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ately careless. The ordinary employee generally subjects himself and fellow workers to danger because it has not occurred to him that he is going about his work in an unsafe manner. The same can be said with reference to maintaining cleanliness and orderliness in the shop. The remedy is to educate and interest the worker in “safe and sanitary practices.” But signs and posters alone are inadequate. Success in such matters can best be attained with the coöperation of the employees. Hearty coöperation has been secured in those plants where the workers have been made responsible for their share of plant accident prevention and maintenance of cleanliness and orderliness. To interest the workers, they must be given definite responsibilities and duties. Human beings learn by doing and sharing in responsibilities. Wherever this principle has been adopted and properly applied the workers have responded most enthusiastically.

Manufacturers who have a cohesive shop safety, sanitation and health organization, guided by a competent person, point to the following as some of the more obvious benefits of such an organization:

It relieves the management and its subordinates from attending to the numerous details connected with maintaining orderliness, cleanliness and safety in the shop.

It provides a medium through which these matters, so vital to the successful and economical operation of the plant, will receive the consideration they merit without encroaching upon the time required for other business problems.

It enlists the coöperation of all employees from the superintendent to the rank and file worker by introducing collective responsibility.

It furnishes a means of interesting the rank and file whose coöperation is absolutely necessary in the successful conduct of a shop safety, sanitation and health organization.

It systematizes the work so that maximum results ensue from the time devoted to this phase of shop activity. Nothing is more wasteful and ineffective than haphazard methods.

It provides a check on the efficiency of safety work.

It makes possible the accumulation and exchange of knowledge and experience in shop safety, sanitation and health work.

It makes possible the creation and perpetuation of an enthusiasm and “safety first ” spirit without which the best intentions are but vain dreams.

WHY THIS PLAN WAS PREPARED A field investigation has revealed that employers generally are not aware of the value of a shop safety, sanitation and health organization. Many plants having such an organization lack the requisite information in order to make it succeed. The bare skeleton outlines with which they are provided do not convey a comprehensive idea of the necessary form and functions of a thoroughgoing shop safety, sanitation and health organization. The plan presented herewith aims to aid manufacturers in forming a shop safety organization and in understanding its functions.

HOW THE PLAN WAS PREPARED While, as already noted, this plan is an outgrowth of a field investigation, the information thus gathered was supplemented by literature bearing on these subjects. The plan is therefore a composite of the experience of a wide range of plants in numerous industries. The plan was originally issued in tentative form and submitted for criticism to leading safety authorities and practical manufacturers. The large number of painstaking suggestions is conclusive evidence that safety leaders not only preach but actually practice coöperation. The spirit and substance of the plan were, however, practically unanimously endorsed. Three classes of suggestions and criticisms on specific items in the plan were received. Those that were of a general nature and therefore coincided with the purpose of the plan, which, as stated in the introduction, was designed to serve “ as a guide rather than as an inflexible program,” were incorporated on their merit. Suggestions and criticisms that were suitable only for a particular plant, or industry, were generally omitted. A third class of recommendations comprised a number of comments on the most successful manner of launching a safety organization; on how to guide it successfully; on how to manipulate the various human elements composing the organization; on the attitude of the management toward specific phases of a safety plan, and so on. These psychological problems pertain to the human or policy aspect of accident prevention work. The plan presented herewith aims to aid manufacturers in forming a shop safety organization and in understanding its functions. It confines itself chiefly to the machinery of plant accident prevention work rather than its psychological side. The psychological phase is treated to some extent in the Department's Special Bulletin No. 77, on Accident Prevention.

In addition to circulation for general criticism, the plan was submitted to the Industrial Council which by resolution approved the idea “ of formulating a standard plan of organization of shop safety committees for submission to the industries of the state for adoption and adaptation to conditions in their various plants, and approves the tentative plan submitted to the Council with such modifications as may hereafter be found to be necessary."

PLAN IS DESIGNED ONLY FOR A GUIDE The plan has been drafted in detail even at the risk of arousing fear that it is unwieldy and perhaps disproportionately expensive. In reality, only such provisions as plants have by experience found practicable are contained in this plan. It is, however, intended as a guide rather than as an inflexible program. Local conditions, size of the plant and so on will make it necessary to modify the plan and alter its provisions. In general, the plan as it stands should meet the needs of plants employing 150 workers or more. Plants of 1,000 workers or more have secured best results by having a workers' committee for each department or division. In plants employing less than 150 workers the organization would doubtless need to be simplified.

Experience in the field, as well as many of the comments on the plan, indicate that each individual plant may have to decide for itself, on the basis of its particular production problem, at what intervals the various divisions should meet, how often the different committees should make inspections, whether the supervisor and workers' committee should make inspections and the foremen's committee should be relieved of this duty, and so on. The fact that it is not possible to exactly decide these matters in advance should not deter manufacturers from installing a shop safety organization. Since practical knowledge is primarily acquired by the trial and error method, manufacturers may feel confident that experience will guide them in detecting and discarding such features as do not bring maximum results in their individual plant. In all probability only slight modifications will be sufficient. It is hoped manufacturers will not too hastily brand this method as theoretical experimentation. If they will but reflect upon their methods when the most up-to-date machine or improvement in process is introduced they will recall that they practically follow this procedure in every line of manufacturing activity. In other words, no matter how perfect a machine or process its proper adaptation to a particular plant must be studied at least in the first stages of its use in that plant. The criterion for introducing the new machine or process is that it has brought results elsewhere. This, in all fairness, should be the only test that a safety organization should be put to. As practical manufacturers testify from their personal experience, and statistical evidence corroborates them, that shop safety organizations have aided in reducing accidents and in improving the efficiency of the working force, the fear that slight modifications might be necessary when actually tried in a particular plant should not weigh against it.

THE FUNDAMENTAL SPIRIT OF THE PLAN Workers are easily skeptical about improvements for their welfare that come solely from the top. Their suspicions can be effectively disarmed by freely giving them a direct voice in the conduct of affairs that affect their welfare. This new spirit, based

upon the simple psychological principle that human beings are more responsive and more easily directed when an appeal is made to their self-respect, is rapidly penetrating industry. Some employers have tried to neutralize the old and new methods by consulting with representatives of their employees, but choosing those representatives for them. Undoubtedly this is an improvement, but it lays the employer open to the charge of insincerity. Experience proves, that a lasting coöperation and mutual good will between employer and employees can best be attained through granting a full measure of actual participation, by allowing the workers to choose their representatives and by giving those representatives an equal voice with the management in matters affecting their welfare. This practice is calculated to enlarge their sense of responsibility. Upon this principle hinges the success of enlisting the unstinted coöperation of the workers.

While this plan presents alternative methods wherever the question of joint, mutual participation arises, it is urged that best results can be obtained by freely consulting and giving the workers a voice in matters affecting their welfare. Employers frequently complain that their employees do not manifest the proper appreciation, nor do they coöperate wholeheartedly in making a success of costly improvements installed for their benefit.

This complaint seldom comes from those who have consulted their employees and who have invited them to participate in the management of the welfare work.

ADVANTAGE OF A PRINTED EDITION Manufacturers having, or desiring to establish a shop safety organization are urged to adapt this plan to their needs and to publish it in pocket size booklet form as the plan of the firm. The advantages to be gained are numerous. In plants where printed copies are made available the serious-minded workers use their spare moments during working hours, and some of their leisure time at home to study and familiarize themselves with the plan. But what is perhaps the most important consideration is, that a printed plan available to all will create greater interest and forestall misunderstandings or malicious attempts to block the organization. Persons hostile toward this activity or ignorant of its true purpose can foment dissatisfaction by assigning false attributes to the plan. If there is no readily accessible means of ascertaining the true features, those who are credulous are apt to be misled, while the honest upholder is helpless in defending it. With a printed copy in the hands of everyone, dishonest or ignorant criticism can easily be disarmed by reference to the booklet.

ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE PLAN The imperativeness of giving proper publicity to the new organization cannot be over emphasized. Unless the rank and file workers know that such an organization is in existence, are fairly conversant with its purpose, and feel that it has the management's

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