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alties. Five hundred pounds and the promise of preferment persuaded a curate to run the risk. The marriage took place at the lady's town house in Park Lane, Dec. 15, 1785. The prince wrote out a certificate, he and she and two witnesses signed it, but she afterwards cut with scissors the names of the witnesses from it, fearing they might be compromised by its discovery. She had, however, a letter in the prince's handwriting mentioning their names. Both letter and certificate are published for the first time in this volume. Of this marriage there were no children. Ten years later the prince married Princess Caroline, without, however, ceasing to regard Mrs. Fitzherbert as "the wife of my heart and soul." Mr. Wilkins cites his will of 1796 to attest his sincerity and his literary skill, both questioned by Thackeray. They certainly reveal a person of most inchoate moral ideas and sentimentalities. Mrs. Fitzherbert died March 27, 1837. Her monument at Brighton shows on the third finger of her left hand a third wedding ring. To us, Mr. Wilkins's book is interesting chiefly as an illustration of Roman Catholic ideas of the marriage bond during the years when "the highest authorities of her Church" (p. 249) sanctioned, at least tacitly, a bigamous relation.

books. Professor Tout's style is harder,
less sympathetic. He seems hypercon-
scientious in his unwillingness to at-
tribute motives to persons or aim to
actions. A larger part of his volume
deals as was inevitable with the wars of
the Edwards in Scotland, Wales and
France.

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The Rev. Dr. Plummer, Master of University College, Durham, gave four lectures to the clergy last summer at Oxford now printed as "English Church History from the Death of King Henry VII. to the Death of Archbishop Parker." (Imported by Scribner, $1.) The book is a sort of introduction to a similar volume dealing with Church history from the death of Parker to the death of Charles I. Its purpose is by a rapid review of the events to show that the reformation made no break in the life of the Church of England, destroyed no Church, created no Church, expelled no Church and introduced no Church. "To suppose that at the Reformation the Church of Rome was turned out and that its property and privileges were taken from it by the State and given to a revived or entirely new Church of England, is to be guilty of an historical blunder of the first magnitude." As this blunder has been quite often repeated by historians and biographers who treat this epoch since Froude first lent it the weight of his learning and eloquence, it is well that the other side should be so attractively presented as here, but Dr. Plummer does not strengthen his case by quoting in support of his view Professor Freeman, who in private correspondence repeatedly confessed his incompetence to judge of this epoch at all, though that did not hinder him from anonymously "belaboring" Froude. Dr. Plummer cites Froude about Mary, but never about Henry or Elizabeth.

On almost every page of "The Poems of Trumbull Stickney" (Houghton, Mifflin, $1.50) we find some lines of genius. In every line a promise shines. Of finished achievement there is little-a handful of lovely lyrics, two dramatic scenes; the rest are fragments, broken music. With the exception of four years at Harvard as a student, and another year, eight years later, as instructor of Greek, almost all the remainder of the author's short lifehe died when he was thirty years of ageI was spent in Europe. His imagery is drawn from the beauties of Italy and Greece, their landscape and their literature. Of contact with, or consciousness of, what we call modern conditions, there is almost no evidence in his poems. A single sonnet, "Six o'Clock," written in America the year before he died, witnesses to the fact that he did not dwell altogether in the past. In part, this obliviousness to the stirring present drama of the world was due to the academic life of the young poet; eight years were spent in study at Paris, and in 1903 the University of Paris gave him its great degree, the Doctorat ès Lettres, never before conferred upon an American.

A notable volume of verse, "Persephone, and other Poems," by members of the English Literature Department of Wellesley College, is privately printed through the generosity of a graduate (Fort Hill Press), for sale for the benefit of the Wellesley Library Fund. The names of the authors are too well known in both literary and academic circles to need any special introduction to our readers, and many of the poems have already appeared in various periodicals, this journal among them. "Persephone," which gives its name to the volume, is a dramatic idyl by Margaret Sherwood, full of elusive charm. Miss Sophie Jewett contributes several exquisite lyrics and a dainty Arthurian ballad, "The Dwarf's Quest." Then comes a group of songs and sonnets by Mary Bowen, quaint moon songs which make one think of Japanese pictures. Martha Shackford's "A Group of Early English Saints" won a prize at Yale. Vida D. Scudder's "Wayfaring Memories" retrace Notable espelightly a European tour. cially is a dainty fantasy of sunset off the Irish coast; some of her sonnets are remarkable for their stately dignity, and her lyrics, "Gratias Agamus," for instance, sing themselves to Gregorian tones. Commendable, too, are Katherine Lee Bates's "Marginal Notes on the Book of Life," the last of which, a fine patriotic hymn, has been set to music.

English Historical Studies.

We have already had occasion to note in connection with the first and tenth volumes of the "Political History of England" (Longmans, $2.60 each), the general character of that work which is being written by various authors under the direction and editorship of President William Hunt, of the Royal Historical Society, and Dr. Poole, editor of the English Historical Review. We have now to note the appearance of two further volumes. The second, by Professor George Burton Adams, of Yale, the only representative of America among the authors, deals with the period from the Norman Conquest to the death of John, that is, from 1066 to

Poetry and Drama.

The multiplying opportunity that is given by the publication of plays that have been popular upon the stage to check our judgment of scenic effectiveness by a consideration of artistic qualities, without which no drama achieves permanent place in literature, is most welcome. French and German writers for the stage who take themselves seriously have long since been accustomed to subject themselves to this test and have welcomed it. English playwrights, Pinero first among them, began to follow this example about fifteen years

1216. It was ready for publication last March, but its issue was unavoidably deferred until November. The third, by Professor E. F. Tout, of the University of Manchester, takes up the thread where Mr. Adams dropped it and carries the history from the accession of Henry III. to the death of Edward III., that is, from 1216 to 1377. Professor Adams has the more important period. He has to deal with the introduction of new forces and institutions and their fusing into the national life till in the ago. To a different category belong the reign of Henry II. we can begin first to dramas of Tennyson, intended to be read speak of an English nation. The real rather than acted, as doubtless are those subject of his book is the constant asof Stephen Phillips, Bernard Shaw and sertion of the democratic Anglo-Saxon Thomas Hardy. In America the first spirit, working first beneath, then playwright to court a distinctively literary through the Norman feudality; keeping judgment is Clyde Fitch. A few weeks it from becoming in England what it ago we noticed his "Girl with the Green became in France and at last, in the Eyes"; now we have "The Climbers," a reign of John, so transforming the no- popular success of 1901, a study of New bility itself that it was willing to make York life on fashionable society's outer Among the most popular of modern common cause with the people against verge, and especially interesting to us be- German story-tellers in verse is Julius the tyrant king. The contest between cause of its effective presentation at the Wolff, and the most popular of his poems the spiritual authority and the temporal crisis of the drama of the case against di- is "Der Wilde Jager," dealing in a spirit also plays a great part in these years vorce, though the catastrophe-effective of high patriotism with an ancient Gerand much was involved in it that bore doubtless on the stage-somewhat mars man legend. It has been translated into upon the independence and national the ethical value of the lesson. In con- English by Ralph Davidson as "The Wild life of England. This also Mr. Adams tinuity of dramatic development Mr. Fitch Huntsman, A Legend of the Hartz" (Puthas clearly brought out in his volume, has still much to learn from the best Eng- nam, $1.50), with attractive illustrations making copious use of the contemporary lish models, but for vivacity of dialogue by Woldemar Friedrich. The metre, for chroniclers, chiefly monastic, and mak- and clear portrayal of character through the greater part, is that of "Hiawatha," ining his pages much more alive with in- speech "The Climbers" represents Mr. terspersed occasionally with rhymed pasterest than those of Professor Tout, Fitch's highest present achievement and sages. who has relied rather on government is not unworthy of comparison with any records, the "Pipe Rolls" and the year save the most serious work of Jones.

An admirable song-book for Sundayschools and kindergartens is "Songs for Little People," collected by Frances Weld Danielson and Grace Wilbur Conant. (Pilgrim Press.) In this collection we find songs by William Blake, Christina Rossetti, George Macdonald, Lucy Larcom, Robert Louis Stevenson, Celia Thaxter, besides many charming ones by less wellknown authors. The arrangement is simple, and the fact that the introduction is written by Miss Lucy Wheelock is a recommendation in itself.

A classified and descriptive list of books received during the week will be found on page 154.

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Malmesbury is a ruin, no less in its spiritual than in its structural aspect. Once a vast erection, three hundred and thirty-two feet long, with a nave of nine bays, a great crossing, and a choir of five bays, all crowded with altars, screens and tombs, and none too large for the scores of monks and conversi and faithful laymen, it is now a mutilated stump of six nave bays, terminating at either end in brute walls of cheap masonry. The wonderful fifteenth century rood screen is gone, its place taken by a blind wall of plaster. Gone are the twelve altars of richest workmanship; and in their place is a thing like a small packing box covered with grey canvas, railed in by a kind of high fence, with two big square footstools or "ottomans," one at the south end, one at the north of the "Table," and flanking all, on either hand, a huge crude chair covered with red reps. A Brobdignagian eye, like some secret society symbol, is coarsely painted on the east wall, with a frame containing the Commandments on one side and a second with the

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*Copyright, 1906, by the Churchman Co.

NOTE.-Already published in this series: Glastonbury, March 4; Whitby and Lindisfarne, April 1; Beaulieu and Netley, May 6; Tintern, June 3; Gisburgh and Bolton. July 1; Jedburgh and Kelso, August 5; Rievaulx and Byland, Sept. 2; Melrose and Dryburgh, Oct. 7; Kirkstall, Nov. 4. To be published: Fountains.

Ruined
Great Britain.*

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By Ralph Adams Cram, F.A.I.A., F.R.G.S., Author of "Church Building," etc.

Malmesbury and York.

N writing of England's abbeys it has been my intention Lord's Prayer (or maybe the "forbidden degrees," I do not quite remember, but the connotation of the place would suggest the latter) on the other. Not a candlestick, vase, flower, or even cross appears to indicate the nature of the crashcovered packing box; the dust of ages lies in the red-druggeted "sanctuary," and all is forlorn, miserable, neglected.

expressly to exclude those that are now "in commission" in any sort, whether as cathedrals or as parish churches, leaving these for study perhaps at some future time. It might seem that this rule should exclude Malmesbury, St. Aldhelm's first Benedictine foundation in Wiltshire, but a chance visit to its desolate site proved that such exclusion was quite unnecessary. Roofed in and enclosed is a part of the nave indeed; a makeshift "Communion Table" is posited against a roughly plastered wall; heavy pews clog its narrow area, and stove funnels thrust themselves through traceried windows, some of which are filled with crude stained glass, while there are other instances of occasional and mechanical use, but these things are so manifestly a mere matter of legal formality they enhance the wreck of glory rather than mitigate it.

Never have I seen such evidences of dull indifferentism and spiritual death. All around are the tottering fragments of shattered majesty, preaching the faith and devotion that once rendered the enormous church all too small; now a moiety thereof is ample, and well it may be; for the dull horror of the place is so repellent it is impossible to imagine taking part in the worship of God in such an environment.

Curiously enough, and as though by some singular mercy, it became necessary for us to hurry across country from Wiltshire into Oxfordshire. We arrived in the evening at a little town of which, through deep ignorance, we knew nothing except that it contained an old Augustinian priory that was still in use. Finding a lodging for the night near its low walls, we inquired of the landlady if the church were open at that hour. She looked at us with some surprise and replied: "Certainly, sir, there'll be festival vespers there in an half hour, for tomorrow is Corpus Christi, when there will be a sung mass at eight." Greatly marvelling, and bearing in mind that which we had seen in Malmesbury, we entered the church to the sound of summoning bells, and found ourselves in a gaunt, ascetic place, casual and irregular in plan, bearing many marks of former desecration, but still a church of God, no less. An high altar covered with flowers and candles gleamed in the chancel, and by some magic minor altars filled the side chapels, while little shrines, each with its flowers and hanging lamp, were fastened to the columns of the nave. Statues, banners, sanctuary lamps, the faint odor of old incense, all told their grateful tale. The people gathered, the bell ceased, and presently a long procession of priests in cassocks, scholars in gowns (amongst whom we noticed a perfectly black negro) entered, passed to the Lady chapel on the right, chanted antiphonally the first vespers of the festival, and departed. At eight the next morning there was a "sung mass" indeed, with

Abbeys of

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alties. Five hundred pounds and the promise of preferment persuaded a curate to run the risk. The marriage took place at the lady's town house in Park Lane, Dec. 15, 1785. The prince wrote out a certificate, he and she and two witnesses signed it, but she afterwards cut with scissors the names of the witnesses from it, fearing they might be compromised by its discovery. She had, however, a letter in the prince's handwriting mentioning their names. Both letter and certificate are published for the first time in this volume. Of this marriage there were no children. Ten years later the prince married Princess Caroline, without, however, ceasing to regard Mrs. Fitzherbert as "the wife of my heart and soul." Mr. Wilkins cites his will of 1796 to attest his sincerity and his literary skill, both questioned by Thackeray. They certainly reveal a person of most inchoate moral ideas and sentimentalities. Mrs. Fitzherbert died March 27, 1837. Her monument at Brighton shows on the third finger of her left hand a third wedding ring. To us, Mr. Wilkins's book is interesting chiefly as an illustration of Roman Catholic ideas of the marriage bond during the years when "the highest authorities of her Church" (p. 249) sanctioned, at least tacitly, a bigamous relation.

English Historical Studies.

We have already had occasion to note in connection with the first and tenth volumes of the "Political History of England" (Longmans, $2.60 each), the general character of that work which is being written by various authors under the direction and editorship of President William Hunt, of the Royal Historical Society, and Dr. Poole, editor of the English Historical Review. We have now to note the appearance of two further volumes. The second, by Professor George Burton Adams, of Yale, the only representative of America among the authors, deals with the period from the Norman Conquest to the death of John, that is, from 1066 to

1216. It was ready for publication last March, but its issue was unavoidably deferred until November. The third, by Professor E. F. Tout, of the University of Manchester, takes up the thread where Mr. Adams dropped it and carries the history from the accession of Henry III. to the death of Edward III., that is, from 1216 to 1377. Professor Adams has the more important period. He has to deal with the introduction of new forces and institutions and their fusing into the national life till in the reign of Henry II. we can begin first to speak of an English nation. The real subject of his book is the constant assertion of the democratic Anglo-Saxon spirit, working first beneath, then through the Norman feudality; keeping it from becoming in England what it became in France and at last, in the reign of John, so transforming the nobility itself that it was willing to make common cause with the people against the tyrant king. The contest between the spiritual authority and the temporal also plays a great part in these years and much was involved in it that bore upon the independence and national life of England. This also Mr. Adams has clearly brought out in his volume, making copious use of the contemporary chroniclers, chiefly monastic, and making his pages much more alive with interest than those of Professor Tout, who has relied rather on government records, the "Pipe Rolls" and the year

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books. Professor Tout's style is harder, less sympathetic. He seems hyperconscientious in his unwillingness to attribute motives to persons or aim to actions. A larger part of his volume deals as was inevitable with the wars of the Edwards in Scotland, Wales and France.

The Rev. Dr. Plummer, Master of University College, Durham, gave four lectures to the clergy last summer at Oxford now printed as "English Church History from the Death of King Henry VII. to the Death of Archbishop Parker." (Imported by Scribner, $1.) The book is a sort of introduction to a similar volume dealing with Church history from the death of Parker to the death of Charles I. Its purpose is by a rapid review of the events to show that the reformation made no break in the life of the Church of England, destroyed no Church, created no Church, expelled no Church and introduced no Church. "To suppose that at the Reformation the Church of Rome was turned out and that its property and privileges were taken from it by the State and given to a revived or entirely new Church of England, is to be guilty of an historical blunder of the first magnitude." As this blunder has been quite often repeated by historians and biographers who treat this epoch since Froude first lent it the weight of his learning and eloquence, it is well that the other side should be so attractively presented as here, but Dr. Plummer does not strengthen his case by quoting in support of his view Professor Freeman, who in private correspondence repeatedly confessed his incompetence to judge of this epoch at all, though that did not hinder him from anonymously "belaboring" Froude. Dr. Plummer cites Froude about Mary, but never about Henry or Elizabeth.

Poetry and Drama.

The multiplying opportunity that is given by the publication of plays that have been popular upon the stage to check our judgment of scenic effectiveness by a consideration of artistic qualities, without which no drama achieves permanent place in literature, is most welcome. French and German writers for the stage who take themselves seriously have long since been accustomed to subject themselves to this test and have welcomed it. English playwrights, Pinero first among them, began to follow this example about fifteen years

ago.

To a different category belong the dramas of Tennyson, intended to be read rather than acted, as doubtless are those of Stephen Phillips, Bernard Shaw and Thomas Hardy. In America the first playwright to court a distinctively literary judgment is Clyde Fitch. A few weeks ago we noticed his "Girl with the Green Eyes"; now we have "The Climbers," a popular success of 1901, a study of New York life on fashionable society's outer verge, and especially interesting to us because of its effective presentation at, the crisis of the drama of the case against divorce, though the catastrophe-effective doubtless on the stage-somewhat mars the ethical value of the lesson. In continuity of dramatic development Mr. Fitch has still much to learn from the best English models, but for vivacity of dialogue and clear portrayal of character through speech "The Climbers" represents Mr. Fitch's highest present achievement and is not unworthy of comparison with any save the most serious work of Jones.

On almost every page of "The Poems of Trumbull Stickney" (Houghton, Mifflin, $1.50) we find some lines of genius. In every line a promise shines. Of finished achievement there is little-a handful of lovely lyrics, two dramatic scenes; the rest are fragments, broken music. With the exception of four years at Harvard as a student, and another year, eight years later, as instructor of Greek, almost all the remainder of the author's short lifehe died when he was thirty years of agewas spent in Europe. His imagery is drawn from the beauties of Italy and Greece, their landscape and their litera. turę. Of contact with, or consciousness of, what we call modern conditions, there is almost no evidence in his poems. A single sonnet, "Six o'Clock," written in America the year before he died, witnesses to the fact that he did not dwell altogether in the past. In part, this obliviousness to the stirring present drama of the world was due to the academic life of the young poet; eight years were spent in study at Paris, and in 1903 the University of Paris gave him its great degree, the Doctorat ès Lettres, never before conferred upon American.

an

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A notable volume of verse, "Persephone, and other Poems," by members of the English Literature Department of Wellesley College, is privately printed through the generosity of a graduate (Fort Hill Press), for sale for the benefit of the Wellesley Library Fund. The names of the authors are too well known in both literary and academic circles to need any special introduction to our readers, and many of the poems have already appeared in various periodicals, this journal among them. "Persephone," which gives its name to the volume, is a dramatic idyl by Margaret Sherwood, full of elusive charm. Miss Sophie Jewett contributes several exquisite lyrics and a dainty Arthurian ballad, "The Dwarf's Quest." Then comes a group of songs and sonnets by Mary Bowen, quaint moon songs which make one think of Japanese pictures. Martha Shackford's "A Group of Early English Saints" won a prize at Yale. Vida D. Scudder's "Wayfaring Memories" retrace Notable espe lightly a European tour. cially is a dainty fantasy of sunset off the Irish coast; some of her sonnets are remarkable for their stately dignity, and her lyrics, "Gratias Agamus," for instance, sing themselves to Gregorian tones. Commendable, too, are Katherine Lee Bates's 'Marginal Notes on the Book of Life," the last of which, a fine patriotic hymn, has been set to music.

An admirable song-book for Sundayschools and kindergartens is "Songs for Little People," collected by Frances Weld Danielson and Grace Wilbur Conant. (Pilgrim Press.) In this collection we find songs by William Blake, Christina Rossetti, George Macdonald, Lucy Larcom, Robert Louis Stevenson, Celia Thaxter, besides many charming ones by less wellknown authors. The arrangement is sim ple, and the fact that the introduction is written by Miss Lucy Wheelock is a recommendation in itself.

Among the most popular of modern German story-tellers in verse is Julius Wolff, and the most popular of his poems is "Der Wilde Jager," dealing in a spirit of high patriotism with an ancient German legend. It has been translated into English by Ralph Davidson as "The Wild Huntsman, A Legend of the Hartz" (Putnam, $1.50), with attractive illustrations by Woldemar Friedrich. The metre, for the greater part, is that of "Hiawatha," interspersed occasionally with rhymed passages.

A classified and descriptive list of books received during the week will be found on page 154.

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N writing of England's abbeys it has been my intention expressly to exclude those that are now "in commission" in any sort, whether as cathedrals or as parish churches, leaving these for study perhaps at some future time. It might seem that this rule should exclude Malmesbury, St. Aldhelm's first Benedictine foundation in Wiltshire, but a chance visit to its desolate site proved that such exclusion was quite unnecessary. Roofed in and enclosed is a part of the nave indeed; a makeshift "Communion Table" is posited against a roughly plastered wall; heavy pews clog its narrow area, and stove funnels thrust themselves through traceried windows, some of which are filled with crude stained glass, while there are other instances of occasional and mechanical use, but these things are so manifestly a mere matter of legal formality they enhance the wreck of glory rather than mitigate it.

Malmesbury is a ruin, no less in its spiritual than in its structural aspect. Once a vast erection, three hundred and thirty-two feet long, with a nave of nine bays, a great crossing, and a choir of five bays, all crowded with altars, screens and tombs, and none too large for the scores of monks and conversi and faithful laymen, it is now a mutilated stump of six nave bays, terminating at either end in brute walls of cheap masonry. The wonderful fifteenth century rood screen is gone, its place taken by a blind wall of plaster. Gone are the twelve altars of richest workmanship; and in their place is a thing like a small packing box covered with grey canvas, railed in by a kind of high fence, with two big square footstools or "ottomans," one at the south end, one at the north of the "Table," and flanking all, on either hand, a huge crude chair covered with red reps. A Brobdignagian eye, like some secret society symbol, is coarsely painted on the east wall, with a frame containing the Commandments on one side and a second with the

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By Ralph Adams Cram, F.A.I.A., F.R.G.S., Author of "Church Building," etc.

Malmesbury and York.

*Copyright, 1906, by the Churchman Co. NOTE.-Already published in this series: Glastonbury, March 4; Whitby and Lindisfarne, April 1; Beaulieu and Netley, May 6; Tintern, June 3; Gisburgh and Bolton. July 1; Jedburgh and Kelso, August 5; Rievaulx and Byland, Sept. 2; Melrose and Dryburgh, Oct. 7; Kirkstall, Nov. 4. To be published: Fountains.

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Lord's Prayer (or maybe the "forbidden degrees," I do not quite remember, but the connotation of the place would suggest the latter) on the other. Not a candlestick, vase, flower, or even cross appears to indicate the nature of the crashcovered packing box; the dust of ages lies in the red-druggeted "sanctuary," and all is forlorn, miserable, neglected.

Never have I seen such evidences of dull indifferentism and spiritual death. All around are the tottering fragments of shattered majesty, preaching the faith and devotion that once rendered the enormous church all too small; now a moiety thereof is ample, and well it may be; for the dull horror of the place is so repellent it is impossible to imagine taking part in the worship of God in such an environment.

Curiously enough, and as though by some singular mercy, it became necessary for us to hurry across country from Wiltshire into Oxfordshire. We arrived in the evening at a little town of which, through deep ignorance, we knew nothing except that it contained an old Augustinian priory that was still in use. Finding a lodging for the night near its low walls, we inquired of the landlady if the church were open at that hour. She looked at us with some surprise and replied: "Certainly, sir, there'll be festival vespers there in an half hour, for tomorrow is Corpus Christi, when there will be a sung mass at eight." Greatly marvelling, and bearing in mind that which we had seen in Malmesbury, we entered the church to the sound of summoning bells, and found ourselves in a gaunt, ascetic place, casual and irregular in plan, bearing many marks of former desecration, but still a church of God, no less. An high altar covered with flowers and candles gleamed in the chancel, and by some magic minor altars filled the side chapels, while little shrines, each with its flowers and hanging lamp, were fastened to the columns of the nave. Statues, banners, sanctuary lamps, the faint odor of old incense, all told their grateful tale. The people gathered, the bell ceased, and presently a long procession of priests in cassocks, scholars in gowns (amongst whom we noticed a perfectly black negro) entered, passed to the Lady chapel on the right, chanted antiphonally the first vespers of the festival, and departed. At eight the next morning there was a "sung mass" indeed, with

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It is somewhat unusual, however, to find in the hoary old abbeys that have been preserved for public worship, in whole or in part, the degree of perfect restoration to the older modes we found in the tiny Oxfordshire village. Usually the standard approaches more nearly to that of the lamentable Malmesbury, though in a most glorious old abbey in the south, Romsey, of immortal tradition, the Dorchester type was in full evidence, with splendid altars, perfect accessories, and a constant sequence of services from morning until night. Shrines like. these hearten one mightily after sad experiences in such contrasting places as desolate York cathedral and poor pathetic old Malmesbury.

And so we must count the latter as amongst the ruined and deserted abbeys of Great Britain. It is a melancholy fact that this should be so, for in its history and its architectural quality it called for a happier fate. Almost thirteen centuries ago the hill of Ingelborne Castle was consecrated to religious uses by Maeldulph, a Scottish hermit and philosopher, who, driven from the North by the harassing of robbers and pirates, built himself here a cell and gathered around him a little group of devoted scholars. And the studious atmosphere thus early brought to Malmesbury never departed for the space of nine hundred years, when it was very effectually exterminated by the first English "Defender of the Faith" and gave place to the weaving of cloth. St. Aldhelm, the pious and learned

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Malmesbury-The Nave Bays Oliver Cromwell Wrecked.

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the West Saxons, master of Greek, Latin and Saxon letters, master of ora tory, m a ster of music, was the founder of the Benedictine monastery whoso ruins have fallen into such sorry case, and was buried here after his long and wonderful life on earth had come to an end. The devout King Athelstan with his cousins Elwin and Ethelwyne found sepulture within its walls. Duns Scotus, the

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Through which may be seen the useless nave-arches rebuilt in foolish 'restoration.""

witty Scot, William of Malmesbury, the great chronicler, Elmer, the monastic Icarus who made for himself a certain flying machine, on the first essay of which he fell "and brake both his legs," were all identified with this place. Early in the thirteenth century Malmesbury had its own "hostel" in Oxford, and for hundreds of years thereafter a steady stream of students went down to the University from the great Malmesbury schools. Some indication of the high value set on university degrees is obtained from one record that tells how in 1298 a Benedictine monk from Gloucester on taking his degree of D.D. at Oxford "was attended by the whole of his convent from Gloucester, the Abbots of Westminster, Evesham, Abingdon, Reading and Malmesbury, and an hundred noblemen and esquires on horses richly caparisoned."

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What the library must have been we can only surmise from certain terrible details of its total destruction. That it was vast and magnificent, even for the middle ages, we know. For four hundred years the monks had labored in scriptorium and "carel" translating, engrossing, illuminating, and binding their wonderful works in tooled and gilded and jewelled covers. Fuller testifies that "the English monks were bookish themselves, and much inclined to hoard up monuments of learning." Of no house was this so true as of Malmesbury. At Ramsay, a smaller monastery, there were for choir use about seventy breviaries, one hundred psalters and hymnals, thirtytwo graduals, thirty-nine processionals. The number of copies of the Holy Scriptures, theological books, and works on law, history and grammar, together with volumes of the Greek and Latin classics, must have made up a huge library. This was destroyed even to the last folio, and wilfully. Aubrey writes of the terrible tragedy: "In my grandfather's day the MSS. flew about like butterflies. All musick bookes, account bookes, copie bookes, etc., were covered with old MSS. and the glovers at Malmesbury made great havock of them; and gloves were wrapped up, no doubt, in many good pieces of antiquity. Mr. W. Stumpe"-the great grandson of the clothier who had purchased the dismantled abbey more than a century before-"had several MSS. of the abbey and when he brewed a barrell of special ale his use was to stop the bunghole under the clay with a sheet of the MS."*

From another source we learn that years after the Sup

*Aubrey: "The Natural History of Wiltshire."

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