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cabin there rises a smoke of condensing moisture that makes one think at first that the house is on fire. The tail of the dog in front is heavy with ice from the breath of the dog behind, and that is one reason why we dock all dogs' tails except the wheel dog's. When after a month or two of such weather the novice-traveller on the surface of a stream finds himself confronted with open water, finds himself treading on thin ice that breaks with his weight and lets him into three or four inches of water and slush, he begins to realize that there is more complexity in the phenomena of frost than is dreamed of in the books of natural philosophy. If he be not provided with waterproof footwear, he must jump on the sled, and if the open area be small he may win through without wet feet, but if the area be large he will be compelled presently to get off the sled to aid his struggling dogs, and the moccasins or felt shoes are quickly saturated and he must make haste to the bank and kindle a fire, if he

wishes to retain all his toes.

it that familiarity breeds contempt, and
that this climate "lays great wait" for the
man who despises it. But even when the
feet and legs are protected, this open
water in cold weather is exceedingly
troublesome. Ice forms around the sled
and cakes thick upon the runners and the
step. It coats the sled covering and the
traces and the harness, and hangs in
lumps from the long hair of the dogs'
bellies and legs, and, worse still, collects
in sharp-cornered masses between their
toes. In a little while the team is pulling
a greatly increased load, and a halt must
be called, the sled turned over, first on
one side and then on the other, and the in-
crustation dislodged by blows from the
flat of the axe. Then the ice must be
picked from between the dogs' toes, or it
will cut them and lame them. Six dogs
make twenty-four feet, and three inter-
digital spaces to a foot make necessary
seventy-two separate movements with the
naked hand; and one's fingers are nearly
frost bitten when they are restored to the
mitten again. If the dogs are given
plenty of time they will do it for them-
selves, tearing out the ice with their
teeth, but they take much longer, and in
cold weather the careful driver inspects
his dogs' feet every time they have gone
through water, as well as when they are
travelling through soft snow. A sore foot
means a moccasin, and a moccasin on a
dog's foot means a fresh moccasin every
time it gets wet, or it will freeze and
make the sore worse.

But there is one satisfaction which the
worst trail and the worst weather can-
not take from the traveller, however they

may buffet him, and that is the satisfac-
tion of "making good." He pits himself
against the rigors of the climate, against
the utter badness of the trail, against its
loneliness and its weariness and its
monotony, and he "wins out." There is a
satisfaction that goes back to the funda-
mental manhood of a man in accepting
the situation and conquering it. Men
do it for gain, men do it for sport, and
surely those who do it for higher end and
to serve nobler purpose may bring at least
as firm resolution and courage. After all,
it is no small solace to feel when the ut-
termost has been done and worst endured,
that "underneath are the everlasting
arms." In this naked country and amidst
these primitive conditions of life, the
simpler emotions grip a man as perhaps
they never do elsewhere.

For the first time since its organization the Seventh Missionary Department held its annual conference in the Pacific Northwest, meeting at Seattle, April 25 to 29. The department includes all the dioceses and districts west of the Rocky Mountains. Alaska is its northern, Mexico its southern extreme.

The open water and the new ice come from overflows, by which the ice surface of the streams is continually stratified all the winter. At times one sees the operation in its simplicity. Here from a great hole in the middle of the river gushes a stream like the upburst from an artesian well. It flows around, making an ice-cone about the hole, and then takes its way down stream over the surface of the ice, flowing perhaps an hundred yards, perhaps half a mile, before the frost brings it to rest. At other times the process is not so patent. It may not be from a hole in the centre of the river that the water comes; it sometimes forces itself through the snow-covered sand of the bank, and forms what is locally called a "glacier," building up great rounded shoulders of ice deposit, like the soda that forms around hot springs, flowing down to the river bed and overspreading the ice and snow and staining them with minerals held in solution. At other times it pushes and percolates between the shore ice and the shore, and saturates large tracts of snow that retain a treacherous dry appearance and wet one to the knees when one blunders into them to avoid evident water. The water from the unfrozen subterranean fountains of these streams must find some outlet, and pentup waters will burst stronger bands than ice can make. The steeper the river gradient the more common are these overflows, but I think no Alaskan river except the Yukon is free from them. Five hundred miles of the middle Yukon gave

"The history of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Washington," he said, "closely parallels that of the State itself. It was in 1853 that the General Convention of the Church created the missionary jurisdiction of Oregon and Washington, and that Thomas Fielding Scott, of Georgia, was consecrated first bishop of the new field. It also was in 1853 that

no sign of them last winter, though there A Missionary Conference Washington came into being as a separate

political organization."

on the Pacific Coast.

were open places late in January, steaming like geysers in the great cold, where the current was so swift that the river had never frozen in the centre of the stream. But all the other rivers that we travelled, the Chatanika, the Chandalar, the Koyukuk, the Dall, and the lesser creeks in higher degree, were in this constant state of unrest, so that a vertical section of the ice over the greater part of any of them would show a series of laminations of varying thickness and color. After awhile the traveller ceases trying to avoid the overflows, knowing that the water is almost always very shallow and that avoidance is usually impossible. To travel these streams without waterproof footwear-and the "muklok" of the coast is by far the best-is in the highest degree dangerous, and such indiscretion has many an amputated toe to its charge; yet it is surprising how many men take the risk. We have had more old-timers with frozen feet in the hospital at Fairbanks than we have had "chechacos," so true is

But even arlier, in 1847, the Rev. St. Michael Fackler crossed plain and mountain and held service in what was then Oregon territory. Referring to some of the faithful Churchmen of the past, Governor Mead said: "For years the most prominent member of St. John's church, Olympia, was Governor Elisha P. Ferry, who was territorial governor from 1872 to 1880 and the first State governor. When the church was without a rector-and that happened several times-he carried it along by acting as lay-reader."

Bishop Wells and Mr. Wood spoke of "The Church's Commission" and "The Church's Field," and then the Rev. B. L. Ancell, just home on furlough, after seven years' service in Soochow and other China missions, told of China's need of, and China's welcome to, the Christian Church. Speaking particularly of Soochow, Mr. Ancell begged for a better equipment, not for the comfort or convenience of the missionaries, but that the Ameri

To the west it reaches out across the ocean to the Hawaiian and Philippine Islands. To the great loss of the conference the San Francisco disaster and the local obligations growing out of it naturally prevented the attendance of any representatives of the three California dioceses, save Archdeacon Parker, of Sacramento, whose thirty years of service entitle him to rank with the pioneers. The absence of Bishop Nichols and Bishop Kendrick, the senior bishops of the department, whose presence has helped so greatly on former occasions, was particu

larly felt. But with the spirit character-
istic of the Pacific coast unfamiliar duties
were excellently discharged by those upon
whom they fell unexpectedly. Bishop
Keator, who was elected chairman, and
the Seattle clergy and laity spent them-
selves freely for the welfare of the con-
ference. From Seattle's strong and rap-
idly growing rivals, Tacoma and Port-
land, came all the leading clergy, while the
smaller surrounding towns were also well
represented. From the interior districts
came the Bishops of Spokane, Boisé and
Salt Lake, with some of their clergy.
Alaska was represented by Bishop Rowe,
who, coming from Valdez, was
tunately delayed by a storm at sea, and
the Rev. Thomas Jenkins, of Ketchikan.
Bishop Perrin and a number of the clergy
of the Canadian dioceses of Columbia and
come to
New Westminster, who had
Seattle for the sessions of the Interna-
tional Clericus, remained for a large part
of the conference and added greatly to its
Other visitors from a distance
were the Rev. H. R. Hulse, general sec-
retary of the Missionary Thank-offering,
and Mr. John W. Wood, of the Board of


The conference opened on the evening of April 25, with a service in St. Mark's church, Bishop Spalding taking Bishop Nichols's place as preacher. The sermon, based upon 1 St. John v. 5, was a strong, direct appeal to the men and women of the present to develop the characteristic virtues of the sturdy pioneer, energy, reality, morality.

Thursday evening an informal reception gave the visitors an opportunity of meeting many Seattle people. The Friday evening mass meeting in the opera house before the community generally. served to bring the Church and her work The band from the United States naval station at Bremerton admirably supported the vested choir of 150 and the large audiinterest. "The Church in the Northwest: ence followed the addresses with deep Its Relation to the Church at Large," was the general subject. Bishop Keator made a brief address and then called upon the Hon. Albert E. Mead, Governor of the State, who expressed his pleasure in having a share in an occasion which stood for the betterment of society.

can Church might be worthily presented and its work effectively carried on. A $1,000 school for girls, a $1,000 house for woman's work, and a $3,000 house to serve as a preaching place and Christian settlement come, he said, among the urgent needs.

The Rev. H. R. Hulse closed the meeting with a strong address upon the Missionary Thank-offering. The people of the missionary district of Olympia, he felt, would be especially interested in the endeavor worthily to mark the birthday of the Nation and the Church, because the idea of the offering was first suggested by the Rev. J. P. D. Llwyd, of St. Mark's, Seattle, and because it was proposed that the district should give at least $30,000 to complete the endowment of the episcopate so that Olympia might become a diocese in 1907.

well proportionately as the smaller ones.
Salt Lake's plan of lumping all extra-
parochial objects, such as general and
district missions, clergy relief, etc., in one
sum, and then dividing the total among
the congregations, had avoided repeated
appeals and had produced results.

In a thoughtful paper the Rev. William
Short, of Astoria, maintained and illus-
trated the thesis that "spiritual life" and
"missionary activity" are almost inter-
changeable terms. "Problems of the
Cities" led to useful discussions upon
"Missions to Seamen," by the Rev. A. E.
Bernays, of Portland, and "City Mission-
ary Work," by the Rev. Allen K. Smith,
of Ellensberg.

The Rev. M. J. Bywater, of North Yakima, told of the successful experience of the dioceses of Colorado, Nebraska and Kansas with "Associate Missions." Bishop Keator explained how the apportionment for general missions was distributed to the several congregations in Olympia. Gifts are steadily increasing in number and amount, though the bishop admitted, in answer to a question, that the larger congregations were not doing as

The conference passed two important resolutions; one expressed sympathy with the Bishops of California and Sacramento and their clergy, and asked how the Church in the Seventh Department could aid in maintaining the clergy whose parishes could not provide their stipends because of the heavy personal losses of the members. Assurance was given that everything possible would be done. Bishop Perrin and his associates considerately asked that they might share in meeting the needs when known.

A second resolution appointed the bishops within the department a special committee to petition the General Convention of 1907 to redistribute the territory of the continental domestic missionary districts of the department with a view to eliminating confusion between State and diocesan lines, and providing a more adequate episcopal supervision.

The conference decided to meet next year in Boisé City, when Bishop Funsten hopes to open and dedicate the memorial of Bishop Tuttle's work in Idaho, if the Church throughout the country will give the $15,000 still needed.

The conference sessions of Thursday and Friday dealt with the problems of the Church within the department. Clergy supply for small towns and rural districts was discussed by the Rev. H. D. Chambers, general missionary of Oregon. These outposts are hard to fill; they offer few educational or social privileges; stipends are small, often not more than from $500 to $800, and uncertain at that, unless a clergyman is personally popular. No undereducated or "underdone" men will do. The Rev. George Buzzell, of Seattle, outlined his early experience as a young deacon thrown into a big district in Idaho, where he was the only missionary. He thought the bishops at fault for not giving more detailed instruction and direction to their men in the field. "There is not a man here," he declared, with the evident approval of the clerical members of the conference, "who ever got training enough in a theological seminary to last him over night in a missionary district." The Rev. A. Bard, of Walla Walla, hoped that after what had been said by the previous speakers, there would be less criticism of parochial clergy who preferred to concentrate their energies the building up of strong centres, a sentiment which brought Bishop Wells to his feet to record his failure to understand the attitude of a clergyman who would deliberately refrain from trying to establish the Church in neighboring towns.



Bishop Sessums's address, read in the evening, reviewed the yellow fever situation of last year, and complimented the public-spirited work of Dr. Warner, the service rendered by the Rev. Dr.

Mr. Wood, speaking from the layman's The Auxiliary in the Pa- Slack, and the work of the Rev. Dr.

cific Northwest.

Krammer, in New Iberia. In the same connection he referred, with sorrow, to the death of Messrs. Benjamin, Purdy and Ashton, in Lake Providence. Bishop Sessums said that with the present condition of things future panic ought to be averted.

point of view, felt that the question of clerical supply would only be satisfactorily solved when the coast dioceses devoted themselves more directly to enlisting and training a native ministry. He thought that young business and professional men of parts and promise would often respond if the call to the ministry were put personally and plainly before them. The Rev. Willard Roots, of Pullman, urged that the Church should be presented more strongly at educational centres where hundreds of young men are preparing for life work. Bishop Perrin deprecated the idea that men of a peculiar kind or training are needed in the West. Men who fail in the West, he said, would fail anywhere, and men who succeed in the West could succeed anywhere. The fundamental and final test is the reality of a man's devotion to our Lord and of his desire to serve men, a view with which Bishop Funsten heartily agreed.

The bishop announced the creation of two endowment funds, one a theological scholarship endowment fund, to enable any person unable to pay for his theological training to receive the same, and the other a relief fund, to be distributed at certain specified seasons among the inmates of the Home for Incurables. These funds mark the beginning of endowments in the diocese of Louisiana for those seeking the priesthood and for general relief.


The bishop spoke of the 100th anniversary of Christ church, the oldest of our churches in Louisiana, and then called attention to the two missions established by Mr. Holley, of Grace church, and commented favorably upon the good work done. Referring to the growth of St. Andrew's Brotherhood, he said that six chapters exist in New Orleans, and five outside of the State, beside eight junior branches. Before concluding, Bishop Sessums spoke of the work of the Sisters of Bethany and of the condition of the Orphans' Home.

Meetings of the Woman's Auxiliary and the Brotherhood of St. Andrew, both attended by large delegations from Tacoma, and a delightful visit to the latter city on Saturday, were useful features of a thoroughly helpful conference.

A well-attended meeting of the Woman's Auxiliary was held in St. Mark's with the conference of the seventh mischurch, Seattle, April 27, in connection sionary department. Besides the delegates from the city parishes sixty-five members of Tacoma branches made the eighty mile journey. A number of parishes in the surrounding towns were also represented. Bishop Keator presided. Bishop Wells spoke with great appreciation of the determined spirit which enables the Auxiliary to accomplish so much the Church in the Northwest for sending practical good. Bishop Spalding thanked Salt Lake its efficient missionary to the Ute Indians, the Rev. M. J. Hersey, of Randlett, who is known throughout the reservation as a wise friend of the Indian.

plan adopted by the Board of Missions for the most effective use of the $150,000 given in the United Offering at the Boston General Convention and brief pictures of mission life tried to show the work accomplished by the gift throughout the world. Special reference was made to St. Elizabeth's Hospital for Women in Shanghai, built by the gifts of the Auxillary in memory of Elizabeth Maynard Winslow, formerly a member of St. Luke's, Tacoma. The meeting ended with an inspiring address by Bishop Perrin, on the spiritual side of Auxiliary work.

The Rev. B. L. Ancell, of Soochow, China, told how $1,750 given through the United Offering at San Francisco in 1901, and invested at Soochow, had made possible the opening of that mission and had secured a well-located compound. The Rev. Thomas Jenkins, of Ketchikan, told something of the Church's progress in Alaska and particularly of the good work done by Miss Prichard in her school for Indian children. Mr. Wood explained the



Rt. Rev. Davis Sessums, D.D., Bishop. Women wished to serve as deputies to the annual council of the diocese of Louisiana, which met on St. Mark's Day at Christ church cathedral, New Orleans. Three of them had been elected as delegates from country parishes; but the committee on credentials reported that they were ineligible. The most important matter brought before the council was the report of the committee appointed to consider the canon on special missionary bishops, that is, negro bishops for the negro race.

The council opened with the celebration of the Holy Communion, at which the bishop was celebrant, and a sermon was preached by the Rev. J. Orson Miller. The sermon was a presentation of the position of the Church from a doctrinal standpoint. The Virgin Birth, the Incarnation, the Resurrection of the Body, were emphasized as foundation of true righteousness. essential to Christianity and the The preacher took for his text the words, "I am the Way, the Truth and the The Standing Committee was Life." re-elected, as were also all the officers

of the diocese.

NEGRO BISHOPS FOR THE NEGRO RACE. The subject which excited the greatest discussion was "Negro Bishops for

the Negro Race." This discussion was participated in by nearly all the members of the council, and was the source of remarks both lively and heated. The committee had made a report, offering the following resolution:


"Resolved: That the council of the diocese of Louisiana, with its present light on the matter of the memorial of the Twelfth Annual Conference Church Workers among Colored People, proposing a canon for the establishment of special missionary districts, with special missionary bishops of the colored race, reserve a final expression of judgment, while approving the general tenor of the legislation proposed, and commend the consideration of this most important subject to the earnest attention of all our people."

Dr. Warner stated that one of the committeemen dissented, and Judge McConnell arose and admitted himself to be the dissentor. The Judge explained his view of the matter, and stated that while no man really had more at heart the interest of the negro than the Southern man, he, the speaker, wanted time to consider the matter, and offered The a substitute for the resolution. substitute continued the matter one year, retaining the same committee in office. After much debate the amendment was adopted. .


The Board of Missions report, read by the Rev. Mr. Slack, the secretary, showed that $2,738 had been paid out. The hope was the expressed that in amounts pledged by the parishes for the current year $4,000 would be realized. The report of the committee on the state of the Church showed that there were during the year 586 baptisms, and There 452 confirmations. are 436 Sunday-school teachers, 3,200 Sundayschool children, and $20,560 has been expended in church improvement. Trinity church, New Orleans, Mt. Olivet, New Orleans, Good Shepherd, Lake Charles, have been freed of all debt.

The Rev. Mr. Spearing, the Rev. Mr. Thorp, and others talked on the state of missionary work in north Louisiana, and regretted that more was not done. Mr. Spearing went so far as to declare the situation altogether doleful, and the work prostrate in the dust. Bishop Sessums contended that the chief drawback to success was not so much the need of funds as the need of ministers. It was nearly midnight when adjournment was ordered.


During the session of the council the Woman's Auxiliary held its nineteenth annual session.. Miss Wharton, financial secretary, reported boxes valued at $521.95, and cash $1,574.45 had been distributed during the past year. Mrs. Greenwood, the treasurer, reported receipts $1,452.13, disbursements, $1,441.40, and balance on hand, $10.73. Miss C. Charles and Mrs. E. A. Rennie reported from the Junior Auxiliary, receipts $284.81, and expenditures $216.77. Mrs. James McConnell, custodian of United Offerings, reported the total amount for the year as $404.13. Mrs. Walter J. Suthon, of Houma, general custodian of the Babies' Branch, reported offerings or receipts as $92.80, and expenditures the same. The expenditures were divided between diocesan, domestic, foreign, and general missions.

tears to the eyes of the deceased's
friends. Thanks were extended to the
kind donor, and the gift was gratefully

The following elections took place:
Mrs. T. G. Richardson, president; Mrs.
Charles L. Wells, vice-president; Mrs.
Eliza Greenwood, of Hammond, treas-
urer; Mrs. C. C. Robertson, recording
secretary; Miss Amelia C. Wharton, cor-
responding secretary; Mrs. James Mc-
Connell, custodian of United Offering;
Mrs. W. J. Suthon, general custodian
Babies' Branch; Miss Sallie Huling, sec-
retary of Babies' Branch.

A touching event connected with the meeting was a letter from the Rev. Byron Holley, of Grace church, in which Mr. Holley presented the Auxiliary with Mrs. $100 as a memorial to his wife. Richardson, the president, was so affected that she was unable to read the letter, and on request, Bishop Sessums made its contents public. Bishop Sessums spoke beautifully of the donation, and eelingly of Mrs. Holley, and his eloquent tribute served to bring fresh

At the annual service the Rev. Royal Tucker celebrated the Holy Communion and the Rev. Gardiner L. Tucker preached the sermon.


There was also an enthusiastic meeting of the representatives of the various chapters of the Brotherhood of St. Andrew, at which addresses were made by Mr. F. T. Nicholls, Bishop Sessums, the Rev. R. K. Tucker, the Rev. C. L. Wells, the Rev. W. E. W. Denham, the Rev. G. Tucker, and Mr. H. S. Dixon.

dination to the diaconate, and ten for advancement to the priesthood. In too many of these cases the committee, for sufficient reason, had been constrained to shorten the term of candidateship. It took this occasion to protest against the negligence exhibited by men, who hoped to enter the Church, respecting the initial canonical conditions.

The report of the Sunday-school Commission, of which the Rev. Carleton P. Mills is the Field Secretary, stated that the system of instruction devised by the Commission had been adopted by about A rechalf the schools in the diocese. ommendation that sundry amendments of the by-laws, under which the Commission operates, be referred to a committee for report at the next convention was adopted. The Rev. Dr. Van Allen moved "That no course of study devised by the Commission shall be recommended for diocesan use until the text-books shall be approved by the bishop and the Standing Committee." He said he was moved to speak on this point because of a book now authorized by the Commission in which certain fundamental elements of the faith were The treated as of doubtful veracity. Rev. J. W. Suter held that reference to the bishop would be quite sufficient. Dr. Van Allen's suggestion, however, was referred to the special committee. Mr. A. J. C. Sowden reported for the directors of the Diocesan House, calling attention to the need for larger quarters as well as for safer places in which records. to keep the diocesan The Rev. Dr. Howe reported for the The condiocesan Board of Missions. vention then listened to accounts of missionary work on Cape Cod, in Norfolk county, and among the negroes of the city.



Rt. Rev. William Lawrence, D.D., Bishop.
The convention began its session in
the chapel of Trinity church, Boston,
on the morning of May 2, and ended at
six o'clock on the evening of the same
day. By strict attention to business all
the necessary work was accomplished
without undue haste. Nearly all the re-
ports of committees appointed at the
last convention had been printed, and
placed in the hands of the members,
who were thus prepared to take intelli-
gent action without an endless debate.
The diocesan officers were elected on a
single ballot, and the ordinary business
was conducted with such despatch that
a good opportunity was afforded for
presenting the cause of diocesan mis-
sions, and of Sunday-school endeavor.

At the celebration in the morning,
the preacher was the Rev. Charles T.
Whittemore, rector of All Saints'
Taking for his text
church, Ashmont.
the words, "And the Lord had respect
to Abel and his offerings; but unto Cain
and to his offering he had not respect,'
he said that these offerings would seem
to be typical of the world's modern at-
titude toward sin, and of the Church's
worship of the altar. The desire of the
world to-day seemed to be to ignore
sin as a fact. Men were not willing to
listen to a preaching which condemned
their lives, even before God. The
Church was set, however, to preach this
fact and its consequences, together with
the salvation which is offered to the
world through the vicarious death of
Jesus Christ. It was the Church's altar
and not her secular industry that need-
ed to be emphasized now. We needed
to convince the world of sin, and to call
upon men to realize that the altar and
not the workshop is to be the central
factor in their lives, that sin was a real
barrier between themselves and God,
only to be done away by faith in the
vicarious sacrifice of Christ.

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On the opening of the regular business session a motion by the Rev. Dr. Elwood Worcester that a message of sympathy with the California dioceses be sent by telegram to their respective bishops was carried by a rising vote. In this connection Bishop Lawrence stated that the collections of the Massachusetts congregations for the Western sufferers had netted $6,800; that this money had come from eighty parishes and missions, and that it had all been sent to the General Relief Fund.

The Standing Committee reported that it had recommended two men as candidates for Holy Orders, nine for or

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BISHOP LAWRENCE ON THE CONDITIONS OF THE CLERGY IN MASSACHUSETTS. Bishop Lawrence devoted his convention address to the conditions of the clergy in the diocese which now counted 112 parishes, 70 missions, 215 clergycanonically resident, 38. candidates for Holy Orders and 81 lay-readThe condition of the parochial clergy in Eastern Massachusetts was, he said, somewhat different from that in most parts of the country. Sixty out of 220 connected with the diocese were either living or travelling outside, aged or invalid, engaged in temporary duty or in teaching. He confined himself to the other 160 to whom he had sent last October a series of questions, the 157 answers to which furnished the basis of his present comment. Of these 157, 123 had had a full college course of four years, 16 a partial course of from one to three years, the rest had done several years' work above high school standards, and 143 had had a full theThere ological course of three years.


were but two who had never studied in a college or theological school. A considerable number had taught before entering the ministry, or done graduate work in art, medicine or law. In education, then, the Massachusetts clergy were well equipped.

"The next step," said the bishop, "is marriage." No doubt some were crippled by too early marriage, it was well that a clergyman should give a year or two of his ministry to the Church as a single man. Work in the lower parts of some cities made homekeeping impossible. But the advantages of early marriage seemed to him very great and its postponement one of the chief evils in our present social condition. He would "encourage the taking of certain risks," and had "no sympathy with the demand for an unmarried clergy in order that there be less expense to the Church.” The average parish was not called upon to support a large family. Fifty of the 157 clergyOf the 107 marmen were unmarried. ried 28 had no children, and the other 87 had 209 in all, so that the average number to each married couple was less than two.

This led Bishop Lawrence to consider the cost of living and its relation to salaries. The country parish where close economy used to be practised in old days had ceased to be in Massachusetts, except at Nantucket or Vineyard Haven. The cost of living was high throughout the diocese, and the clergy received fewer official favors than elsewhere. In itself this was well, but it implied an added hardship if salaries were not pro'portionally increased. The clergyman should be "put on an equal financial basis for expenditure with the average efficient citizen if he was to be himself efficient in his work. The lawyer, the business man, the educator can have his pleasant home on the outskirts of the town, or in the city suburb. The lawyer and the business man will not allow their clergyman to live on the outskirts, and they are right; he must live where the people are, on the line of traffic, and he must pay the rent. Again, a clergyman's family is more or less before the public; his wife must be among the people, and active in all parish and social activities. The children, too, must be well clothed, or there will be criticism. Even though the wife have little children and a baby about her, she must keep up her social duties. There is no woman in our whole social system so hard pressed; and, let me say, so far as I know them, there is no class of women that, as a whole, meet the demand with more gladness and success. They must be hospitable, and, though there be no servant, entertain one or two of the choir, a communicant from a distance, or an exchanging clergyman. And upon the purse of husband and wife come many demands for church expenses and charities of which the men and women of the parish know nothing. The demands talon the clergy for ents and for tact were high, and if he met them in only a reasonable degree he required for efficiency sympathetic, assured and adequate financial support. The financial contract between pastor and people was essentially a moral one. "The collection and payment of his salary depend more on himself than on Of the 157 the bishop anyone else." found that 124 received salaries promptly, 14 fairly promptly, 18 tardily as a rule where the salary was low. There were 62 rectories, and in estimating salaries the bishop had added a normal rent, and also the missionary stipends and fees, which he found to average $49, but half the total of fees was received by 28 clergymen. The average clergyman's salary in Massachusetts was found to be $1,829.61. Only 13 received $3,000 or more; 27 between $2,000 and $3,000, the other 117 averaged $1,291.23. The cost of living had increased much more than salaries in the last few years, but precise fig

ures were not attainable. "The people of this country," said Bishop Lawrence, "even in the most cultivated communities, have not begun to realize the final economy in paying their intellectual and spiritual leaders such salaries as will give the best efficiency. . With the salaries and expenses as they are it is impossible for clergymen, even those with the largest salaries, to lay up more than enough to meet temporary emergencies, or give them support for more than two or three years.


"The final question in all discussions of financial compensation is efficiency. Self-sacrifice is one of the essential characteristics of the ministry, as it is also of the Christian laity. The vital question is, how to so support the worker that he can put his self-sacrifice into its most effective channels, not into the saving of small moneys, but into the saving of souls."

A DIOCESAN SEAL ADOPTED. The report of the committee on a diocesan seal, which was read by the Rev. Dr. Addison, stated that, in prosecuting the work, the committee had obtained the invaluable assistances of Messrs. Pierre de Chaignore la Rose and Ralph Adams Cram. Dr. Addison said that in the new seal the diocese paid honor first to Massachusetts, secondarily to the see of London, and last to the old town of St. Botolph. After some criticisms had been met, the following resolution was adopted:

"Resolved: That the arms of the diocese of Massachusetts be established in accordance with the following blazon: "Azure, on a pale gules fimbriated argent a sword of the last, the hilt in base or, enfiled with three coronets composed of crosses pattée and fleursde-lis of the same; in dexter chief a star argent. The shield ensigned with a mitre and resting on a key and a crosier in saltire.

"And that the seal of the diocese shall contain the arms as above, within a vesica form; on a border the following inscription:

"Sigillum diœcesis Massachusettensis conditæ A.D. MDCCLXXXIV."


The result of the voting for diocesan officers was then announced as follows: Standing Committee: Clerical members: The Rev. J. M. Foster, the Rev. E. W. Smith, the Rev. Dr. L. K. Storrs, the Rev. W. G. Thayer. Lay members: Messrs. C. P. Greenough, F. W. Hunnewell, C. G. Saunders, and A. J. C. Sowden.

On motion of the Rev. Dr. Hutchins it was voted to request the General Convention to consider the propriety of reducing the diocesan representation in that body to three members of each order. The convention adopted a motion asking for the appointment of a committee to consider and report on the immorality of the youth of the country. The officers of the convention, secretary, the Rev. Dr. Manchester; treasurer, the Rev. C. T. Learoyd, and registrar, the Rev. Dr. Slafter, were elected during the session.



Rt. Rev. T. D. Bratton, D.D., Bishop. The seventy-ninth annual council was opened on May 2, in St. Paul's church, Meridian, with Morning Prayer, said by the Rev. Messrs. Boykin and Grubb. At ten o'clock, the Holy Communion was celebrated by the bishop, assisted by the Rev. Drs. Logan and Harris, and the Rev. W. M. Green. The sermon was preached by the Rev. C. W. Hinton.

BISHOP BRATTON'S ADDRESS. Bishop Bratton spoke first of the losses that had befallen the Church during the year and of the destructive tornado, crop failures and other troubles

that had afflicted Mississippi. In these spite of things the work of the diocese had prospered, and growing interest and reverence was to be seen everywhere. Trinity church, Yazoo City, had been rebuilt, a chapel had been erected at Corinth, and a chapel burned at Dry Cove was about to be replaced. A parish had been revived at Early Grove, where a fine old brick church had been "discovered," and there had also been considerable repairs. New rectories had been built at Hattiesburg and Scranton; the rectory at Gulfport had been enlarged; a rectory had been purchased by Holy Trinity, Vicksburg, and a house and large lot bought for St. Mary's School in the same city. Meantime the Church had been pushing out into new fields and the bishop looked forward to the establishment of four new stations with headquarters at Corinth, West Point, Lumberton and Indianola or Leland. He thought it would be a great gain if two more stations could be established, one for the scattered communicants on the Gulf & Ship Island Railroad between Jackson and Hattiesburg, another on the Alabama & Vicksburg Railroad Jackson and Meridian, but between here the need was less pressing than where unreached groups of communicants already existed and were asking for the services of the Church. Such considerations led Bishop Bratton to speak particularly of the Diocesan Missionary Fund, its inadequacy and instability. The income of the fund was of $5,858, which parishes pledged $1,901; missions, $263; individuals, $1,214; and the General Board of Missions, $2,480. The total expenditures through the missionary treasury were $7,420, of which $5,890 were for white, The and $1,530 for colored missions. deficit was thus about $1,562, but for gifts made to the bishop personally or through him, which he was at liberty to use for missions. The actual deficit was, perhaps, about $1,000. The income must be increased or the expenditure cut down.

Really, the financial condition was even more serious. The only constant source of income was what came not from individuals, but from the organized body of the Church, and this, in that diocese, was for the year $2,164, while the absolutely necessary expenditure, exclusive of colored work, was The difference was met pre$5,890. cariously either from general Church funds, or through the generosity of individuals, chiefly through the exertions of one layman. Income from such sources ought to be used for new work and forward movements, and he asked the parishes and missions to work for a regular consistent income for this purpose of $1.50 per communicant. He proposed also an association of those willing to contribute from $1 to $10 annually for building churches and rectories, and that they should not forget in their own need the general missionary work of the Church and the diocesan schools and institutions. In conclusion Bishop Bratton expressed his agreement with the purpose of the petition of the Afro-American clergy and laity to the convention of 1904 for a Canon on Special Missionary Bishops. He was convinced "that this or some similar canon must ultimately be adopted to meet the conditions which face us."



When council reassembled in the afternoon, business was rapidly dispatched. The Rev. Albert Martin was unanimously re-elected secretary. The Standing Committee rendered its report, and diocesan officers were appointed. The bishop nominated Judge Robert Howell, of Jackson, to be chancellor and the council unanimously confirmed the nomination. The Standing Committee was re-elected, save that the

Rev. J. B. Perry was chosen to succeed the Rev. W. C. Whittaker, removed from the diocese.

The treasurer's report showed an excellent condition of the finances.

The proposed canon on "Special Missionary Bishops," which was embodied in the memorial of the colored workers, presented to the last General Convention, was referred to a committee composed of the Rev. Messrs. G. C. Harris, D.D., J. B. Perry, and R. E. L. Craig; and Messrs. J. Lucas and H. F. Simrall, who will report to the next council. This reference was made at the request of the bishop.

At 8 P.M. the annual sermon on "The Divine Constitution of the Ministry,' was delivered by the Rev. Edward McCrady.

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Almost immediately ter this action by the committee, the prevalence of yellow fever in a sister State was nounced and the bishop was forced by quarantine regulations to abandon his purpose to use the summer months in

which to make a thorough canvass of the state. Meanwhile, efforts were begun to gain the interest of substantial Churchmen in various localities, some of whom were invited to take scholarships of $5,000 each. While discussing the report, members on the floor subscribed $2,500.

Mr. Green reported for the committee on the Thank-offering. This committee will go actively to work this year and Mississippi will do her duty.

The Standing Committee reported its organization by the election of the Rev. Nowell Logan, D.D., as president, and the Rev. Edward McCrady, Canton, Miss., as secretary. An invitation was extended to the council to hold its meet

ing in Trinity church, Yazoo City, and was accepted. At this point Mr. Mark

Levy, missionary to the Jews, was presented to the council and made a short and most interesting address upon his methods of work. Mr. Levy is the missionary employed by many of the southern dioceses as a travelling missionary to his own brethren wherever he may find them.

The short morning session the next day was consumed in hearing the report of the committee on finance, and in doing the usual last things, not least among them being the hearty thanks tendered the congregation of St. Paul's, who, in spite of recent confusion caused by the devastating cyclone, opened their homes for the entertainment of the delegates.


FUNDS FOR CHURCH SCHOOLS. The report of the committee schools occupied much of the second day's session. The committee recom

mended that the first work to be accomplished should be the establishment of a school for girls. The question of location was purposely postponed, because it was considered by the committee that the discussion of that question

would be likely to divert interest from LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.

the work of providing necessary funds. In order to insure the success of the enterprise the committee considered that $100,000 must be raised. This, it is hoped, will be sufficient to equip a plant necessary to the present estimated requirements, and leave a small endowment as a safety fund.

N. B. All letters intended for this department

must be signed by the writers and the names
must be for publication.

Earthquake in the of Sacramento. To the Editor of THE CHURCHMAN: When I wrote you of the effects of the earthquake and fire in the diocese of California I had not then received details of the disaster as it affected points in my own district. I have since visited Santa Rosa, where the ruin is complete. The church building was not severely damaged, but the new rectory was badly wrecked. The Rev. A. L. Burleson had just occupied The beautiful little it with his family. town of Santa Rosa has not a public building, store or brick edifice left in it. Business is completely paralyzed. For a long time it will be impossible for the people to do anything for their rector's support. The marble font in the church was overturned and shattered. Numbers of our parishioners, including the mayor of the city, had their beautiful homes destroyed or injured. One of our Sundayschool children was caught in the ruin and burned to death. At Fort Bragg the entire business section was laid flat, but one brick building surviving. The post office and forty dwellings were burned. Most of our people are burned out. At Ukiah there was great devastation. The church building was wrecked. The rector, the Rev. F. W. Crook, gave up his home to a family of homeless ones with children. The clergyman here was rendered completely penniless by the failure of a local savings bank, and no support can be expected from his people for six months or a year to come. At Ferndale, Eureka and other coast points where we have churches and clergy, the news comes in slowly, indicating that all will need help in restoring their buildings and maintaining their clergy. Nearly every clergyman in the District of Sacramento whose work was uninjured is sending five per cent. of his salary to the aid of the brothers who are cut off so suddenly from all income. It will take many thousands of dollars to restore our work. The magnificent generosity and ChrisThrough the work of the archdeacon, tian affection of our brethren all over the Rev. E. E. L. Craig, 19 new fields have been opened. He has baptized 62, the land, who are sending us offerings, almost one-sixth of the entire number large and small, has cheered us greatly. reported. The diocesan representative of the General Board made a statement


At the afternoon session the committee on the state of the Church reported that while at a first glance at the parochial reports there appears to be a distinct loss in both the vital and financial statistics, this can be accounted for by the fact that many of the reports are not perfect, some indeed omit the most important items. The decrease of 553 in the communicant list is clearly seen to be caused by such gaps in the reports, and while there is an apparent loss in the number confirmed, from the bishop's address there is a gain of twentyseven over last year. The decrease in offerings may be accounted for by the fact that there have not been so many large and costly churches and rectories built this year. Last year was an exceptional one in that respect.

Bishop of Sacramento.



The Late Bishop Morris. To the Editor of THE CHURCHMAN:

May I have the space to correct an impression which seems to prevail in some minds, that the late Bishop of Oregon (Rt. Rev. B. Wistar Morris, D.D.) was what is known in the Church as a "Broad Churchman"?

To one who for the last two years and six months was near to him and often in his counsels, he appeared in a much different light. The history of his life in the Church shows him to have been true to the Church of his choice, and holding in its entirety the faith. He came to the Church from the "Orthodox Quakers." His father was at one time a United States His attention was called Congressman. to the Church by a volume written by Bishop Hopkins, and in coming into the Church he brought with him much of the Quaker simplicity of life which he kept to the day of his death. He organized and introduced the first boy choir in Pennsylvania, and was known among his Churchman." friends at Germantown, Penn., as a "High

The General Convention of 1868 elected him to succeed Bishop Scott as Bishop of Oregon and Washington Territory. In a letter in the March number of The Spirit of Missions, 1869, Bishop Morris wrote: "If we are to do any good and abiding work for the Church in that new and growing country, we must seek to instruct, train and mould the children by her sound, såfe Scriptural and truly Catholic doctrines and teachings." Upon assuming the work in his new field he began at once to beautify the churches, and at St. Stephen's chapel, Portland, then connected with St. Helen's Hall, he held daily services, and the responses were sung. A cross was placed on the belfry. It has been stated that up to thirteen years ago there were no brass crosses on the Church altars in Oregon, but there were many wooden ones, and are still. Boy choirs were his delight, and he said that they were the most practical and satisfactory way of furnishing music for the Church services. He did not discourage the use of altar crosses, but he did urge the people to restrain too great a desire for marble altars and tiled floors when there were so many of the lost sheep who needed the Gospel. He wrote: "All will be but husk and chaff except they (the people) come and bow themselves at the foot of the Cross in true humility and penitence, and seek to feed and refresh their souls with the Bread of Heaven and the Water of Life here dispensed.” And in another place he pleads for the Church to send the Word and Sacraments to the lost sheep in the unknown wilds, even to the great sea westward. He was a missionary pure and simple, and the fact that Oregon has paid its full apportionment each year since that plan was adopted speaks for him in regard to his love of the Church. Yet the diocese had much need of the money to fill many vacancies. The writer knows what labor it cost him to gather in this offering. Of the neglected laboring classes he said: "Diocesan selfishness is as bad as parish selfishness, and parish selfishness is as bad as individual selfishness, and individual selfishness is so bad an enemy to Christ's cause that no other can be named as worse. To the hungry soul the Gospel is sent; will it fulfil the command, 'Go preach the Gospel,' if we simply stand in our chancels waiting for these tired (working) men to flock through our church doors?"

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Bishop Morris's business ability and practical way of doing things was the cause of leading some to think that it was

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