Obrázky stránek

about five leagues long. It is well peo- oric is the art of persuasive speaking, or pled, and produces some of the choicest the art of the orator, which teaches the Rhenish wines. (q. v.) Gau is a German composition and delivery of discourses word, signifying district.

intended to move the feelings or sway the RHENISH CONFEDERATION. (See Con- will of others. These productions of federation of the Rhine.)

the rhetorical art are designed to be proRHENISH or RHINLAND Foot; equal to nounced, in the presence of bearers, 1.023 English, or 24 Rhenish equal to 25 with appropriate gesture and declamation; English. (See Measures, vol. viii, page and they often, therefore, require a differ366.)

ent style of composition and arrangement RHENISH WINES; the finest wines of from those works which are intended for Germany. The vines on the Rhine were readers, or simply to be read and not oraplanted in the third century, under the torically declaimed, and which are ememperor Probus. According to a still ex. braced in the jurisdiction of rhetoric in isting tradition, Charlemagne transplanted its widest sense. The Romans distinthe first vine in the Rheingau (q. v.) from guished three kinds of eloquence-the Orleans. The Rheingau is the true coun- demonstrative, occupied with praise or try of the Rhenish wines. The best are blame, and addressed to the judgment; those of Assmannshausen (chiefly red), the deliberative, which acts upon the will Rüdesheim, Rottländer, Hinterhäuser, and the inclinations by persuasion or disGeissenheim, Johannisberg (q. v.), the best suasion; and the judicial or forensic, of all, of which a bottle of the first quali- which is used in defending or attacking. ty, in ordinary seasons, costs, on the spot, The Greeks divided discourses according from four to five florins, and Hattenheim to their contents as relating to precepts (called Markebrunner). Besides the wines (noyous), manners (non), and feelings (rabn), of the Rbeingau, the following are good and as, therefore, calculated to instruci, Rhenish wines: on the left bank, the to please, and to move—a division easily Nierensteiner, Liebfrauenmilch (translat- reconcilable with the former. The Roed, Our Lady's Milk), a mild wine grow- mans had, also, a corresponding division ing near Worms, Laubenheimer, Bacher- into the genus dicendi tenue, mediocre and acher; on the right bank, Hochheimer. sublime. Another division of eloquence, Among these wines, the Laubenheimer founded on the subject to which it relates, and Assmannshäuser are the most agreea- is into academical, sacred (pulpit eloble; the Hochheimer, Jobannisberger and quence) and political. The two latter Geissenheimer, the most aromatic; the only allow of the lofty flights of eloNierensteiner, Markebrunner, Bacheracher quence. In the wider sense, as above exand Rüdesheimer, the strongest and most plained, rhetoric treats of prose composifiery. Among the best vintages are those tion in general, whether in the form of of 1748, 1760, 1762, 1766, 1776, 1779, historical works, philosophical disserta1780, 1781, and more particularly those tions, practical precepts, dialogues, or letof 1783 and 1811 ; also that of 1822. ters, and, therefore, includes the considRhenish wines improve much with age, eration of all the qualities of prose comand continue improving longer than any position, purity of style, structure of senother wines. Some wine cellars, as that tences, figures of speech, &c.; in short, of the city of Bremen, have Rhenish wine of whatever relates to clearness, preciseabove 150 years old. (See also Hock, and ness, elegance and strength of expression. Moselle Wines.)

In the narrower sense of rhetoric, as the RAETORIC is the art of clothing the art of persuasive speaking, it treats of the thoughts in the most agreeable and suita- invention and disposition of the matter. ble form, to produce persuasion, to excite The latter includes the arrangement of the the feelings, to communicate pleasure. parts, which are the exordium or introSpeech is addressed to the understanding, duction, narration (when necessary), propthe will and the taste; it treats of the osition and division, proof or refutation, true, the beautiful and the good; and is, and conclusion or peroration, and the elotherefore, didactic, critical, and pathetic or cution, which relates to the style, and practical These different objects are requires elegance, purity and precision. oftea united in the same work, which, The delivery, or pronunciation, also falls therefore, partakes of all the three charac- here. Aristotle, "Cicero and Quintilian ters above mentioned, but, at the same are the principal writers on rhetoric among time, one or the other character so far the ancients; and the most valuable Engprevails as to give a predominant temper lish works on this subject, are Campbell's to the whole. In a narrower sense, rhet- Philosophy of Rhetoric, Blair's Lectures


on Rhetoric, and the Elements of Rheto- marians: they decided the relative rank ric by Whately (now archbishop of Dub- of the authors who were to be considered lin).

as models of taste, revised some of their RAETORICIANS and GRAMMARIANS. works, illustrated them with various re1st. Those who were skilled in language searches, unravelled and explained mywere called, by the ancient Greeks and thology, composed lexicons upon individRomans, grammarians, or philologists. uals or upon bodies of authors, collected Their studies embraced every kind of lit- the rules of grammar, and judged the erary productions (ypapua, writing), and faults and merits of writings, which is the whatever might be necessary to illustrate province of the higher criticism. To reand explain them. But the grammarians, fer to remarks of different kinds upon the who were called also, at first, critics, and margins of the books, the grammarians by the Romans literati, occupied them- made use of critical marks and signs. selves chiefly with the explanation and Different signs were used for different aucriticism of the earlier poets. They were thors. Among the grammarians of this distinguished from the grammatists (gram- age, Didymus of Alexandria, who lived matista, literatores) by deeper and more in the time of Augustus, deserves to be extensive erudition ; the grammatists treat- mentioned as a critic: he was surnamed ing mainly of the elements and rudiments 6 xadacvTEPOS (Ironsides), because he wrote of knowledge. We find the first exam- 4000 books. The second period embraces ples of scientific researches into language the period of the New Platonists, who among the sophists, who, in the age of considered these objects of inquiry imPericles, practised themselves in their portant enough to occupy their attention. schools, in the explanation of the poets, The critics and grammarians of this age and particularly Homer, for the purpose generally turned their attention more to of cultivating the taste, and exercising the the thoughts of authors and the contents critical powers; and their ingenuity was of their works, than to the explanation of principally occupied upon difficulties of words or the laws of language. In all of their own raising. By this practice, they them, the spirit of their scientific system, taught their pupils to examine the laws founded upon religion, is apparent ; few of language accurately, and observe them of them penetrated the peculiar character carefully. Some of the scholars of Soc. of Grecian antiquity. This period comrates, especially Plato, also distinguished mences with Plutarch of Chæronea (A.D. themselves by their illustrations of the 100), to whom some critical and grammatpoets. Aristotle, who is called the founder ical" writings are attributed, which are, of criticism and grammar, made a revis- however, unworthy of him. The third ion of the Homeric poems for Alexander period embraces those grammarians, the Great, and attempted to purify them mostly monks, who diligently compiled from interpolations. Before him, howev- from the ancient authors, collected diccr, Pisistratus is related to have arranged tionaries from different writings, gave the poems of Homer (q. v.), in the order rules for preserving the purity of the Attic in which they now stand, and Cynæthus dialect from individual authors, or made of Chios, Antimachus of Colophon, The- annotations on the margins of manuscripts. agenes of Rhegium, and some others, had Many grammatical works of this age are occupied themselves with the interpreta- yet extant, in judging of the intrinsic valtion of Homer. But although some indi- ue and utility of which, not only the qualviduals had turned their attention particu- ifications of their authors, but more parlarly to the explanation, or the emenda- ticularly the purity of the sources whence tion, of the ancient authors, the science they drew, must be taken into consideraof language and criticism was carried to tion. This period includes those Greeks, much greater perfection by the Alexan- who, fleeing from their country, first redrian scholars. After Alexandria had be- vived a taste for the study of Greek in come the seat of science, the rules of the Italy, at the end of the fourteenth, and Greek language, the laws of the interpret- particularly in the fifteenth century. Some ation of authors, and the explanation of collections of the Greek grammarians mythology, the rules for the determination were made in the fifteenth and sixteenth of the various readings, and the particular centuries, among which the Cornucopia merits of separate passages, or whole et Hortus Adonidis (Venice, 1496, folio), books, became subjects of study. The and Alexander Heladius's Gleanings of age of the Alexandrian grammarians (see the Greek language, are worthy of notice. Ålexandrian School) is, therefore, the first Neither Grecian literature, in general, nor period in the history of the ancient gram- grammatical studies, were cultivated by

the earlier Romans; they were looked civil services and burdens. Private citiupon by the multitude as a waste of time, zens also took an interest in the schools, and by patriots, as hurtful to morals, while and supported them at their own exthe state was yet rude and warlike, and pense. As, in the earliest times, instructhe want of a more refined taste was not tion in grammar and music was given by yet felt. But acquaintance with the the same person, the ancient grammariGreeks attracted the attention of many to ans also gave lessons in rhetoric; and this subject, and some of the most distin- many are distinguished as authors in both guished men-Scipio Africanus and Caius departments. Even after the sciences Lelius, for example-encouraged the cul- had become distinct, the grammarians still tiration of Grecian learning. The first continued to teach some of the elementRoman teachers of grammar, Livius An- ary branches of rhetoric, and, in earlier dronicus and Ennius (B. C. 236—166), times, orators passed directly from the who were in part of Grecian descent, and school of a grammarian to take part in wrote both in prose and poetry, made judicial proceedings.-2d. Instructers in translations from some Greek authors. A eloquence were called rhetoricians among general taste for philological learning, and the Greeks; and they also bore the same the auxiliary sciences, among the Ro- name, or that of professors (professores), mans, was promoted by the mission of amoug the early Romans. The invention the Greek critic and grammarian Crates of rhetoric is ascribed by the Ægyptians of Mallus, a contemporary of Aristarchus, and poets to Thoth, Hermes, or Mereury, to the Roman senate, as ambassador of as, in ancient times, the mental powers king Attalus Philadelphus, soon after the and operations, in general, were looked death of Ennius (B. C. 170): during his upon as something divine. Pittheus, the long residence there, he delivered loctures uncle of Theseus, is said to have first from time to time, and his lessons awak- taught this art at Træzene, in the temple ened, among the Romans, a disposition to of the Muses, and to have composed a treaimitate the example of the Greeks. As tise upon it; but this, at so early a time, is Grecian science became the standard to incredible. Some consider Empedocles which the Romans attempted to conform, (B. C. 444) as the inventor of rhetoric, of the latter preserved, in its full extent, the which he may have laid the first foundation; Grecian idea of the science of language, others, Corax and Tisias of Sicily, who and the Roman dialect of the Latin lan- first reduced the rules of rhetoric to writ- ' guage became, under the influence of the ing, when, in consequence of a revolution Grecian, the language of books, and of the there, many disputes arose concerning cultivated classes. I'he grammatical stud- property, and the want of a style of speakies became so popular, that the most distin- ing suitable for courts of justice was guished men wrote upon them; and there much felt. Some ascribe the invention always continued to be schools of repu- of rhetoric to Gorgias of Leontium, in tation in Rome. The teachers received Sicily, a pupil of Empedocles, as he was very high prices for tuition; and Marcus the first who made use of the artificial Scaurus gave about 16,000 dollars for a figures and forms of speech. Others have leamed slave, Lutatius Daphnis, and soon recognised Aristotle as the inventor of after set him at liberty; and Lucius Apu- rhetoric, who, in fact, first gave it a scienleius received a salary of nearly 10,000 tific form. We find two sects of rhetoridollars a year, from a rich Roman knight, cians mentioned, the Apollodorians and for his lessons. The study of grammar Theodorians, so called from Apollodorus was likewise diligently prosecuted in the of Pergamus, who was the teacher of the provinces, and some of the most distin- emperor Augustus at Apollonia, and from guished teachers were in Gaul. With the Theodorus, to whose lessons the empeincrease of literary works in the Roman ror Tiberius is said to have attended at language, increasing attention was paid to Rhodes. The object of Grecian rhetoric the primitive Latin tongue, and to Roman was to represent every thing so as to give literature and antiquity. Suetonius de- it the appearance of plausibility and truth. voted a particular treatise to the oldest Before Aristotle, the sophists, the succesLatin grammarians, in which he gives sors of Zeno, the Eleatic, in dialectics, accounts of their lives and writings. The were teachers of eloquence: arrogant, extant writings of the later Latin gram- vain, avaricious, and selfish, they endeavmarians are to be found in the collection ored to win admiration by their dexterity of Elias Putsch (Hanau, 1605, 4to.). Ves- in speaking on all questions, even without pasian and Adrian confirmed to the gram- preparation, and to gain influence by the marians the privilege of exemption from acts of persuasion, at a time when wealth, VOL. XI.


luxury, licentiousness, and the splendor tion and practice, and by their own ex

The of political eloquence, which (particularly ample, as declaimers (declamatores). in Athens, where it was favored by dem- sophists were distinguished by a purple ocratic institutions, and had arrived at its gown, which was a sort of official dress. full maturity) invited to such a study (in At Athens, no one, and particularly no the 84th Olympiad, or B. C. 440). As foreigner, was allowed to assume this art naturally precedes science, the prac- dress without the consent of the fraternity tice of eloquence is of earlier origin than of the sophists, and without having been the rules of rhetoric. The rhetoricians admitted into the order: the Roman emdrew their rules and examples from the perors also prohibited those who were not master-works of the orators, whose name regularly qualified from teaching declama(snropes) was afterwards applied to them. tion. Besides other secret usages in the But this mode of proceeding was changed Greek ceremony of admission, the candiabout the time of the Ptolemies, when dates were led to a public bath. After two ingenious and learned critics, Aris- the bath, the person received the mantle, tophanes and Aristarchus, taught in Alex- by the authority of the president of the andria. They selected ten Attic orators department of eloquence, to whom he (whose lives are given in a work ascribed paid a large fee for this permission. With to Plutarch) as models of imitation, whose the mantle, the initiated person received works they analyzed, and from them de- the dignity and name of a sophist. They, rived their principles. But while the art who in this manner had obtained the rank of oratory was older than the science of of a rhetorician, spent their time in teachrhetoric, the latter long survived the for- ing oratory, and engaged in various rhemer, continuing its instructions even to the torical exercises with their scholars. The time of Theodosius the Great. Eloquence principal design of rhetorical instruction flourished at Athens only 150 years, and was to prepare the scholars for conducting perished, with everything noble and legal processes, in which every thing was great, on the overthrow of liberty, under transacted orally. Those who, in the whose patronage it had flourished, and rhetorical schools, practised themselves in whom it in turn defended. It was car- speaking upon supposed cases, and their ried to Asia Minor, Rhodes, where Æs- pupils, were called scholastics ; but this chines introduced it at the time of his name was finally brought into contempt. banishment, and other islands, but, in The rhetorical instruction of the sophists these wanderings, lost its original charms, consisted chiefly in arts of deception, in and was corrupted by foreign manners. the means of blinding one's adversary, Thus arose the distinction of the Attic, and ensnaring him by sophistical subtleAsiatic and Rhodian orators. A sparing ties and quibbles. They required a large use of ornament, combined with a judi- fee, which was paid beforehand. In cious abstinence from striking contrasts, later times, the Grecian and Latin rhetocharacterized the Attic style. The Asi- ricians were paid by the Roman empeatic eloquence indulged in a greater ful- rors (first under Vespasian). The rhetoness of expression, and a free use of rhe- ricians also wrote speeches for others. torical ornaments. The Asiatic orators, Antiphon was the first who composed foparticularly those of Lycia and Caria, rensic speeches for the use of others. were addicted to a sort of rhythmical With an oration of Lysias, Iphicrates very close of their sentences. The Rhodian often gained the advantage over bis adeloquence is said to have preserved a me- versary. Anytus, by a speech prepared dium between these two. Eloquence was for him by the sophist Polycrates, obfinally transplanted to Rome by Greek tained the condemnation of Socrates, who teachers, where it shone with a new disdained to use one written for him by splendor; and Cicero appeared as the Lysias. Dinarchus became rich by comgreatest public orator of his country. But posing orations for others. The prices paid here, also, atter arriving at the highest for them were high, and many writers perfection, it began gradually to decline; obtained so much celebrity as to be contor, when freedom of speech was re- stantly occupied in this way. At length strained, public eloquence ceased to be this traffic fell into merited contempt, and esteemed." The old sophists certainly did many great men avoided leaving written an important service by the establishment speeches, from fear of being reproached of schools of oratory : at one time, they as sophists. were the only public teachers of rhetoric, RHEUMATISM; a disease attended with and they encouraged the youth to aim at sharp pains, which has so much resemthe glory of eloquence, both by instruc- blance to the gout, that some physicians have considered it as not an entirely dis- 1753, at Velestini, a small city of Thessaly, tinct disease; although they are by no means and was early distinguished for talent. As to be confounded. (Šee Gout.) Rheumatism he was not rich enough to devote himself is distinguished into acute and chronic. The to literature, he engaged in commerce, foriner is of short continuance, and either went to Bucharest, and remained there shifting to different parts of the body or until 1790. He made himself intimately confined to a particular part: in the latter acquainted with the literature of ancient case, it has a tendency to pass into the Greece. Latin, French, Italian and Gerchronic, unless properly attended to: it is man were familiar to him: he wrote Greek often attended with fever, or sometimes and French, and was a poet and a proficomes on in the train of a fever. This cient in music. He formed the bold plan combination of rheumatism with fever is of freeing Greece from the Ottoman Porte called rheumatic fever, which is consider- by means of a great secret association, and ed by physicians a distinct species. Chron- succeeded even in bringing powerful ic rheumatism is attended with pains in Turks into his conspiracy ; among others, the head, shoulders, knees, and other large the celebrated Passwan Oglou. He then joints, which, at times, are confined to one went to Vienna, where many rich merparticular part, and at others shift from chants and some learned men of his nation one joint to another, without occasioning resided. From this place he held a secret any fever; and in this manner the con- correspondence with the most important plaint continues often for a considerable confederates in Greece, and in other parts time, and at length goes off. No danger of Europe. At the same time, he pubis attendant on chronic rheumatism ; but lished a Greek journal, translated the Trava person having been once attacked with els of the Younger Apacharsis, and wrote it, is ever afterwards more or less liable to a treatise upon tactics. His patriotic returns of it. Neither is the acute rheuma- songs, in his native language, were calcutism frequently accompanied with much lated to inflame the imagination of the danger. The acute is preceded by shiv- Greek youth, and to embitter them against ering, heat, thirst, and frequent pulse ; the Mussulmans. He likewise prepared after which the pain commences, and soon a map of all Greece, with the ancient and fixes on the joints. The chronic rheu- modern names of places, in twelve sheets, matism is distinguished by pain in the which was printed at the expense of his joints, without fever, and is divided into countrymen in Vienna. He perished at three species; lumbago, affecting the loins; the age of forty-five, having been arrested sciatica, affecting the hip;

and arthrodynia, in Trieste. The signatures of all the conor pains in the joints. The acute rheu- federates were contained in a document matism mostly terminates in one of these which he always carried about with him. species. Rheumatism may arise at all This he destroyed in the night, and swaltimes of the year, when there are frequent lowed the names of his countrymen. vicissitudes of the weather from heat to With several other prisoners he was concold, but the spring and autumn are the ducted to Vienna. Rhigas and three seasons in which it is most prevalent; and others of those arrested were sent back in it attacks persons of all ages; but very chains to Belgrade, in May, 1798, and, acyoung people are less subject to it than cording to some accounts, beheaded, and adults. Obstructed perspiration, occasion- cast into the Danube. According to other ed either by wearing wet clothes, lying in accounts, Rhigas was sawed asunder bedamp linen, or damp rooms, or by being tween two boards. exposed to cool air when the body has Rhine (in German, Rhein ; in Dutch, been much heated by exercise, is the Rhyn, or Ryn); in magnitude the fourth cause which usually produces rheumatism. river of Europe, and one of the noblest Those who are much afflicted with this rivers in the world. There are rivers complaint, are very apt to be sensible of the whose course is longer, and whose volume approach of wet weather, by finding wan- of water is greater, but none which unites dering pains about them at that period. almost every thing that can renderan earthRheumatism usually attacks only the exter- ly object magnificent and charming, in the nal muscular parts, but has soinetimes same degree as the Rhine. As it flows been known to affect the internal parts, down from the distant ridges of the Alps, especially the serous membranes, the through fertile regions into the open sea, pleura, the peritoneum, the dura mater. so it comes down from remote antiquity,

Raigas, Constantine, the Tyrtæus of associated in every age with momentous modern Greece, the first mover of the war events in the history of the neighboring for Grecian independence, was born about nations. A river which presents so many

« PředchozíPokračovat »