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without the least strain, and he considers this election "the beginning of a revolution which will remodel political parties and disturb the foundations of political faiths."
On Jan. 17 the Senate and The New Chamber of Deputies of French France, sitting together President. in National Assembly at Versailles, elected Clement Armand Fallières, the President of the Senate, to be President of the Republic. He received 449 votes; M. Doumer, the President of the Chamber of Deputies, 371. There were 28 scattered ballots; 12 members refused to vote, apparently owing to the Separation Act. The newly elected President was born in 1841, the son of a lawyer and grandson of a blacksmith. He is a Roman Catholic, and his elder brother was an archbishop. In his young manhood he achieved distinction at the bar and in local politics; he became a deputy in 1876, soon made his mark in the Chamber as an orator among the advanced though not extremely radical Republicans, and became Minister of the Interior in 1878. He held several other ministerial posts, and in 1892 entered the Senate, of which he was chosen president in 1898, and at every subsequent election, gaining recognition from all parties for his industry and his unimpeachable integrity. His choice over M. Doumer may be taken to indicate the satisfaction of the majority of French legislators in the policies of the present Cabinet, for M. Fallières was as early as 1892 an advocate of the repression of the Congregations, while M. Doumer made his appeal on his colonial record as an expansionist and had indicated a willingness to placate the ultramontanes if it would further his political ambition. The election thus confirms the opinion of that shrewd English observer, Mr. Robert Dell, who, in the current Fortnightly Review, says that France "is overwhelmingly Republican and overwhelmingly anti-clerical; but anti-clerical does not mean anti-religious." Mr. Dell thinks, and it is evident that the majority of Frenchmen agree with him, that there has been a conspiracy of long
standing between the dominant party in the Church and a dominant party in the Army, representing the monarchists and the nobility, and that it was a condition of national existence to make the repetition of such incidents as those connected with the names of Boulanger and Dreyfus impossible. "Let us by all means have as much liberty as possible," says Mr. Dell. "Liberty to plot against itself no Government can give without committing suicide. The spectacle of the ultramontane, syllabus in hand, demanding an absolute liberty, incompatible with the very existence of a community, is really becoming a little ridiculous."
The Government of Morocco has been led partly
ence on by instinct, partly by imiMorocco. tation and partly by force of circumstances, to assume the position which the Turkish Government has taken at international conferences for the last fifty years. The Algeciras Conference, at which twelve countries are represented, elected the Spanish envoy, Duke Almodovar, whose very name recalls some ancient Moorish convert to Christianity, as its head, and began its deliberations with three issues paramount-the extent to which trade should be modified by customs duties, the import of arms into Morocco, which the Moorish Government has long sought without success to prohibit, and the measures to be taken to restore order in the empire. Over most of its area, the authority of the Sultan has ceased, and nothing has come to take its place. France claims, and there is gen
eral agreement on this point, that the French Government shall be permitted to police the Algerian frontier, but the main issue is whether over the rest of the area such policing as may be necessary to aid the local authorities (who in the end will certainly be overshadowed by any alien force) shall be carried on by France, was proposed by the Franco-English compact; by a directed by an International police Commission, or by dividing up Morocco and assigning a part to each one of the various countries concerned. The last plan is said to be proposed by Germany, and would end in the partition of the empire. Whether the United States favors an international police, or French action, is not yet known, and on the position of the United States the position of the conference may turn, so evenly balanced are the contending forces.
Secretary Root, in discussing the situation in Morocco before the sub-committee of the House Committee on Appropriations on Jan. 18, said of our participation in the conference that we had a trade interest in Morocco, though no political interest, and that the ostensible object of the conference was entirely commercial. That it had a political aspect at all arose solely from the fact that relations between France were otherwise Germany and strained. If political questions should arise from this fact, the American delegates would, he assured the sub-committee, have nothing to do with them. They were there "with just the same interest that the representatives of any other country have in seeing that the doors of Mo
rocco are not closed to our trade. . . It is our business to look after the lives and property of our citizens, and when they get into a half civilized State where the Government is not sufficiently orderly and strong to protect them, why, we protect them ourselves."
A commercial union between Servia and Bulgaria is being concluded with the friendly co-oper
ation of Austria and marks a long step
toward the crystallizing of relatively permanent political relations in the Balkan peninsula. Race and religious rivalry has been the curse and weakness of this region; without it Turkish misgovernment would have ceased long ago. If the Bulgars and the Serbs merge their commercial relations, political union is as sure to follow as it followed under like conditions the North German Customs Union. Their example is sure to have a great, probably a controlling, influence in Macedonia. The new treaty, according to cabled summary, seems to establish as complete a customs union as that between England and Scotland, and it is said to mention habitually, the "United States of Bulgaria and Servia" as though
to accustom the citizens of both countries to the term. Twenty years ago they were at open war.
Servian and Bulgarian Union.
While American policyholders are awaiting with some impatience the recommendations of the Armstrong Committee as the result of its investigations into venality, greed and graft in American life insurance, it is not uninteresting to learn what has been done in New Zealand, that "newest England," where they are not afraid to commit to the care of the State matters of common interest to all; while they have enough of the sturdy AngloSaxon temper in them to put no barrier in the way of individual enterprise. The state insurance in New Zealand, of which that colony's Commissioner, Mr. Reeves, writes in the January North American
Insurance by the State.
Review, has little in common with that compulsory insurance against old age, sickness and accident, that has been successfully tried in Germany, Austria and Belgium. In New Zealand there is no monopoly. The State is content to show how well it can do the work. If others can do it better, or if private capital can adapt itself to more particular needs, there is nothing to hinder. In fact, though in New Zealand the Government insures against death, accident and fire, Mr. Reeves tells us that private enterprise has advanced, developed and prospered alongside of the growth of the Government establishment. State life insurance is no new thing in New Zealand. It was begun in 1869 under the auspices of Sir Julius Vogel, and has prospered so far that there were last year over 44,000 policies in force and the Government was doing about half the life insurance of the colony and the most useful half, for it takes no policies over $20,000, leaving, as is fitting, the commercial side of life insurance to
others. It found it possible to secure sound and profitable investment for its funds and had thrown on its hands by foreclosure proceedings, last year, the mere trifle of $5,000. Whether American State officials would show like prudence had their administration a like success is doubtful. Certainly the business would have to be conducted in a different spirit from that of the office of the present New York Superintendent of Insurance. State accident insurance in New Zealand is a much more recent thing, and was undertaken because of successive failures of kept entirely distinct from that of the life private companies in 1899. Its business is insurance department. It has reduced premiums and accumulated a considerable reserve, while furnishing absolute security to the insured. Fire insurance has been undertaken by the Government of New Zealand only since 1903, and the interval is too short to justify any conclusion. The Government certainly had no lack of competition, for there were twentysix companies doing business there when it opened its office, and these immediate
ly declared war to the knife on the public
enterprise, refusing to reinsure its risks in New Zealand, and endeavoring to prevent others from doing so in London. Press agents were systematically employed to blacken its reputation, and dwelling-house premiums reduced at a stroke one-third. As a result, though the amount of business done by the state fire insurance office is for the present small, its success in saving money to New Zealanders is unqualified, but perhaps it is only in a colony whose population is sub
ject to such rigid selection that municipal management of public utilities can safely go so fast or so far.
The secretary of the State of Massachusetts published recently some facts in regard to the increase in divorce there that must give the legislators and moral leaders of that commonwealth great cause of anxiety, especially when it is remembered that an increasing percentage of its population is, by tradition at least, Roman Catholic, whether of Canadian or European origin, and so might naturally be reckoned as opposed to all divorce. It appears from the secretary's figures that in 1890 one divorce was granted for every 31.9 marriages recorded in the State. Five years later there was one divorce for every 24.2 marriages, while in 1904 there was one for every 15.3. That is to say, in fifteen years the number of divorces had nearly doubled. That these sundered families were true residents of the State and that the figures were not swelled by any "divorce colony" is obvious from the
Divorce in Massachusetts.
fact that Massachusetts requires of the plaintiff from three to five years residence, according to the cause alleged, the longest term of any State in the Union. No one would come to Massachusetts to get divorce; they might very well leave Massachusetts to get it, so that the figures probably somewhat understate the facts. The causes for absolute divorce are, however, numerous. In addition to the one ground recognized in New York, Massachusetts admits cruelty, desertion, neglect, habitual intoxication, incapacity, felony and "joining a sect believing marriage unlawful." The increase in the ratio of divorce in Massachusetts is not due to a relaxation of the law, but shows the cumulative effect that long-continued laxity produces.
A step toward the stricter regulation of Sunday entertainments, musical or dramatic, was made on Jan. 21, when an intended performance of "Cavalleria Rusticana," at the Academy
of Music, was stopped by police interference. This was on Sunday afternoon. On Sunday evening there was a concert made up of selections from various grand operas at the Metropolitan Opera House. There was no police interference. The difference between the two performances was that at the latter the singers dressed up; at the former they were to wear costumes. The police did not interfere either with vaudeville performances, disgusting in various degrees, at the baser theatres, or with the humbler efforts at romantic melodrama in which our Hebrew citizens delight. It is understood, however, that the managers of these "sacred concerts" have been warned to close. There is no doubt that the law has not been enforced and no
doubt that it can be. If any large major- of Christ gathered in seventy-five years,
Sunday Performances in New York.
The students of the Virginia Theological Seminary, at Alexandria, were received by President Roosevelt on Jan. 17, at the White House. "I have to work in a great many different parts of our country, and under a great many different conditions," he told them, "and in
Speaking of "The Atroci Sunday Sup- ties of Color Supplements" in The Printing Art, Mr. Lindsay Swift says: "Even readers whose time is so valueless that
they can afford to waste more than a glance at a Sunday paper must realize how worthless pictures of this sort really are. It is the children who suffer, for they absorb unconsciously the unsavory quality of such efforts to amuse, and are thus the involuntary victims of voluntary and responsible corruptionists. At a time when this country is seriously trying to implant a knowledge of and stimulate a taste for better things, artistic and æsthetic, through exhibitions in museums, libraries, and even in Sunday-schools, it is not a little disheartening to realize that
clergyman who has a spiritual side and
you to try to make things a little better
which is brought to bear on their chil
dren: that these children shall not be de
That the President should have taker
liberately taught disrespect for old age
each community I find usually that
normally it is the
The Right Rev. H. H. Montgomery, D.D., secretary of the English Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, has been invited by the Presiding Bishop to attend the General Convention of 1907. The general committee of the Society has cordially agreed to the plan, and proposes to draft an address to be sent to the Church in the United States by the hand of Bishop Montgomery. The Archbishop of Canterbury has, as president of the S. P. G., taken a leading part in making it possible for Bishop Montgomery to accept the invitation of the has done so much for missions and for the Bishop Montgomery missionary ideal that his presence in this country cannot, on this memorable centenary, but prove a happiness and a source of inspiration.
Inner peace, said Bishop Hall, in his sermon on the Sunday after Christmas, was an essential mark of the Christian life and the spirit of tranquillity based upon it was no discovery of Christian Science, but something as old as St. Paul, as one could see from the opening lines of the fifth chapter of the Epistle to the Romans and from his repeated utterances elsewhere. "There it is," he said, "in the old Bible, which you have not read or laid to heart. My friends, do not simply scoff at Christian Science. It is easy to sneer at anything that we do not take the trouble to try and understand. With all its exaggerations, its onesidedness, I will be frank to say its absurdities, Christian Science sets forth and insists on an element of Christian truth which we, and the Christian Church at large, have allowed to be too generally ignored. We have not shown forth in our lives this temper of trustfulness and tranquillity and superiority to external troubles, and so this has been thought of as no part of the Christian religion. And we are to blame. It is always the same story. Every heresy and false system that gains a wide and deep hold upon men and women does so not by reason of its errors, but by virtue of the element of truth which it emphasizes, which appeals to the heart and mind of people; it is some element of truth which has been ignored or allowed to fall into the background in ordinary teaching; this torn from its proper place, and exaggerated without balancing and supplementary truths, becomes an error, and in its isolation and exaggeration a falsehood..
"We accept pain and suffering then as a fact. But in a true sense we should make light of it, because our real life, our chief interest, is not in the outward things of which we may be deprived our wealth or our friends or our bodily health. Beneath all these is our companionship with God, and the development of our character. We know that God can and does overrule external and surface sorrow to the deeper He promises to make all things work together for good to them that love Him. (Rom. viii. 28.) We should therefore be comparatively indifferent to bodily pain or any form of suffering or trial."
and higher good of His servants.
The Growth of the Church.
The Pacific Churchman in a striking editorial on the progress of the past year says that while the Church seems to The Joint Commission of be growing a little more rapidly than the the General Convention population or than other religious bodies, on Sunday-school Inthere is little in the facts, as reported, to struction met for the fifth time on Jan. give color to the hope of those who desire 16, in Philadelphia, 7 bishops, 4 presbyters to see this Church in fact the Church of and 2 laymen attending. Reports of comAmerica. And it contrasts our 800,000 mittees on special aspects of the Sundayor SO with the 1,000,000 Disciples school blem were considered, and it was
noted that since the last meeting over a
Study, saying that though the Joint
of Prayer Book and Hymnal alone in the
been greater than the previous fifty.
and that the Sunday-school should be con-
basis of teaching. From the Committee on
strong policy on the part of the General
central office and field secretary, which
Albany, where services are regularly
In The Independent for Jan. 18, the Rev. Dr. W. D. P. Bliss indicts rather sweepingly the Christian Churches of New York for their antagonism or indifference to the movement for social and political reform. The socialist. orator and radical pamphleteer are, indeed, he thinks, quite in error when they claim that the clergy pose professionally, that their words are for sale, or their free speech muzzled, or their hearers largely mammon worshippers or hypocrites. The reality, he says, is far different, but far more serious and more sobering. He reviews successively the condition in the chief religious bodies of the city. "Rome's The Bible is becoming ob democracy," he finds, "ends with_the solete, said President Hall, of Clark University, in a recent lecture reported in the New York Sun. This conclusion he thought justified by the answers in question papers received from high schools and Sunday-schools. These he declares show an amazingly knowledge of the Bible, especially of the Old Testament. Complaint comes to him from professors of literature, even in colleges, that they cannot count upon the recognition of Biblical allusion by students of English classics. He concludes that "a knowledge of the Bible should be made a requirement in English of all colleges." Certainly the translators of the Bible would not have passed such a sentence as we have just quoted. And there can be no question that any writer's style will profit greatly from intimate acquaintance with the letter of Scripture, such as it is the aim of several recently-published textbooks, Professor Scott's "Memorable Passages from the Bible," for instance, to provide. But because students are no longer familiar with details of the Old Testament story it by no means follows that the Bible is "becoming obselete." The Student Volunteer Movement, the college branches of the Y. M. C. A. and local religious organizations in our colleges generally report an interest far more general, vital and keen in Bible study than was the
case in the last or the next to the last
generation. Only to-day they leave the let
Thirty-nine of the
union printers was appointed with instructions to investigate and power to act. The discussion and the action is of less significance than the fact of the appeal by the Union to the Christian sense of the Methodist Church, which, like every other communion, is under an obligation that it cannot avoid to grapple with social problems and endeavor to solve them to the best of its knowledge and conscience. Of course we shall all make mistakes in this, but no mistake could be more fatal than the mistake of supposing that until we can reach a safe and a sure conclusion, we are under no obligation to make any decision at all.
getting of the money." It is, "like Tammany's equality under a boss." "The world has found Rome out and few workers for the future will look to her for help." The parish priests, the Sisters of Charity may be faithful and hardworking, but "their hands are tied and they have to work in a narrow groove." "Rome in America is with the railroad king, the real estate owner, the wealthy convert." In the Protestant Episcopal Church he recognizes conditions very different but hardly more hopeful. We have, indeed, free speech in the pulpit, and advocacy of positive reform, though not very radi
cal or strenuous, "is perhaps more than in all the other religious bodies put together." He finds us also doing probably more institutional and philanthropic work than all the others together, and yet he fears that "there is no other Church organization in the city so much under the power of money." Not indeed through direct dictation from wealthy Churchmen, but through the influence that these exercise directly and indirectly as monopolists of public utilities, leaders in the world of transportation, banking, insurance and real estate. "These multi-millionnaires do not muzzle the mouths of their rectors; why should they? Shares vote, not voices." We are far from thinking this wholly just, but there is an element of truth in the reproach, and it is true, too, that some of our churches most generously active in institutional work are extremely aristocratic in the spirit in which they undertake it. We have ourselves heard Christ's "many mansions" explained and defended by a New York rector as a social necessity. Nor does Dr. Bliss see anything to be hoped from the Lutherans, "a typical church of the lower bourgeoisie"; nor from the Presbyterians, unless it were at the Union Seminary where he finds a little group of men "progressive in almost every line." Of Methodists and social reform "merely nothing can be said. The two do not go together. Evangelicalism has seemed to quench the social Gospel of the evangels." The Baptists are under the cloud of the elder Rockefeller's money and the younger Rockefeller's much advertised Bible-class. The Reformed Church lives in the past. So the Church is without a prophet and the people languish, though, as Mr. Bliss promises to
show us later, they do not mourn. Surely the indictment is too sweeping; there is no city in the world where so much social work is being done by Christians, not always under their denominational names, as in New York and everywhere we find signs of growth and vitality rather than of decline or decay, but it is quite true that few of our churches and few of their members have realized the essential democracy of the Gospel or live in the spirit of Christian brotherhood on weekdays or on Sundays. Till they do the poor may have the Gospel preached at them, but it will not be preached to them.
A copy of the report of the Commission of Inquiry in the Lien chau massacre has been sent by the Rev. Dr. Noyes to the Presbyterian Board. The investigation, says Dr. Noyes, seems to have been conducted with great carefulness and impartiality. The Viceroy, as a result of its findings, has caused three murderers to be executed; has imprisoned nine persons for terms varying from five years to six months and has in flicted corporal punishment on Others have been condemned, but are at present fugitives from justice. The heroism of the Chinaman, not a convert, who saved Miss Paterson's life, is specifically commended by Consul-General Lay as "the one bright spot in that dark day." But there was another. Dr. Noyes tells the story of a little boy, a scholar in the mission school, who came to see Dr. Machle, with a scar showing that he had received an ugly gash on the head, which had healed. He said that he had followed the missionaries to the cave and there received the cut, and that Dr. Chestnut, while at the tree before she was killed, tore off a part of her skirt and bound up the wound. It was the last patient she ever treated.
Under the lead of the son
A Chinese Missionary of a native clergyman of the C. M. S. mission Society. there has recently been formed in Changsha, China, a society called "The Association of the Disciples of Christ in China." Its purpose is to gather together all Christian converts in one association and to carry on evangelistic work supported entirely by Chinese. The Rev. Mr. Huang, our Chinese clergyman in Changsha, has been made treasurer of the association and has a large influence in determining its policy. If its course be wisely guided it contains great possibilities of usefulness.
The recent death of the Rev. Charles Hartwell, one of the pioneer missionaries of the American Board to China, recalls the contrast between the present Christian conditions and those which Mr. Hartwell found when he reached the city of Foochow in 1853. The first native Christian was not baptized until four years later. Now distrust has to a large extent been supplanted by confidence and often, even in the case of nonChristians, by positive friendship with the missionaries. When the higher officials heard of Mr. Hartwell's death, they either called in person or sent messages of condolence, while the general commanding the local military post sent a native band to escort the funeral procession. Though there were no native Christians in the province of Fuhkien when Mr. Hartwell arrived there, fifty-two years ago, they are now numbered by tens of thousands.
Death at Foochow.
Patiently waiting until
thanksgiving for use by all the congrega-
The Church in
ists, an attitude which the Church
tion, much less can truly religious knowl-
The same number of The Hibbert Jour-
the attention of those who are interested in psycho-physical speculation. Curious, too, is "A Moslem View of Christianity," which Judge Ameer Ali dates from "the Reform Club, London."
The Rev. George Bladon of Preston protests against a remark of The Spectator that the clergy have not time for the work of teaching. Bishop Creighton, he says, "would have replied that they have all the time there is, and would have
told them to put first things first. What are we ordained for? 'Give faithful diligence . . . that thou mayest teach' are the words of the Ordinal; and a teaching clergy, fitting themselves by study to be
come efficient teachers and able to handle
The Priest as
large classes of boys and girls, and going themselves into the schools to teach, would even yet solve the difficulty." Perhaps the English Church may yet have its order of Christian Brothers.
It is gratifying to find in England at this juncture so full a recognition and so able an exposition of the American The Record in a discuspoint of view in regard to religious teachsion of the probable effect of disestablishment ing in public schools as that presented by on foreign missions, says Miss A. S. Furnell in the January number of The Hibbert Journal. Noticing first that Churchmen raise for work that two German conventions of school- among non-Christian people, for Anglican teachers have recently voted unanimously churches on the continent and in the against the teaching of religion in German colonies and for work in South America To this must be public schools on pedagogical grounds, she about $3,500,000 a year. goes on to discuss the educational worth added sums raised by smaller societies of the "religious knowledge" that English and contributed directly as special offerschools impart, and doubts whether it is ings or given by Churchmen to societies of any use, intellectual or moral. Religion, not specifically of the Church, amounting she says, "is a personal matter. Its es- in all to about $4,000,000, making a total sence cannot be made a subject of instruc- contribution for missions of $7,500,000
from 2,100,000 communicants. Would they be able to give as much were the Church disestablished? asks The Record, and dging from the corresponding efforts of Nonconformists thinks they would not. Methodists, Congregationalists, Baptists and Presbyterians, numbering together over 2,000,000, give only about $2,500,000, their liberality being "handicapped by the drains upon their purse for churches, institutions and stipends." If disestablishment came, the home demands upon Churchmen would be enormous, and The Record thinks that they would inevitably reduce their missionary energy. It notes that Canada, with 700,000 Churchmen, is giving about $100,000 a year for foreign missions; and in India "it needs but little imagination to picture whole districts where converts from heathendom or Mohammedanism would have to be left to lapse into their former state or to fall into the hands of Rome." Where Rome is to get the money that England would lack does not appear from The Record.
The Rev. W. Manning, vicar of St. Andrew's, Leytonstone, in the Hibbert Journal for January, asks, rather in perplexity than reproach, Are the clergy honest? They have taken a fivefold oath that they unfeignedly believe canonical Scripture, that they assent to the Thirty-nine Articles, that they are persuaded that the Holy Scriptures contain "all doctrine required of necessity for eternal salvation." If they have been appointed to a living they have affirmed the declaration they made as curates, and again, on the first Sunday of their officiating they have read the Thirty-nine Articles and pledged to them their assent. It might seem, says Mr. Manning, that the Church of England intended to bind her clergy to a particular set of doctrinal assertions, especially when one finds prefixed to the Articles the declaration that they are to be taken "in the literal and grammatical sense." Nevertheless, he asserts, some of the Articles are not so taken by men rightly considered as leaders of Church thought, and he cites in evidence Bishop Westcott, Bishop Lightfoot, Dean Stanley, Dr. Hort, Archbishop Magee and many others. He concludes, therefore, that this literal interpretation of these oaths cannot be the mind of the Church, and indeed Article XXXIV. is adduced to prove that the Church "has secured to herself the constitutional right of revising her tradition." So long, then, "as a man subscribes to the general sense, and accepts the doctrines to which he subscribes in what has been called the 'current or
Are the Clergy Honest!
tolerated sense,' that man," in Mr. Manning's view, "is perfectly honest." "I do not advocate," he concludes, "the abolition of credal confessions and doctrinal formulæ, though this desperate policy might appeal for its justification to another sister science which deals with nature, which, without formal and authoritative pronouncements, has secured the general acceptance of its fundamentals, such as the law of gravitation and the uniformity of law. It might be possible to secure allegiance to the essentials of theology without any binding by subscription, and the allegiance thus obtained would be of the highest value, for it would stand upon the inherent force and convincing power of religious truth. I have not much faith in the power of words to protect truth; and those who
trust to words and formularies are gener
ally unaware of the ever-varying vicissitudes which words undergo, and this trust in words is generally marked by a concomitant disinclination to recognize the need of putting the wine of truth into new bottles. But in the alternative we must
have wisdom to consider as essence experiential truths and not speculative dogma."
English history offers litA New Spanish tle of happy augury for Marriage. matrimonial connection between the royal families of Great Britain and Spain; yet it is currently re ported that a niece of King Edward VII. is betrothed to King Alfonso, and is under instruction with a view to her reception into the Roman Communion. "What that means," comments The Church Times. "everyone ought to know. She will be made to profess that her baptism, her confirmation, her Communions have all been invalid, and to crave admission into the Roman Church as though she were a
The Obligation of the Creeds."
By the Rev. William Sanday, D.D., LL.D., Lady Margaret Professor and Canon of Christ Church, Oxford.
[My good friend, the Editor of THE CHURCHMAN, has expressed a wish to reprint this article, contributed to The Independent Review in October, 1903, and I have consented. I am only sorry that it is not possible for me so to rewrite the article as to omit from it the element of controversy. For this I am afraid that I have not time, and I suspect truth that-if the toldmust be without the spice of polemics the article would fall rather flat. I must, therefore, let it go as it is; but at the same time I should be glad if the reader would ignore the polemical reference as far as he can. It is right to add that Dr. Rashdall replied in a later number of The Review (February, 1904).-W. S.]
There may be said to be three different attitudes of mind in regard to the Creeds. At least there are three distinct types to which the attitude of different minds will more or less conform. For the sake of clearness we may rather exaggerate the difference between them, so long as it is understood that practice always modifies theory, and that in real life the three types will not stand out sharply, but will shade off into each other.
converted pagan. If her Royal Highness were permitted, without these degrading conditions, so insulting to the Catholic Church of her country, to conform to the practice of the Catholic Church in Spain, there would be nothing to say. A Spanish Catholic would be free to communicate at our altars, and an English Catholic should, in like manner, be free to communicate at Spanish altars. If this reciprocity is not to be practised, and it is made a condition of this Spanish match that the bride-elect is to renounce as heretical and schismatical the Church in which she has been brought up, believing it to be for England what the Spanish Church is for Spain, all we can say is that English Churchmen will be seriously distressed."
Premising this, we may say that there is, first, the type which identifies its with the Creeds, which takes them as its starting-point or standard of theological truth, not seeking to go behind them. Secondly, there is the type which distin guishes between its own beliefs and the Creeds, for which they are two things and not one, though the relations between them are friendly and the Creeds carry great weight in the formation of its beliefs. And lastly, there is the type for which the formation of its own beliefs is altogether independent of the Creeds, for which they come in as a purely external authority, and which is somewhat impatient of them as representing the element
of restriction and constraint. It will be obvious that, in regard to any particular clause of the Creed or Creeds, if a question is raised in public controversy or by introspection in a man's own mind, the aspect of the question will vary considerably, according as one or another of these three points of view is adopted. In trying to define more exactly the extent of this variation, I will also try to describe with greater fulness and accuracy the psychological type from which it proceeds. For this purpose I will avail my self of two published papers, which may be taken roughly to represent the two types that are most opposed to each other. These papers are, one on "Doctrinal Standards," by my much lamented friend, Dr. Moberly (Pusey House Occasional Papers, No. 1, Longmans, 1898), and an
article by Dr. Hastings Rashdall on the "Ethics of Religious Conformity," which appeared in the International Journal of Ethics, January, 1897. To this may be
* Reprinted from The Independent Review.
added two sermons recently published by Canon Henson, under the title "Sincerity and Subscription" (London, 1903), and written from much the same point of view.
I would venture to invite any one in. terested in this subject to make a special study of Dr. Moberly's paper, which is not, perhaps, so generally known as it de serves to be. If the criticism is passed upon it that it is in style somewhat involved, I should not be prepared to assert the contrary; but I should be quite prepared to point to this paper as a spicuous instance of the not uncommon fact, that a certain degree of intricacy in style is compatible with great clearness and precision in thought.
I may take Dr. Moberly's paper as substantially expressing the first of the three attitudes of which I have spoken. Broadly speaking, it expresses it; but at the same time it suggests a correction in the The way in which I have described it. type of mind of which I am thinking does not exactly identify itself with the Creeds, but with the mind of the Church as em
bodied in the Creeds. This is the real starting-point of the whole argument. Dr. Moberly had an intense belief in the corporate character of the Church. This was for him “a truth primary and essential, a necessary result of the nature of man and of God." From this corporate character
of the Church it followed that the expression of the Church's faith would be also corporate. A creed that can make good its claim to represent the corporate belief of the Church comes to him with a presumption which is practically irre
The case, of course, may arise, in which it is necessary to distinguish between the real faith of the Church and its expressed faith; but with reference to the great historic Creeds this need hardly be conterplated. wish to separate between the Church's belief and its formal utterances; it is by no unfortunate conbut essentially and even descension, ideally, that the Church's faith implies to him the Church's creed. And where he is
"He does not