morning chapel of Holy Trinity church, Richmond, Va., on Christmas Day. It is a memorial to the Rev. Edwin Lee Tanner, the late rector of St. Luke's church, Harpersville, N. Y., who died some months ago, and is presented by his adopted son, the Rev. Wilson Tanner. Mr. Tanner was, in his early years, a member of Holy Trinity parish, having received much of his religious training in its Sundayschool, and his burial took place from its doors.
A service book for the chapel altar of St. Paul's, Hyde Park, Chicago, Ill., has been received as a thank-offering, and was recently used for the first time at an early celebration. A pair of brass candlesticks for the altar has been given to Christ church, Woodlawn, Chicago, by the Bishop Coadjutor of Nebraska, the former rector of the parish, in memory of his father.
Trinity church, Aurora, Ill., the Rev. Franklyn Cole Sherman, rector, has received two gifts of $2,000 each, from two gentlemen of the parish. with the cash on hand, makes a fine start of almost $5,000 for the Parish House Fund. When $8,000 to $10,000 have been collected, the building will be erected. The vestry hope to have at least $8,000 in sight by Easter. Bishop Anderson confirmed, Dec. 21, the largest class in the last twenty years. The Christmas offering was $155. The vestry have decided to put electric lights in the church at once. Emmanuel church, LaGrange, Ill., has lately received the gift of a large Marginal Readings Bible, for the lectern as a memorial of the late Mr. J. C. Banks, given by Mrs. Banks.
By the terms of the will of the late Mr. James Aram, $1,000 was left to the rector, wardens and vestrymen of Christ church, Delavan, Wis. This money has just become available by the recent death of Mr. Aram's widow. Mr. Aram also bequeathed $20,000 for a city library, to be managed by a board of trustees of citizens, one of whom shall be elected by the vestry of Christ church.
The church has been beautified by two recent additions to the chancel furniture, the gift of Mrs. A. H. Allyn, in memory of her late daughter, Mrs. Susan Allyn Moore, the wife of the Rev. Harry T. Moore. One of the gifts is a brass eagle lecturn, and the other a prayer desk and chair of weathered oak, to harmonize with the altar, reredos, side panels, bishop's chair and canopy and credence table, which were put in a year ago.
St. James's church, Westernport, Alleghany county, Md., has received from a former parishioner, Mrs. Luke, a bequest of $2,000 to be invested, the income only to be used for the benefit of the church. A brass Litany desk has been presented to the same church by Mr. Fiske, of Piedmont, another parishioner.
The Work of St. Stephen's House,
Two marks of distinguished honor have recently been conferred upon St. Stephen's House a grand prize by the Liege International Exhibition of 1905, and a gold medal, by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. These awards were made in the section of Social Economy in both cases, and class St. Stephen's in the first rank of institutions for settlement work. The mission was started twenty years ago, but without conspic
uous success, until the Rev. Gustavus Tuckerman took hold of the work. Under his administration the present buildings were erected. He was succeeded by the Rev. H. W. Mizner, whose exceptional qualifications for reaching all kinds and classes of people were productive of recognized results both in the enlargement and the solidarity of the work. Upwards of one thousand different persons each week use the House, and come under its religious or ethical and educational influence. Beside the kindergarten there are industrial departments for instruction in sewing and cooking. The reading and smoking rooms are a perceptible contribution toward depleting the surrounding saloons. But spiritual work by means of a continuous round of services and constant pastoral visiting is clearly understood by the people to be the first and chief purpose of the institution. Among the lay helpers several who have attained approved efficiency
were trained from childhood in the mission. The work has outgrown its present equipment, and arrangements are in progress for increasing the building accommodations and securing additional clerical help.
Notes from Cuba.
At last a suitable lot has been purchased in the heart of Havana, on which, as soon as may be advisable, the
cathedral is to be built. It is well lo
cated, and all of the payments have been made. In Camaguey a very desirable property has been bought. It will be used as the home of the priest-incharge, and the services will be held in the chapel connected with it. Regular services have begun at Ceballos, a comparatively new and very thriving town near Camaguey. This work, with that at Camaguey, is in charge of the Rev. C. M. Sturges, who will live at Camaguey. The new church at La Gloria will be begun at once, the funds being in hand for the purpose. The new mission at Guantanamo has been opened, and the services are held there under the direction of the Rev. M. F. Moreno, who has gone there temporarily, from Bolondron, for the purpose of organizing this work. A chapel has been fitted up in a rented house, and twenty persons, all members of the Church, have signed the application asking for organization as a mission. The Bishop Knight School for Girls, in Havana, is making good progress. Archdeacon Steel is making his regular trips to the Isle of Pines, where there is a growing interest in the services. These trips require a full week, and sometimes a very arduous journey. Occasionally, when the steamer is out of commission, the trip has to be made in a schooner, requiring from a day and a half to three days to go or come. Usually five days' work may be done on one trip, and in that time the archdeacon is able to preach three or four times, and deliver two or three lectures on the Church. There are not many Church people on the island, but others are coming every week, and they are very appreciative of the services. Many who belong to other communions attend as well, and it is hoped that very soon an organized movement may be made toward securing a resident priest.
bringing up the children in the nurture ing the year, and fifteen confirmed. and fear of the Lord.
The Church Club of New York
On Wednesday evening, Dec. 27, Mr. Walter Henry Hall, organist of the Cathedral of St. John the Divine, read a paper on "Church Music, Past and Present," at the Church Club. Mr. Hall dated his remarks from the time of the Reformation, when the musical service was being revised for the Anglican Church. He spoke of the work done by Merbecke and Tallis, and the other composers of the Anglican school, including Orlando Gibbons and Purcell. After briefly reviewing the condition of music during the Puritan outbreak, he referred to the general revival caused by the Oxford Movement and its influence on Church music. Mr. Hall spoke of the retrograde movement caused by the quartette choirs in this country, and of the introduction of male choirs as a necessary offset to this. Among other practical suggestions, he mentioned the need there was of a choir school at the General Theological Seminary, in order that the clergy might have the opportunity of learning what was true worship music. The chairman called upon Dr. G. Edward Stubbs, who drew attention to the importance of studying the music of the Church from the time of Edward VI., through the reign of Elizabeth. He said that if the clergy thoroughly mastered the wishes and intentions of the early revisionists of this period there would be little chance for the musical errors which were so prevalent during the reign of the quartette in this country. He also took the ground that our churches should pay attention to the restoration of choral Eucharist as the highest service of the Church, and maintained that this was the chief lesson taught by Merbecke, and the musicians of his day. He took the ground that there was too much so-called "popular" music, and too little founded upon tradition.
The Church Home and Infirmary, Baltimore.
The formal opening and inspection of the new annex and other improvements, held on Dec. 27, afforded many of the clergy and lay people of the city an opportunity to become acquainted with the progress Church institution.
of this excellent The new annex is
a substantial brick and stone building 110 feet long by 45 feet wide, having three full stories and a basement, lighted with electricity and gas, and provided with steam heat and a thoroughly modern and sanitary system of plumbing. The third floor of the building is divided into rooms for patients, several of them having private baths attached. The south end of this floor is fitted up as a sun parlor, and is spacious and attractive, with open fire in its broad chimney to give additional cheer. the second floor are the nurses' quarters, with accommodations for about twenty-five nurses, and a reading room with comfortable furnishings. On the first floor there are various storage and refrigerating rooms for food supplies, while the south end of this floor has been entirely isolated from the rest of the building as a ward for contagious diseases arising in the Home.
as funds are available it is the wish of The December meeting of the WashDr. F. D. Gavin to establish a free disington Sunday-school Institute was inpensary for the treatment of children in structed by the Rev. J. D. La Mothe, as the part of the new building fronting on to the life of St. John in its practical Fairmount avenue. bearings on conduct, and heard a very During the past earnest paper from Mr. W. B. Dent, year the Church Home gave treatment president of the Local Assembly of the to about 500 patients, besides providBrotherhood of St. Andrew, and super- ing a home for something like 100 inintendent of St. Paul's Sunday-school, valids. on "How Can Brotherhood Men Help the Sunday-school?" He insists that it is the special mission of members of the Brotherhood to carry their spirit of service and prayer into the Sunday-schools, and to be the clergy's chief helpers in
St. Mary's Home for Girls, Chicago, Ill. During the past year this Home has seen a larger amount of work done than in any of the nine years of its existence. Twelve of the girls were baptized dur
There have been daily classes in sewing and mending, and a weekly class in dressmaking. Most of the instruction was by ladies who came as volunteer teachers. A number of the girls were given expert instruction in laundry work. Girls, as a rule, remain in the Home for two years after leaving school, so that they may be thoroughly trained in self-support. The main improvement in the plant has been an electric laundry, the gift of Mrs. Victoria Thompson. Two more rooms have been fitted up as dormitories, the playroom has been floored, ceiled and partitioned, and the Grace Gregory Memorial dormitory has been supplied with a sitting room. A fire escape has been built, and the front lot has been adorned with an iron fence. During the year there were 158 children cared for, of whom 29 were full pay, 61 paid small sums, and 68 were wholly free. The receipts from all sources for current expenses were $11,520, and the expenses were $11,213. Personal pledges amounting to $1,955 and donations amounting to $2,280 were part of these receipts. There were donations to the building fund of $2,834, all of which were expended in completing the interJackson ior of the new building on Boulevard, Chicago. There were also donations of $2,142 for the summer home building and furnishing funds, at Kenosha, Wis. The expense of this vacation work last summer was $771, making the full total of all the money raised for the various departments of the Home, during the year, $17,268.
THE work of relaying the foundations of the campanile at Venice, which was begun in April, 1903, has been completed, practically, and the rebuilding of the famous tower itself will probably be started in January, 1906. The old foundations, which architects and antiquarians believe were those of the ancient defence tower and were never intended to carry a tower of such height as the campanile, were marvellously preserved, and after a warm discussion it was decided to reutilize them. As no modern architect could think of rearing the campanile on such a restricted base it was resolved to enlarge it so as to distribute the pressure on a wide area. Accordingly a ditch twelve feet wide was dug around the old foundations and 3,076 newly cut spiles of larchwood, averaging thirteen feet long, were driven home almost to the point of absolute resistance. They are calculated to have a carrying power of a total of 90,000 tons. The weight of the tower is calculated at 20,000 tons.
NOT only has Japan a large and increasing ocean marine of her own, but one of her shipping companies, the Nippon Yusen Kaisha, now has thirty-four oceangoing steamships of 77,092 aggregate tonnage under charter. Of these, 15, of 45,736 tons, are British; 7, of 10,198 tons, Norwegian; 2, of 3,762 tons, German; in other words, 24 foreign ships of 59,696 tons are necessary to this one company, besides its own very large fleet, owned and hired, of Japanese vessels for its share (carrying) of Japan's great and growing
THE Committee on library extension of the Ohio Library Association reports, according to a summary in the New York Evening Post, that notwithstanding the progress of recent years, there are in that State only eighty towns in which there is a public library or a college library open for public use, while there are 184 towns, varying in size from 1,000 to 20,000 population, that are entirely without free library privileges. There are thirteen whole counties in which not a single public library is to be found.